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A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people. For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black–Scholes
Black–Scholes
model is a more complex algorithmic calculation. Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers. To calculate means to ascertain by computing.[citation needed] The English word derives from the Latin
Latin
calculus, which originally meant a small stone in the gall-bladder (from Latin
Latin
calx). It also meant a pebble used for calculating, or a small stone used as a counter in an abacus ( Latin
Latin
abacus, Greek abax). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.

Contents

1 Comparison to computation 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

Comparison to computation[edit] Calculate comes from the Greek word Κάχληκα or gravel in English because Greeks used gravel for counting. Calculation is a prerequisite for computation.[1] The difference in the meaning of calculation and computation appears to originate from the late medieval period.[2] See also[edit]

Look up calculation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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Abacus Calculator Calculus (other) Calculability Computation Cost accounting List of algorithms Mathematics Mental calculation

References[edit]

^ http://science.jrank.org/pages/7536/Calculation-Computation.html ^ http://science.jrank.org/pages/8509/Calculation-Computation-Premodern-Early-Modern-Non-Western.html

External links[edit]

"The Lifting of the Veil in the Operations of Calculation" is a manuscript, from the 18th-century, in Arabic, by Ibn al-Banna' al-Marrakushi, about calculation processes

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