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Carbohydrates
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
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Acetic Acid
Acetamide Acetic anhydride Acetonitrile Acetyl
Acetyl
chloride Ethanol Ethyl acetate Potassium acetate Sodium acetate Thioacetic acidSupplementary data pageStructure and properties Refractive index
Refractive index
(n), Dielectric constant
Dielectric constant
(εr), etc.Thermodynamic dataPhase behaviour solid–liquid–gasSpectral dataUV, IR, NMR, MSExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Acetic acid
Acetic acid
/əˈsiːtɪk/, systematically named ethanoic acid /ˌɛθəˈnoʊɪk/, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2). When undiluted, it is sometimes called glacial acetic acid
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Hydroxy Group
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry, alcohol and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups. The anion [OH−], called hydroxide, consists of a hydroxy group. According to IUPAC rules, the term hydroxyl refers to the radical OH only, while the functional group −OH is called hydroxy group.[1]Contents1 Properties 2 Occurrence 3 Hydroxyl radical 4 Lunar and other extraterrestrial observations 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksProperties[edit] Water, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and many other hydroxy-containing compounds can be deprotonated readily. This behavior is rationalized by the disparate electronegativities of oxygen and hydrogen. Hydroxy-containing compounds engage in hydrogen bonding, which causes them to stick together, leading to higher boiling and melting points than found for compounds that lack this functional group
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Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism. A flavoprotein is a protein that contains a flavin moiety, this may be in the form of FAD or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). There are many flavoproteins besides components of the succinate dehydrogenase complex, including α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; some examples are shown in section 6. FAD can exist in four different redox states, which are the flavin-N(5)-oxide, quinone, semiquinone, and hydroquinone.[1] FAD is converted between these states by accepting or donating electrons. FAD, in its fully oxidized form, or quinone form, accepts two electrons and two protons to become FADH2 (hydroquinone form)
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Energy
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.[note 1] Energy
Energy
is a conserved quantity; the law of conservation of energy states that energy can be converted in form, but not created or destroyed. The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton. Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational, electric or magnetic), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature. Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide
Nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD
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RNA
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. RNA
RNA
and DNA
DNA
are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA
RNA
is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA
DNA
it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins
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-ose
The suffix -ose (/oʊz/ or /oʊs/) is used in biochemistry to form the names of sugars. This Latin
Latin
suffix means "full of", "abounding in", "given to", or "like".[1] Numerous systems exist to name specific sugars more descriptively. Monosaccharides, the simplest sugars, may be named according to the number of carbon atoms in each molecule of the sugar: pentose is a five-carbon monosaccharide, and hexose is a six-carbon monosaccharide. Aldehyde
Aldehyde
monosaccharides may be called aldoses; ketone monosaccharides may be called ketoses. Larger sugars such as disaccharides and polysaccharides can be named to reflect their qualities. Lactose, a disaccharide found in milk, gets its name from the Latin
Latin
word for milk combined with the sugar suffix; its name means "milk sugar"
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Molecular Weight
Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available.Contents1 Definitions 2 Determination2.1 Mass spectrometry 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods 2.3 Static light scattering3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition[1] is equal to 12
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Immune System
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. In many species, the immune system can be classified into subsystems, such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system, or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity
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Fertilization
Fertilisation
Fertilisation
or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation,[1] is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.[2] The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.Contents1 History 2 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in plants2.1 Bryophytes 2.2 Ferns 2.3 Gymnosperms 2.4 Flowering plants 2.5 Self-Pollination3 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in animals3.1 Internal vs
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Pathogenesis
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state. The term can also describe the origin and development of the disease, and whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent. The word comes from the Greek πάθος pathos ("disease") and γένεσις genesis ("creation").Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingDescription[edit] Types of pathogenesis include microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy and tissue breakdown. For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the mechanism by which bacteria cause infectious illness. Most diseases are caused by multiple processes
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Blood Clotting
Coagulation
Coagulation
(also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).[1] Coagulation
Coagulation
is highly conserved throughout biology; in all mammals, coagulation involves both a cellular (platelet) and a protein (coagulation factor) component.[2] The system in humans has been the most extensively researched and is the best understood.[3] Coagulation
Coagulation
begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the vessel
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Developmental Biology
Developmental biology
Developmental biology
is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop
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Aldehyde
An aldehyde /ˈældɪhaɪd/ or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group,[1] which is any generic alkyl or side chain. The group—without R—is the aldehyde group, also known as the formyl group. Aldehydes are common in organic chemistry
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