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Calculation
A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change
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Statistical Estimation
Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured empirical data that has a random component. The parameters describe an underlying physical setting in such a way that their value affects the distribution of the measured data. An estimator attempts to approximate the unknown parameters using the measurements. For example, it is desired to estimate the proportion of a population of voters who will vote for a particular candidate. That proportion is the parameter sought; the estimate is based on a small random sample of voters. Or, for example, in radar the aim is to find the range of objects (airplanes, boats, etc.) by analyzing the two-way transit timing of received echoes of transmitted pulses
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Heuristic
A heuristic technique (/hjʊəˈrɪstɪk/; Ancient Greek: εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals. Where finding an optimal solution is impossible or impractical, heuristic methods can be used to speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution. Heuristics can be mental shortcuts that ease the cognitive load of making a decision
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List Of Algorithms
The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each.Contents1 Automated planning 2 Combinatorial algorithms2.1 General combinatorial algorithms 2.2 Graph algorithms2.2.1 Graph drawing 2.2.2 Network theory 2.2.3 Routing for graphs 2.2.4 Graph search 2.2.5 Subgraphs2.3 Sequence algorithms2.3.1 Approximate sequence matching 2.3.2 Selection algorithms 2.3.3 Sequence search 2.3.4 Sequence merging 2.3.5 Sequence permutations 2.3.6 Sequence alignment 2.3.7 Sequence sorting 2.3.8 Subsequences 2.3.9 Substrings3 Computational mathematics3.1 Abstract algebra 3.2 Computer algebra 3.3 Geometry 3.4 Number theoretic algorithms 3.5 Numerical algorithms3.5.1 Differential equation solving 3.5.2 Elementary and special functions 3.5.3 Geometric 3.5.4 Interpolation and extrapolation 3.5.5 Linear algebra 3.5.6 Monte Carlo 3.5.7 Numerical integration 3.5.8 Root finding3.6 Optimization algorithms4 Computat
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Cost Accounting
Cost
Cost
accounting is the process of recording, classifying, analyzing, summarizing, allocating various alternative courses of action for the control of costs. Its goal is to advise the management on the most appropriate course of action based on the cost efficiency and capability. Cost
Cost
accounting provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current operations and plan for the future.[1] Since managers are making decisions only for their own organization, there is no need for the information to be comparable to similar information from other organizations. Instead, information must be relevant for a particular environment
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Complexity Class
In computational complexity theory, a complexity class is a set of problems of related resource-based complexity
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Addition
Addition
Addition
(often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division. The addition of two whole numbers is the total amount of those quantities combined. For example, in the adjacent picture, there is a combination of three apples and two apples together, making a total of five apples. This observation is equivalent to the mathematical expression "3 + 2 = 5" i.e., "3 add 2 is equal to 5". Besides counting items, addition can also be defined on other types of numbers, such as integers, real numbers and complex numbers. This is part of arithmetic, a branch of mathematics. In algebra, another area of mathematics, addition can be performed on abstract objects such as vectors and matrices. Addition
Addition
has several important properties
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Financial Instrument
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties. They can be created, traded, modified and settled. They can be cash (currency), evidence of an ownership interest in an entity (share), or a contractual right to receive or deliver cash (bond). International Accounting
Accounting
Standards IAS 32 and 39 define a financial instrument as "any contract that gives rise to a financial asset of one entity and a financial liability or equity instrument of another entity".[1]Contents1 Types 2 Measuring gain or loss 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTypes[edit] Financial instruments can be either cash instruments or derivative instruments: Cash
Cash
instruments – instruments whose value is determined directly by the markets
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Black–Scholes
The Black–Scholes /ˌblæk ˈʃoʊlz/[1] or Black–Scholes–Merton model is a mathematical model of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments. From the partial differential equation in the model, known as the Black–Scholes equation, one can deduce the Black–Scholes formula, which gives a theoretical estimate of the price of European-style options and shows that the option has a unique price regardless of the risk of the security and its expected return (instead replacing the security's expected return with the risk-neutral rate)
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National Diet Library
The National Diet
National Diet
Library (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the national library of Japan
Japan
and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet
National Diet
of Japan
Japan
(国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy
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Nth Root
In mathematics, an n-th root of a number x, where n is usually assumed to be a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x: r n = x , displaystyle r^ n =x, where n is the degree of the root. A root of degree 2 is called a square root and a root of degree 3, a cube root. Roots of higher degree are referred by using ordinal numbers, as in fourth root, twentieth root, etc. For example:3 is a square root of 9, since 32 = 9. −3 is also a square root of 9, since (−3)2 = 9.Any non-zero number, considered as complex number, has n different "complex roots of degree n" (n-th roots), including those with zero imaginary part, i.e. any real roots. The root of 0 is zero for all degrees n, since 0n = 0
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Subtraction
Subtraction
Subtraction
is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection. It is signified by the minus sign (−). For example, in the adjacent picture, there are 5 − 2 apples—meaning 5 apples with 2 taken away, which is a total of 3 apples. Therefore, 5 − 2 = 3. Subtraction
Subtraction
represents removing or decreasing physical and abstract quantities using different kinds of objects including negative numbers, fractions, irrational numbers, vectors, decimals, functions, and matrices. Subtraction
Subtraction
follows several important patterns. It is anticommutative, meaning that changing the order changes the sign of the answer. It is not associative, meaning that when one subtracts more than two numbers, the order in which subtraction is performed matters. Subtraction
Subtraction
of 0 does not change a number
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Multiplication
Multiplication
Multiplication
(often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division. The multiplication of whole numbers may be thought as a repeated addition; that is, the multiplication of two numbers is equivalent to adding as many copies of one of them, the multiplicand, as the value of the other one, the multiplier
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