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Castorimorpha
Superfamily Castoroidea:CastoridaeSuperfamily Geomyoidea:Heteromyidae Geomyidae Castorimorpha
Castorimorpha
is the suborder of rodents containing the beavers, the pocket gophers, and the kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice. Taxonomy[edit]Suborder CastorimorphaSuperfamily CastoroideaFamily †Eutypomyidae Family Castoridae
Castoridae
- beavers Family †RhizospalacidaeInfraorder GeomorphaSuperfamily †EomyoideaFamily †EomyidaeSuperfamily GeomyoideaFamily †Heliscomyidae Family †Florentiamyidae Family †Entoptychidae Family Geomyidae
Geomyidae
- pocket gophers Family Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
- kangaroo rats and miceIncertae sedis[edit]Genus †Floresomys Genus †Texomys Genus †Jimomys Genus †Diplolophus Genus †Schizodontomys Genus †Griphomys Genus †Meliakrouniomys† indicates extinct taxa. References[edit]Carleton, M. D. and G. G. Musser. 2005
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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Incertae Sedis
Incertae sedis
Incertae sedis
( Latin
Latin
for "of uncertain placement")[1] is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.[2] Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa".[3] I
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Ord's Kangaroo Rat
Ord's kangaroo rat
Ord's kangaroo rat
(Dipodomys ordii) is a kangaroo rat native to western North America, specifically the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Great Basin, with its range extending from extreme southern Canada
Canada
to central Mexico.[2][3] Ord's kangaroo rat
Ord's kangaroo rat
has a fifth toe on its hind feet, which distinguishes it from Dipodomys elator. It is bicolored with gold-brown dorsal hair and a white stomach. It has a long tail with a bushy tip, and is dark dorsally and ventrally with a white lateral stripe. Its hind feet are modified for jumping, and exceed 35 mm in length, and its total length exceeds 240 mm. Its tail is usually less than 160 mm, distinguishing it from D
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Eutheria
Eutheria
Eutheria
(/juːˈθɪəriə/; from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous
Cretaceous
or perhaps the Late Jurassic. Except for the Virginia opossum, from North America, which is a metatherian, all post-Miocene mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, and all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia. Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles, jaws and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones, which are present in all other living mammals (marsupials and monotremes)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
(synonymous with Supraprimates) is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, lagomorphs, treeshrews, colugos and primates.Contents1 Evolutionary relationships 2 Organization 3 References 4 Further readingEvolutionary relationships[edit] The Euarchontoglires
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Chordate
And see textA chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system. In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata, which includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; the Tunicata, which includes salps and sea squirts; and the Cephalochordata, which include the lancelets. There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Mammal
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands. Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale. The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees, underground or on two legs. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Beaver
C. fiber – Eurasian beaver C. canadensis – North American
North American
beaver †C. californicusDistribution of C. fiber.Distribution of C. canadensis.Fossils of C. californicusThe beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, the North American
North American
beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) (Eurasia).[1] Beavers
Beavers
are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver
North American beaver
population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million
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Castoroidea
See textSkull of a beaverThe family Castoridae
Castoridae
contains the two living species of beavers and their fossil relatives. This was once a highly diverse group of rodents, but is now restricted to a single genus, Castor.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Evolution 3 Taxonomy 4 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Main article: Beaver Castorids are medium-sized mammals, although large compared with most other rodents. They are semiaquatic, with sleek bodies and webbed hind feet, and are more agile in the water than on land. Their tails are flattened and scaly, adaptations that help them manoeuvre in the water. Castorids live in small family groups that each occupy a specific territory, based around a lodge and dam constructed from sticks and mud
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Cricetidae
Arvicolinae Cricetinae Neotominae Sigmodontinae Tylomyinae and see belowThe Cricetidae
Cricetidae
are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. It includes true hamsters, voles, lemmings, and New World rats and mice. At almost 600 species, it is the second-largest family of mammals, and has members throughout the Americas, Asia, and Europe.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Evolution and systematics 3 References 4 External linksCharacteristics[edit] The cricetids are small mammals, ranging from just 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) in length and 7 g (0.25 oz) in weight in the New World pygmy mouse up to 41–62 cm (16–24 in) and 1.1 kg (2.4 lb) in the muskrat. The length of their tails varies greatly in relation to their bodies, and they may be either furred or sparsely haired
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Platacanthomyidae
†Neocometes Platacanthomys TyphlomysThe rodent family Platacanthomyidae, or Oriental dormice, includes the spiny dormice and the Chinese pygmy dormice. In spite of their appearance, these animals are not true dormice, but are part of the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. The platacanthomyids can be distinguished from the true dormice, because they have no premolars, giving them three cheek teeth, like their relatives, the Muroidea. The evolutionary relationship of the Platacanthomyidae
Platacanthomyidae
was uncertain until a molecular phylogenetic study found it to be the earliest extant lineage to branch within the superfamily Muroidea. They can be distinguished from both the family Spalacidae
Spalacidae
and the Eumuroida
Eumuroida
(all non-spalacid and non-platacanthomyid muroids), by the distinct shape of their infraorbital canal and by the presence of multiple openings in the palate of the skull
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