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British Land
THE BRITISH LAND COMPANY PLC is one of the largest property development and investment companies in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. The firm became a real estate investment trust when REITs were introduced in the UK in January 2007. It is headquartered in London
London
. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index and a founding member of the European Public Real Estate Association . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Operations * 3 Main projects * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe British Land
British Land
Company was founded in 1856 as an offshoot of the National Freehold Land Society (later Abbey National
Abbey National
) formed in 1849 with the two chief architects of the freehold land movement Richard Cobden and John Bright
John Bright
. Both were ardent supporters of a movement to extend enfranchisement. To qualify for a parliamentary vote it was then necessary to be a landowner and the main object of the National Freehold was to facilitate the acquisition of small plots of land by the people. To do this the British Land
British Land
Co
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List Of Business Entities
A BUSINESS ENTITY is an entity that is formed and administered as per commercial law in order to engage in business activities, charitable work, or other activities allowable. Most often, business entities are formed to sell a product or a service. There are many types of business entities defined in the legal systems of various countries. These include corporations , cooperatives , partnerships , sole traders , limited liability company and other specifically permitted and labelled types of entities. The specific rules vary by country and by state or province. Some of these types are listed below, by country. For guidance, approximate equivalents in the company law of English-speaking countries are given in most cases, ≈ public limited company (UK, Ireland and the Commonwealth) ≈ Ltd.
Ltd.
(UK, Ireland and the Commonwealth) ≈ limited partnership = unlimited partnership = chartered company = statutory company = holding company = subsidiary company = one man company (sole proprietor ) = NGOs However, the regulations governing particular types of entity, even those described as roughly equivalent, differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. When creating or restructuring a business, the legal responsibilities will depend on the type of business entity chosen
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Real Estate Investment Trust
A REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT TRUST (REIT) is a company that owns, and in most cases operates, income-producing real estate . REITs own many types of commercial real estate, ranging from office and apartment buildings to warehouses , hospitals , shopping centers , hotels and timberlands . Some REITs engage in financing real estate. The law providing for REITs was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1960. The law was intended to provide a real estate investment structure similar to the structure mutual funds provide for investment in stocks. REITs are strong income vehicles because, to avoid incurring liability for U.S. Federal income tax, REITs generally must pay out an amount equal to at least 90 percent of their taxable income in the form of dividends to shareholders . REITs can be publicly traded on major exchanges, public but non-listed, or private. The two main types of REITs are Equity REITs and Mortgage REITs. In November 2014, Equity REITs were recognized as a distinct asset class in the Global Industry Classification Standard by S"> Since the burst of the real estate bubble in 1990, property prices in Japan
Japan
have seen steady drops through 2004, with some signs of price stabilization and possibly price increase in 2005 and 2006
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Ticker Symbol
A TICKER SYMBOL or STOCK SYMBOL is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market . A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. CONTENTS* 1 Interpreting the symbol * 1.1 Other identifiers * 2 Symbols by Country * 2.1 Canada * 2.2 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 2.3 United States
United States
* 2.3.1 Single-letter ticker symbols * 2.4 Other countries * 3 See also * 4 References INTERPRETING THE SYMBOL Stock
Stock
symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. For example, AAPL is for Apple Inc.; OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc.; and HD is for Home Depot, Inc. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape , and to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible
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London Stock Exchange
The LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE (LSE) is a stock exchange located in the City of London
London
, England
England
. As of December 2014 , the Exchange had a market capitalisation of US$6.06 trillion (short scale ), making it the third-largest stock exchange in the world by this measurement (the largest in Europe, ahead of Euronext
Euronext
). The Exchange was founded in 1801 and its current premises are situated in Paternoster Square close to St Paul\'s Cathedral in the City of London
London
. The Exchange is part of the London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange Group . London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange is one of the world’s oldest stock exchanges and can trace its history back more than 300 years. London
London
Stock Exchange Group was created in October 2007 when London
London
Stock
Stock
Exchange merged with Milan Stock
Stock
Exchange, Borsa Italiana
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Real Estate
REAL ESTATE is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings or housing." It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law , such as India
India
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, United States
United States
, Canada
Canada
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Australia
Australia
, and New Zealand
New Zealand
. CONTENTS * 1 Residential real estate * 2 Sales and marketing * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATEResidential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure that is available for occupation or for non-business purposes. Residences can be classified by, if, and how they are connected to neighbouring residences and land. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residents might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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John Ritblat
SIR JOHN HENRY RITBLAT FRICS FSVA (born 3 October 1935) is an English property developer and Honorary President and formerly Chairman and CEO of The British Land
British Land
Company PLC an FTSE100 London-based property company. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Political activity * 4 Philanthropy * 5 Personal life * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFERitblat was born on 3 October 1935 in Hampstead
Hampstead
, North London, England. He was educated at Dulwich College
Dulwich College
and the College of Estate Management . CAREERHe acquired British Land
British Land
