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Calculation A CALCULATION is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm , to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people. For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black–Scholes Black–Scholes model is a complex algorithmic calculation. Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers. To calculate means to ascertain by computing [...More...]  "Calculation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Special SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on [...More...]  "Special" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Greek Language GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the IndoEuropean family of languages, native to Greece Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living IndoEuropean language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin Latin , Cyrillic Cyrillic , Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems [...More...]  "Greek Language" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Complexity Class In computational complexity theory , a COMPLEXITY CLASS is a set of problems of related resourcebased complexity. A typical complexity class has a definition of the form: the set of problems that can be solved by an abstract machine M using O (f(n)) of resource R, where n is the size of the input [...More...]  "Complexity Class" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

National Diet Library The NATIONAL DIET LIBRARY (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the only national library in Japan Japan . It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan Japan (国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy. The library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress Library of Congress [...More...]  "National Diet Library" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Cost Accounting COST ACCOUNTING is a process of collecting, recording, classifying, analyzing, summarizing, allocating and evaluating various alternative courses of action "> Money was spent on labor, raw materials, power to run a factory, etc. in direct proportion to production. Managers could simply total the variable costs for a product and use this as a rough guide for decisionmaking processes. Some costs tend to remain the same even during busy periods, unlike variable costs, which rise and fall with volume of work. Over time, these "fixed costs " have become more important to managers. Examples of fixed costs include the depreciation of plant and equipment, and the cost of departments such as maintenance, tooling, production control, purchasing, quality control, storage and handling, plant supervision and engineering. In the early nineteenth century, these costs were of little importance to most businesses [...More...]  "Cost Accounting" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Statistical Estimation ESTIMATION THEORY is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component. The parameters describe an underlying physical setting in such a way that their value affects the distribution of the measured data. An estimator attempts to approximate the unknown parameters using the measurements. For example, it is desired to estimate the proportion of a population of voters who will vote for a particular candidate. That proportion is the parameter sought; the estimate is based on a small random sample of voters. Or, for example, in radar the aim is to find the range of objects (airplanes, boats, etc.) by analyzing the twoway transit timing of received echoes of transmitted pulses. Since the reflected pulses are unavoidably embedded in electrical noise, their measured values are randomly distributed, so that the transit time must be estimated [...More...]  "Statistical Estimation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Latin LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the IndoEuropean languages IndoEuropean languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet Phoenician alphabet . Latin Latin was originally spoken in Latium Latium , in the Italian Peninsula Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian [...More...]  "Latin" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Multiplication MULTIPLICATION (often denoted by the cross symbol " × ", by a point "⋅ ", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic ; with the others being addition , subtraction and division . The multiplication of whole numbers may be thought as a repeated addition ; that is, the multiplication of two numbers is equivalent to adding as many copies of one of them, the multiplicand, as the value of the other one, the multiplier. Normally, the multiplier is written first and multiplicand second, though this can vary, especially in languages with different grammatical structures, such as Japanese , Japanese elementary schools teach writing the multiplicand first, and answers that reverse that order are marked as incorrect [...More...]  "Multiplication" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Financial Instrument FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS are monetary contracts between parties. They can be created, traded, modified and settled. They can be cash (currency), evidence of an ownership interest in an entity (share), or a contractual right to receive or deliver cash (bond). International Accounting Accounting Standards IAS 32 and 39 define a financial instrument as "any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity". CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Measuring gain or loss * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPESFinancial instruments can be either cash instruments or derivative instruments: * Cash Cash instruments —instruments whose value is determined directly by the markets [...More...]  "Financial Instrument" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Black–Scholes The BLACK–SCHOLES /ˌblæk ˈʃoʊlz/ or BLACK–SCHOLES–MERTON model is a mathematical model of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments. From the model, one can deduce the BLACK–SCHOLES FORMULA, which gives a theoretical estimate of the price of Europeanstyle options . The formula led to a boom in options trading and provided mathematical legitimacy to the activities of the Chicago Board Options Exchange and other options markets around the world. lt is widely used, although often with adjustments and corrections, by options market participants. :751 Many empirical tests have shown that the Black–Scholes price is "fairly close" to the observed prices, although there are wellknown discrepancies such as the "option smile " [...More...]  "Black–Scholes" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Heuristic A HEURISTIC TECHNIQUE (/hjᵿˈrɪstᵻk/ ; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek : εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a HEURISTIC, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals. Where finding an optimal solution is impossible or impractical, heuristic methods can be used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution. Heuristics can be mental shortcuts that ease the cognitive load of making a decision. Examples of this method include using a rule of thumb , an educated guess , an intuitive judgment, guesstimate , stereotyping, profiling , or common sense [...More...]  "Heuristic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Arithmetic ARITHMETIC (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number ") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers , especially the properties of the traditional operations between them—addition , subtraction , multiplication and division . Arithmetic Arithmetic is an elementary part of number theory , and number theory is considered to be one of the toplevel divisions of modern mathematics , along with algebra , geometry , and analysis . The terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic were used until the beginning of the 20th century as synonyms for number theory and are sometimes still used to refer to a wider part of number theory [...More...]  "Arithmetic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Mathematics MATHEMATICS (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity , structure , space , and change . There are many views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics . Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures . Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof . When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic , mathematics developed from counting , calculation , measurement , and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry [...More...]  "Mathematics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Calculus (other) CALCULUS (from Latin calculus meaning ‘pebble’, plural calculī) in its most general sense is any method or system of calculation [...More...]  "Calculus (other)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 