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Buoyancy
In physics, buoyancy (/ˈbɔɪənsi, -əntsi, ˈbuːjənsi, -jəntsi/)[1][2] or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink
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Gravitation
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including objects ranging from atoms and photons, to planets and stars. Since energy and mass are equivalent, all forms of energy (including light) cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe
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Normal Force
In mechanics, the normal force F n   displaystyle F_ n is that component of the contact force that is perpendicular to the surface that an object contacts. For example, the surface of a floor or table that prevents an object from falling. In this instance normal is used in the geometric sense and means perpendicular, as opposed the common language use of normal meaning common or expected. For example, a person standing still on flat ground is supported by a ground reaction force that consists of only a normal force. If the person stands on a slope and does not slide down it, then the total ground reaction force can be divided into two components: a normal force perpendicular to the ground and a frictional force parallel to the ground
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Cauchy Stress Tensor
In continuum mechanics, the Cauchy stress tensor
Cauchy stress tensor
σ displaystyle boldsymbol sigma , true stress tensor,[1] or simply called the stress tensor is a second order tensor named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy. The tensor consists of nine components σ i j displaystyle sigma _ ij that completely define the state of stress at a point inside a material in the deformed state, placement, or configuration
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Kronecker Delta
In mathematics, the Kronecker delta
Kronecker delta
(named after Leopold Kronecker) is a function of two variables, usually just non-negative integers. The function is 1 if the variables are equal, and 0 otherwise: δ i j = 0 if  i ≠ j , 1 if  i = j . displaystyle delta _ ij = begin cases 0& text if ineq j,\1& text if i=j.end cases where the Kronecker delta
Kronecker delta
δij is a piecewise function of variables i and j
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Net Force
In physics, it is possible to determine the torque associated with the point of application of a net force so that it maintains the movement of the object under the original system of forces. Its associated torque, the net force, becomes the resultant force and has the same effect on the rotational motion of the object as all actual forces taken together.[1] It is possible for a system of forces to define a torque-free resultant force. In this case, the net force, when applied at the proper line of action, has the same effect on the body as all of the forces at their points of application
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Seawater
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM). This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions). Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater
Seawater
is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases
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Tension (physics)
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements. Tension could be the opposite of compression. At the atomic level, when atoms or molecules are pulled apart from each other and gain potential energy with a restoring force still existing, the restoring force might create what is also called tension. Each end of a string or rod under such tension could pull on the object it is attached to, in order to restore the string/rod to its relaxed length. In physics, tension, as a transmitted force, as an action-reaction pair of forces, or as a restoring force, may be a force and has the units of force measured in newtons (or sometimes pounds-force)
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Moment (physics)
In physics, a moment is an expression involving the product of a distance and a physical quantity, and in this way it accounts for how the physical quantity is located or arranged. Moments are usually defined with respect to a fixed reference point; they deal with physical quantities as measured at some distance from that reference point. For example, the moment of force acting on an object, often called torque, is the product of the force and the distance from a reference point. In principle, any physical quantity can be multiplied by distance to produce a moment; commonly used quantities include forces, masses, and electric charge distributions.Contents1 History 2 Elaboration2.1 Examples3 Multipole moments 4 Applications of multipole moments 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The concept of moment in physics is derived from the mathematical concept of moments.[1] [clarification needed]
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Vacuum
Vacuum
Vacuum
is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure.[1] Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure.[2] The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum. The quality of a partial vacuum refers to how closely it approaches a perfect vacuum. Other things equal, lower gas pressure means higher-quality vacuum
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Air Density
The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere. Air
Air
density, like air pressure, decreases with increasing altitude. It also changes with variation in temperature and humidity
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Compressibility
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility[1] or isothermal compressibility[2]) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change. β = − 1 V ∂ V ∂ p displaystyle beta =- frac 1 V frac partial V partial p where V is volume and p is pressure. The minus sign makes the compressibility positive in the (usual) case that an increase in pressure induces a reduction in volume.Contents1 Definition1.1 Relation to speed of sound 1.2 Relation to bulk modulus2 Thermodynamics 3 Earth science 4 Fluid dynamics4.1 Aerodynamics5
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Unstable
In numerous fields of study, the component of instability within a system is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds.[1] Not all systems that are not stable are unstable; systems can also be marginally stable or exhibit limit cycle behavior. In structural engineering, a structure can become unstable when excessive load is applied. Beyond a certain threshold, structural deflections magnify stresses, which in turn increases deflections. This can take the form of buckling or crippling
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Rubbing Alcohol
Rubbing alcohol
Rubbing alcohol
refers to either isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or ethanol based liquids,[1] or the comparable British Pharmacopoeia defined surgical spirit, with isopropyl alcohol products being the most widely available
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Food Coloring
Food
Food
coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink. They come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders, gels, and pastes. Food coloring is used both in commercial food production and in domestic cooking
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