from Jim Slater in 1970 for £1m, and retired as Chairman in 2006. Since June 2001, Ritblat has served as the non-executive Chairman of property advisory Colliers CRE. He also serves as the Chairman of the Advisory Board of Delancey, the property and asset-backed investment firm founded in 1995 by his son Jamie Ritblat (b 1967), which owns the Alpha Plus group of schools of which Sir John is the Chairman of the Board of Governors. POLITICAL ACTIVITYHe has donated to the Conservative Party
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John Gildersleeve
JOHN GILDERSLEEVE (born July 1944) is a British businessman, the chairman of British Land . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Personal life * 4 References EARLY LIFE John Gildersleeve was born in July 1944 . His father was a sergeant in the Army and his mother was "ambitiously intelligent". He grew up in a rented house in south London, and was the only boy in his year to go to grammar school. CAREERGildersleeve left school at 18, and joined Shell as a clerk. At 19, he joined Tesco
Tesco
as a trainee manager, having been interviewed by Ian MacLaurin , then an area manager, now Lord MacLaurin. He rose to join the board in 1984, and was a director for 20 years. He has been the chairman of British Land since January 2013. He is deputy chairman of Spire Healthcare , and deputy chairman of TalkTalk . He was formerly chairman of New Look , EMI Group , Gallaher Group and Carphone Warehouse ; and a non-executive director of Lloyds TSB , Vodafone Group , Dixons Carphone and Tesco
Tesco
. PERSONAL LIFEGildersleeve lives in the UK. He has daughters. REFERENCES * ^ _A_ _B_ "John GILDERSLEEVE - Personal Appointments (free information from Companies House)". _Drbeta.companieshouse.gov.uk_. Retrieved 2016-04-16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Pilgrim, Michael (2011-03-14)
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Chris Grigg
CHRISTOPHER MONTAGUE GRIGG (born 6 July 1959) is a British businessman, chief executive (CEO) of The British Land
British Land
Company plc, a British property development and investment company. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Personal life * 4 References EARLY LIFEGrigg was educated at King Edward VI School, Southampton
King Edward VI School, Southampton
(where he was in Lawrence House), and graduated from Trinity Hall , University of Cambridge with a first in Economics. He grew up in Hampshire, with two younger brothers, one an advertising executive, the other a vicar. CAREERGrigg joined Morgan Grenfell
Morgan Grenfell
as a graduate trainee in 1981. He joined Goldman Sachs
Goldman Sachs
in 1985, rising to Partner, before he left in 2005 to become Treasurer of Barclays Bank
Barclays Bank
, and Chief Executive of Barclays Commercial Bank from 1 February 2007 to November 2008. Grigg joined British Land
British Land
as Chief Executive on 12 January 2009. There has been some criticism of his decision to sell 50% of British Land's City of London Broadgate
Broadgate
development to Blackstone Group , as well as 50% of the Meadowhall Centre , Sheffield. Grigg has stated his belief that this was the right decision in the longer term: "We aspire to outperform the market
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Pound Sterling
_ UNITED KINGDOM 9 British territories * British Antarctic Territory _ * _ Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
_ (alongside Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
pound ) * _ Gibraltar
Gibraltar
_ (alongside Gibraltar
Gibraltar
pound ) * _ Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha _ (Tristan da Cunha ; alongside Saint Helena pound in _ Saint Helena
Saint Helena
_ and _Ascension _) * _ South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands _ (alongside Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands
pound ) * _ British Indian Ocean Territory _ (_de jure_, U.S. dollar used _de facto_) _ Guernsey
Guernsey
_ (local issue: Guernsey
Guernsey
pound ) _ Isle of Man
Isle of Man
_ (local issue: Manx pound ) _ Jersey
Jersey
_ (local issue: Jersey
Jersey
pound ) UNOFFICIAL USER(S) Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Pitcairn Islands ISSUANCE CENTRAL BANK Bank of England  WEBSITE www.bankofengland.co.uk PRINTER printers * English (inc
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Earnings Before Interest And Taxes
In accounting and finance, EARNINGS BEFORE INTEREST AND TAXES (EBIT), is a measure of a firm's profit that includes all expenses except interest and income tax expenses. It is the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses. When a firm does not have non-operating income , then OPERATING _INCOME_ is sometimes used as a synonym for EBIT and operating profit . EBIT = revenue – operating expenses (OPEX) Operating income = revenue – operating expenses A professional investor contemplating a change to the capital structure of a firm (e.g., through a leveraged buyout ) first evaluates a firm's fundamental earnings potential (reflected by earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA ) and EBIT), and then determines the optimal use of debt vs. equity. To calculate EBIT, expenses (e.g. the cost of goods sold , selling and administrative expenses) are subtracted from revenues. Net income is later obtained by subtracting interest and taxes from the result
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Net Income
In business , NET INCOME (TOTAL COMPREHENSIVE INCOME, NET EARNINGS, NET PROFIT, informally, BOTTOM LINE) is an entity's income minus cost of goods sold , expenses and taxes for an accounting period . It is computed as the residual of all revenues and gains over all expenses and losses for the period, and has also been defined as the net increase in shareholders\' equity that results from a company's operations. In the context of the presentation of financial statements , the IFRS Foundation defines net income as synonymous with PROFIT AND LOSS. Net income is a distinct accounting concept from profit but the same as net profit. Net income can also be calculated by adding a company's operating income to non-operating income and then subtracting off taxes. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 An equation for net income * 3 Other terms * 4 See also * 5 References DEFINITION Net income can be distributed among holders of common stock as a dividend or held by the firm as an addition to retained earnings . As profit and earnings are used synonymously for income (also depending on UK and US usage), NET EARNINGS and NET PROFIT are commonly found as synonyms for net income. Often, the term INCOME is substituted for net income, yet this is not preferred due to the possible ambiguity
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Asset
In financial accounting , an ASSET is an economic resource. Anything tangible or intangible that can be owned or controlled to produce value and that is held by a company to produce positive economic value is an asset. Simply stated, assets represent value of ownership that can be converted into cash (although cash itself is also considered an asset). The balance sheet of a firm records the monetary value of the assets owned by that firm. It covers money and other valuables belonging to an individual or to a business . One can classify assets into two major asset classes: tangible assets and intangible assets . Tangible assets contain various subclasses, including current assets an