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Castorimorpha
Superfamily Castoroidea : * Castoridae Superfamily Geomyoidea : * Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
* Geomyidae
Geomyidae
CASTORIMORPHA is the suborder of rodents containing the beavers , the pocket gophers , and the kangaroo rats and kangaroo mice
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Incertae Sedis
INCERTAE SEDIS ( Latin
Latin
for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa". In the system of open nomenclature , uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is indicated by incertae familiae (of uncertain family), incerti subordinis (of uncertain suborder), incerti ordinis (of uncertain order) and similar terms. CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 In formal nomenclature * 3 Reason for use * 3.1 Poor description * 3.2 Not included in an analysis * 3.3 Controversy * 4 In zoological nomenclature * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EXAMPLES * The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any family, but was placed incertae sedis within the order Ericales
Ericales
when described in 2001
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Eocene
The EOCENE ( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/ ) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene
Eocene
is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C . The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event , which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Euarchontoglires
EUARCHONTOGLIRES (synonymous with SUPRAPRIMATES) is a clade and a superorder of mammals , the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents , lagomorphs , treeshrews , colugos and primates . CONTENTS * 1 Evolutionary relationships * 2 Organization * 3 References * 4 Further reading EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPSThe Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
clade is based on DNA
DNA
sequence analyses and retrotransposon markers that combine the clades Glires (Rodentia + Lagomorpha) and Euarchonta
Euarchonta
( Scandentia + Primates
Primates
+ Dermoptera). So far, few if any anatomical features that support Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
have been recognized, nor does any strong evidence from anatomy support alternative hypotheses
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Mammal
MAMMALS are any vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪli.ə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the biggest animals on the planet, the great whales . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Eutheria
EUTHERIA (/juːˈθɪəriə/ ; from Greek εὐ-, eu- "true/good" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic . Except for the Virginia opossum , from North America, which is a metatherian , all post- Miocene
Miocene
mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, and all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia
Placentalia
. Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles, jaws and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones , which are present in all other living mammals (marsupials and monotremes ). This allows for expansion of the abdomen during pregnancy
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata
Vertebrata
, which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
, comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Synapsid
Theropsida Seeley , 1895 SYNAPSIDS (Greek , 'fused arch'), synonymous with THEROPSIDS (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes . They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra , an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each; this accounts for their name. Primitive synapsids are usually called pelycosaurs or pelycosaur-grade synapsids; more advanced mammal-like ones, therapsids . The non-mammalian members are described as MAMMAL-LIKE REPTILES in classical systematics; they can also be called STEM MAMMALS or PROTO-MAMMALS. Synapsids evolved from basal amniotes and are one of the two major groups of the later amniotes; the other is the sauropsids , a group that includes modern reptiles and birds
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Ord's Kangaroo Rat
ORD\'S KANGAROO RAT (Dipodomys ordii) is a kangaroo rat native to western North America
North America
, specifically the Great Plains
Great Plains
and the Great Basin , with its range extending from extreme southern Canada
Canada
to central Mexico
Mexico
. Ord's kangaroo rat
Ord's kangaroo rat
has a fifth toe on its hind feet, which distinguishes it from Dipodomys elator . It is bicolored with gold-brown dorsal hair and a white stomach. It has a long tail with a bushy tip, and is dark dorsally and ventrally with a white lateral stripe. Its hind feet are modified for jumping, and exceed 35 mm in length, and its total length exceeds 240 mm. Its tail is usually less than 160 mm, distinguishing it from D. elator (which exceeds 160 mm)
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Beaver
C. fiber – Eurasian beaver C. canadensis – North American beaver †C. californicus Distribution of C. fiber. Distribution of C. canadensis. Fossils of C. californicusThe BEAVER (genus CASTOR) is a large, primarily nocturnal , semiaquatic rodent . Castor includes two extant species, the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) ( Eurasia
Eurasia
). Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara ). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million
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Spalacidae
Spalacinae Myospalacinae Rhizomyinae
Rhizomyinae
The SPALACIDAE, or SPALACIDS, are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea . They are native to eastern Asia
Asia
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, the Middle East
Middle East
, and southeastern Europe
Europe
. It includes the blind mole-rats , bamboo rats , mole-rats , and zokors . This family represents the oldest split (excluding perhaps the Platacanthomyinae ) in the muroid superfamily, and comprises animals adapted to a subterranean way of life
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Mouse-like Hamster
Calomyscus bailwardi Calomyscus baluchi Calomyscus elburzensis Calomyscus grandis Calomyscus hotsoni Calomyscus mystax Calomyscus tsolovi Calomyscus urartensis Mouse-like hamster
Mouse-like hamster
using its tail for balance while standing on a branch (a feat difficult for hamsters) MOUSE-LIKE HAMSTERS are a group of small rodents found in Syria
Syria
, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
, Iran
Iran
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and Pakistan
Pakistan
. They are found in rocky outcrops and semi-mountainous areas in desert regions. The mouse-like hamsters are not true hamsters , but represent an early split from the rest of the mouse-like rodents
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