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Campanian
The Campanian
Campanian
is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous
Cretaceous
epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
series). The Campanian spans the time from 83.6 ± 0.7 Ma to 72.1 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Santonian
Santonian
and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.[2] The Campanian
Campanian
was an age when a worldwide sea level rise drowned many coastal areas
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GSSP
A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale. The effort to define GSSPs is conducted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a part of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Most, but not all, GSSPs are based on paleontological changes. Hence GSSPs are usually described in terms of transitions between different faunal stages, though far more faunal stages have been described than GSSPs. The GSSP definition effort commenced in 1977. As of 2012, 64 of the 101 stages that need a GSSP have been formally defined.[1]Contents1 Rules 2 Agreed-upon Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Points 3 Global Standard Stratigraphic Ages 4 See also 5 References 6 Notes 7 External linksRules[edit] A geologic section has to fulfill a set of criteria to be adapted as a GSSP by the ICS
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Type Locality (geology)
Type locality, also called type area, type site, or type section, is the locality where a particular rock type, stratigraphic unit or mineral species is first identified.[1] If the stratigraphic unit in a locality is layered, it is called a stratotype, whereas the standard of reference for unlayered rocks is the type locality.[2] The term is similar to the term type site in archaeology or the term type specimen in biology.Contents1 Examples of geological type localities1.1 Rocks and minerals 1.2 Formations and structures2 See also 3 ReferencesExamples of geological type localities[edit] Rocks and minerals[edit]Aragonite: Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara, Spain Autunite: Autun, France Benmoreite: Ben More (Mull), Scotland[3] Blairmorite: Blairmore, Alberta, Canada Boninite: Bonin Islands, Japan[4] Comendite: Comende, San Pietro Island, Sardinia[5] Coyoteite: Coyote Peak near Orick, California, USA Cummingtonite: Cummington, Massachusetts Dunite: D
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Tithonian
In the geological timescale the Tithonian
Tithonian
is the latest age of the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 Ma and 145.0 ± 4 Ma (million years ago)
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Late Jurassic
The Late Jurassic
Jurassic
is the third epoch of the Jurassic
Jurassic
period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic
Jurassic
strata.[2] In European lithostratigraphy, the name "malm" indicates rocks of Late Jurassic
Jurassic
age
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Jurassic
The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
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Chronostratigraphy
Chronostratigraphy is the branch of stratigraphy that studies the age of rock strata in relation to time. The ultimate aim of chronostratigraphy is to arrange the sequence of deposition and the time of deposition of all rocks within a geological region, and eventually, the entire geologic record of the Earth. The standard stratigraphic nomenclature is a chronostratigraphic system based on palaeontological intervals of time defined by recognised fossil assemblages (biostratigraphy). The aim of chronostratigraphy is to give a meaningful age date to these fossil assemblage intervals and interfaces.[citation needed]Contents1 Methodology 2 Units 3 Differences between chronostratigraphy and geochronology 4 See also 5 ReferencesMethodology[edit] Chronostratigraphy relies heavily upon isotope geology and geochronology to derive hard dating of known and well defined rock units which contain the specific fossil assemblages defined by the stratigraphic system
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Annum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Marine Transgression
A marine transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding. Transgressions can be caused either by the land sinking or the ocean basins filling with water (or decreasing in capacity). Transgressions and regressions may be caused by tectonic events such as orogenies, severe climate change such as ice ages or isostatic adjustments following removal of ice or sediment load. During the Cretaceous, seafloor spreading created a relatively shallow Atlantic
Atlantic
basin at the expense of deeper Pacific basin. This reduced the world's ocean basin capacity and caused a rise in sea level worldwide
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Geomorphology
Geomorphology
Geomorphology
(from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics and to predict changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments and numerical modeling. Geomorphologists work within disciplines such as physical geography, geology, geodesy, engineering geology, archaeology and geotechnical engineering
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Unconformity
An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous. In general, the older layer was exposed to erosion for an interval of time before deposition of the younger, but the term is used to describe any break in the sedimentary geologic record. The significance of angular unconformity (see below) was shown by James Hutton, who found examples of Hutton's Unconformity
Unconformity
at Jedburgh
Jedburgh
in 1787 and at Siccar Point
Siccar Point
in 1788.[1][2] The rocks above an unconformity are younger than the rocks beneath (unless the sequence has been overturned). An unconformity represents time during which no sediments were preserved in a region. The local record for that time interval is missing and geologists must use other clues to discover that part of the geologic history of that area
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Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation
Sedimentation
is the collective name for processes that cause mineral or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Champagne, Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
(French pronunciation: ​[ʃa.ʁɑ̃t ma.ʁi.tim]) is a department on the southwestern coast of France named after the Charente
Charente
River.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Politics 7 Tourism 8 See also 9 External linksHistory[edit] Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
and the former provinces composing it (mostly Saintonge
Saintonge
and Aunis).Previously a part of Saintonge
Saintonge
and Aunis, Charente-Inférieure was one of the 83 original departments created during the French Revolution
French Revolution
on 4 March 1790. On 4 September 1941, it was renamed Charente-Maritime. When first created, the commune of Saintes was assigned as the prefecture of the department (Saintes had previously been the capital of Saintonge)
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Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
(French pronunciation: ​[ʃa.ʁɑ̃t ma.ʁi.tim]) is a department on the southwestern coast of France named after the Charente
Charente
River.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Politics 7 Tourism 8 See also 9 External linksHistory[edit] Charente-Maritime
Charente-Maritime
and the former provinces composing it (mostly Saintonge
Saintonge
and Aunis).Previously a part of Saintonge
Saintonge
and Aunis, Charente-Inférieure was one of the 83 original departments created during the French Revolution
French Revolution
on 4 March 1790. On 4 September 1941, it was renamed Charente-Maritime. When first created, the commune of Saintes was assigned as the prefecture of the department (Saintes had previously been the capital of Saintonge)
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Outcrop
An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth.[1]Contents1 Features 2 Study 3 Examples 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksFeatures[edit]A typical shore outcrop scoured by ancient glaciers in Espoo, Finland.Outcrops do not cover the majority of the Earth's land surface because in most places the bedrock or superficial deposits are covered by a mantle of soil and vegetation and cannot be seen or examined closely. However, in places where the overlying cover is removed through erosion or tectonic uplift, the rock may be exposed, or crop out. Such exposure will happen most frequently in areas where erosion is rapid and exceeds the weathering rate such as on steep hillsides, mountain ridges and tops, river banks, and tectonically active areas. In Finland, glacial erosion during the last glacial maximum (ca
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