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Carmentis
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Carmenta
Carmenta
was a goddess of childbirth and prophecy, associated with technological innovation as well as the protection of mothers and children, and a patron of midwives. She was also said to have invented the Latin alphabet.Contents1 Background 2 See also 3 References3.1 Primary sources 3.2 Secondary sources4 External linksBackground[edit] Porta Carmentalis
Porta Carmentalis
(at location 12)The name Carmenta
Carmenta
is derived from Latin carmen, meaning a magic spell, oracle or song, and also the root of the English word charm. Her original name was Nicostrate, but it was changed later to honor her renown for giving oracles. She was the mother of Evander and along with other followers they founded the town of Pallantium, which later was one of the sites of the start of Rome
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Mars (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars
Mars
(Latin: Mārs, [maːrs]) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.[2] He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars
Mars
was identified with the Greek god Ares,[3] whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars
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Egeria (deity)
Egeria (Latin: Ēgeria) was a nymph attributed a legendary role in the early history of Rome as a divine consort and counselor of Numa Pompilius, the second Sabine
Sabine
king of Rome, to whom she imparted laws and rituals pertaining to ancient Roman religion. Her name is used as an eponym for a female advisor or counselor.Contents1 Origin and etymology 2 Function 3 Relationship with Numa Pompilius 4 Egeria spring in Rome 5 In modern literature 6 Notes 7 External linksOrigin and etymology[edit] Egeria may predate Roman myth: she could have been of Italic origin in the sacred forest of Aricia in Latium, her immemorial site, which was equally the grove of Diana Nemorensis
Diana Nemorensis
("Diana of Nemi")
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Destiny
Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin
Latin
fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events. [1][2] It may be conceived as a predetermined future, whether in general or of an individual.Contents1 Fate 2 Fortune 3 Philosophy 4 Religion 5 Literature 6 Further reading 7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesFate[edit]Fate, by Alphonse MuchaAlthough often used interchangeably, the words "fate" and "destiny" have distinct connotations.Traditional usage defines fate as a power or agency that predetermines and orders the course of events. Fate defines events as ordered or "inevitable" and unavoidable. This is a concept based on the belief that there is a fixed natural order to the universe, and in some conceptions, the cosmos
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Apollo
Apollo
Apollo
(Attic, Ionic, and Homeric
Homeric
Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (GEN Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo
Apollo
has been variously recognized as a god of music, truth and prophecy, healing, the sun and light, plague, poetry, and more. Apollo
Apollo
is the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis
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Bellona (goddess)
Bellona [bɛlloːna] was an Ancient Roman goddess of war. Her main attribute is the military helmet worn on her head; she often holds a sword, spear, or shield, and brandishes a torch or whip as she rides into battle in a four-horse chariot. Her iconography was extended further by painters and sculptors following the Renaissance.Contents1 Ancient cult goddess 2 In the arts2.1 Poetry 2.2 Cantata and opera 2.3 Painting and sculpture 2.4 Public statements3 Gallery 4 References 5 External linksAncient cult goddess[edit] Originally named Duellona in the Italic languages,[1] Bellona was an ancient Sabine goddess of war, identified with Nerio, the consort of the war god Mars, and later, with her Greek equivalent Enyo
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Bona Dea
Bona Dea
Bona Dea
([bɔ.na ˈde.a] 'Good Goddess') was a divinity in ancient Roman religion. She was associated with chastity and fertility in Roman women, healing, and the protection of the state and people of Rome. According to Roman literary sources, she was brought from Magna Graecia at some time during the early or middle Republic, and was given her own state cult on the Aventine Hill. Her rites allowed women the use of strong wine and blood-sacrifice, things otherwise forbidden them by Roman tradition. Men were barred from her mysteries and the possession of her true name. Given that male authors had limited knowledge of her rites and attributes, ancient speculations about her identity abound, among them that she was an aspect of Terra, Ops, Cybele, or Ceres, or a Latin form of the Greek goddess "Damia" (Demeter)
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Castor And Pollux
Castor[a] and Pollux[b] (or in Greek, Polydeuces[c]) were twin brothers and demigods in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.[d] Their mother was Leda, but they had different fathers; Castor was the mortal son of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta, while Pollux was the divine son of Zeus, who seduced Leda in the guise of a swan. Though accounts of their birth are varied, they are sometimes said to have been born from an egg, along with their twin sisters or half-sisters Helen of Troy
Helen of Troy
and Clytemnestra. In Latin the twins are also known as the Gemini[e] (literally "twins") or Castores,[f] as well as the Tyndaridae[g] or Tyndarids.[h] When Castor was killed, Pollux asked Zeus
Zeus
to let him share his own immortality with his twin to keep them together, and they were transformed into the constellation Gemini. The pair were regarded as the patrons of sailors, to whom they appeared as St
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Ceres (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres (/ˈsɪəriːz/;[1][2] Latin: Cerēs [ˈkɛreːs]) was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships.[3] She was originally the central deity in Rome's so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad, then was paired with her daughter Proserpina
Proserpina
in what Romans described as "the Greek rites of Ceres". Her seven-day April festival of Cerealia
Cerealia
included the popular Ludi
Ludi
Ceriales (Ceres' games). She was also honoured in the May lustratio of the fields at the Ambarvalia festival, at harvest-time, and during Roman marriages and funeral rites. Ceres is the only one of Rome's many agricultural deities to be listed among the Dii Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians
Twelve Olympians
of Greek mythology
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Cupid
In classical mythology, Cupid
Cupid
(Latin Cupīdō [kʊˈpiː.doː], meaning "desire") is the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection. He is often portrayed as the son of the love goddess Venus and the war god Mars. He is also known in Latin as Amor ("Love"). His Greek counterpart is Eros.[1] Although Eros
Eros
is generally portrayed as a slender winged youth in Classical Greek art, during the Hellenistic period, he was increasingly portrayed as a chubby boy. During this time, his iconography acquired the bow and arrow that represent his source of power: a person, or even a deity, who is shot by Cupid's arrow is filled with uncontrollable desire. In myths, Cupid
Cupid
is a minor character who serves mostly to set the plot in motion. He is a main character only in the tale of Cupid
Cupid
and Psyche, when wounded by his own weapons, he experiences the ordeal of love
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Diana (mythology)
Diana (Classical Latin: [dɪˈaː.na]) was the goddess of the hunt, the moon, and nature in Roman mythology, associated with wild animals and woodland, and having the power to talk to and control animals. She was equated with the Greek goddess Artemis,[1] though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana was known as the virgin goddess of childbirth and women. She was one of the three maiden goddesses, along with Minerva
Minerva
and Vesta, who swore never to marry. Oak
Oak
groves and deer were especially sacred to her. Diana was born with her twin brother, Apollo, on the island of Delos, daughter of Jupiter and Latona
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Dīs Pater
Dīs Pater
Dīs Pater
[diːs ˈpa.tɛr] was a Roman god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Hades
Hades
( Hades
Hades
was Greek). Originally a chthonic god of riches, fertile agricultural land, and underground mineral wealth, he was later commonly equated with the Roman deities Pluto and Orcus, becoming an underworld deity. Dīs Pater
Dīs Pater
was commonly shortened to simply Dīs. This name has since become an alternative name for the underworld or a part of the underworld, such as the City of Dis of The Divine Comedy, which comprises Lower Hell. It is often thought that Dīs Pater
Dīs Pater
was also a Celtic god. This confusion arises from the second-hand citation of one of Julius Caesar's comments in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars
Commentaries on the Gallic Wars
VI:18, where he says that the Gauls all claimed descent from Dīs Pater
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Fauna (deity)
In ancient Roman religion, Fauna [fau̯na] is a goddess said in differing ancient sources to be the wife, sister, or daughter of Faunus
Faunus
(the Roman counterpart of Pan).[1] Varro
Varro
regarded her as the female counterpart of Faunus, and said that the fauni all had prophetic powers
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses,[1] in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Panthera leo
Panthera leo
(lion) and Panthera onca
Panthera onca
(jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera
Panthera
is a genus within the family Felidae. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Faunus
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Faunus
Faunus
[fau̯nʊs] was the horned god of the forest, plains and fields; when he made cattle fertile he was called Inuus. He came to be equated in literature with the Greek god Pan. Faunus
Faunus
was one of the oldest Roman deities, known as the di indigetes. According to the epic poet Virgil, he was a legendary king of the Latins. His shade was consulted as a god of prophecy under the name of Fatuus, with oracles[1] in the sacred grove of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill
Aventine Hill
in ancient Rome itself.[2] Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
asserted that the oracular responses were given in Saturnian verse.[3] Faunus
Faunus
revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs. W
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Flora (deity)
In Roman mythology, Flora (Latin: Flōra) is a Sabine-derived goddess of flowers[1] and of the season of spring[2] – a symbol for nature and flowers (especially the may-flower)
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