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SHEFFIELD (/ˈʃɛfiːld/ ( listen )) is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire , England
England
. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, its name derives from the River Sheaf
River Sheaf
, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire
Derbyshire
, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield
Sheffield
is 575,400 (mid-2016 est.) and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group
Core Cities Group
. Sheffield
Sheffield
is the third largest English district by population. The metropolitan population of Sheffield
Sheffield
is 1,569,000.

In the 19th century, Sheffield
Sheffield
gained an international reputation for steel production. Known as the Steel
Steel
City , many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel , fuelling an almost tenfold increase in the population in the Industrial Revolution . Sheffield
Sheffield
received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield
Sheffield
in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area.

The 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield
Sheffield
along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added (GVA) has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber .

The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines , and the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley , the Porter Brook , the Rivelin and the Sheaf . 61% of Sheffield's entire area is green space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park . There are more than 250 parks, woodlands and gardens in the city, with an often quoted estimated 2 million trees, and claims of Sheffield
Sheffield
having the highest ratio of trees to people of any city in Europe. Sheffield's famous street trees however, many of which were planted as war memorials, or as avenues in the Victorian and Edwardian era, are being aggressively felled in large numbers across the city by Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
and their highways maintenance contractor Amey PLC. This has lead to mass protests, arrests of local residents, and attempted injunctions in court against individuals protesting, or in some cases even observing, the fellings.

The city has a long sporting heritage, and is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F.C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield
Sheffield
United and Sheffield Wednesday , are known as the Steel
Steel
City derby . The city is also home to the World Snooker
Snooker
Championship .

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Government

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate * 3.2 Subdivisions * 3.3 Skyline

* 4 Demography * 5 Economy

* 6 Transport

* 6.1 National and international travel

* 6.1.1 Road * 6.1.2 Rail * 6.1.3 Coach * 6.1.4 Canal
Canal
* 6.1.5 Air

* 6.2 Local travel

* 6.2.1 Cycling

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Universities and colleges * 7.2 Secondary, primary and pre-school education

* 8 Sport

* 9 Culture and attractions

* 9.1 Attractions * 9.2 Music * 9.3 Theatres * 9.4 Museums * 9.5 Greenspace * 9.6 Entertainment * 9.7 Media and film * 9.8 Folk culture

* 10 Public services * 11 Sister cities * 12 See also * 13 References and notes * 14 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Sheffield Sheffield Manor
Sheffield Manor
ruins as they appeared c. 1819

The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield
Sheffield
is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic , about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield
Sheffield
area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes . It is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts in and around Sheffield.

Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield
Sheffield
area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet , with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia
Mercia
. Gradually, Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira . A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield. The settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, however, date from the second half of the first millennium, and are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin. In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia
Mercia
and Northumbria . The _ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle _ reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore
Dore
(now a suburb of Sheffield) in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England
England
under the House of Wessex .

After the Norman conquest of England
England
, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, and a small town developed that is the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square , and Sheffield
Sheffield
subsequently grew into a small market town . In the 14th century, Sheffield
Sheffield
was already noted for the production of knives , as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer 's _ The Canterbury Tales _, and by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England
England
outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire . From 1570 to 1584, Mary, Queen of Scots , was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor . Dale Dike Reservoir
Dale Dike Reservoir
, the original dam wall of this reservoir collapsed in 1864 causing the Great Sheffield Flood

During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had previously been possible. In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became widely known as Sheffield plate . These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century. The resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew rapidly throughout the 19th century; increasing from 60,095 in 1801 to 451,195 by 1901. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842 and was granted a city charter in 1893. The influx of people also led to demand for better water supplies, and a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town.

The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood , which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town. The growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World ".

A recession in the 1930s was halted by increasing international tensions as World War II
World War II
loomed; Sheffield's steel factories were set to work manufacturing weapons and ammunition for the war effort. As a result, the city became a target for bombing raids, the heaviest of which occurred on the nights of 12 and 15 December 1940, now known as the Sheffield Blitz . More than 660 lives were lost and many buildings destroyed. Park Hill flats , an example of 1950/60s council housing estates in Sheffield
Sheffield

In the 1950s and 1960s, many of the city's slums were demolished, and replaced with housing schemes such as the Park Hill flats . Large parts of the city centre were also cleared to make way for a new system of roads. Increased automation and competition from abroad resulted in the closure of many steel mills . The 1980s saw the worst of this run-down of Sheffield's industries, along with those of many other areas of the UK. The building of the Meadowhall Centre
Meadowhall Centre
on the site of a former steelworks in 1990 was a mixed blessing, creating much needed jobs but hastening the decline of the city centre. Attempts to regenerate the city were kick-started when the city hosted the 1991 World Student Games , which saw the construction of new sporting facilities such as the Sheffield Arena , Don Valley Stadium and the Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge
complex.

Sheffield
Sheffield
is changing rapidly as new projects regenerate some of the more run-down parts of the city. One such, the _Heart of the City Project_, has initiated a number of public works in the city centre: the Peace Gardens were renovated in 1998, the Millennium Galleries opened in April 2001, the Winter Gardens were opened in May 2003, and a public space to link these two areas, the Millennium Square , was opened in May 2006. Additional developments included the remodelling of Sheaf Square , in front of the recently refurbished railway station. The new square contains "The Cutting Edge", a sculpture designed by Si Applied Ltd and made from Sheffield
Sheffield
steel.

Sheffield
Sheffield
was particularly hard-hit during the 2007 United Kingdom floods and the 2010 \'Big Freeze\' . Many landmark buildings such as Meadowhall
Meadowhall
and the Sheffield Wednesday grounds flooded due to being close to nearby rivers that flow through the city.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
See also: Sheffield
Sheffield
local elections Sheffield Town Hall
Sheffield Town Hall
, adjacent to the Peace Gardens , is an example of Victorian era Gothic revival architecture .

Sheffield
Sheffield
is governed at the local level by Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
. It consists of 84 councillors elected to represent 28 wards : three councillors per ward. Following the 2016 local elections, the distribution of council seats is Labour 56, Liberal Democrats 20, the Green Party 4 and UKIP 4. The city also has a Lord Mayor ; though now simply a ceremonial position, in the past the office carried considerable authority, with executive powers over the finances and affairs of the city council.

For much of its history the council was controlled by the Labour Party, and was noted for its leftist sympathies; during the 1980s, when Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
was led by David Blunkett , the area gained the epithet the "Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire ". However, the Liberal Democrats controlled the Council between 1999 and 2001 and took control again from 2008 to 2011.

The majority of council-owned facilities are operated by independent charitable trusts. Sheffield International Venues runs many of the city's sporting and leisure facilities, including Sheffield Arena and the English Institute of Sport . Museums Sheffield and the Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust take care of galleries and museums owned by the council.

The city returns five members of parliament to the House of Commons , with a sixth, the Member of Parliament for Penistone and Stocksbridge representing parts of Sheffield
Sheffield
and Barnsley. The former Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg was an MP for Sheffield, representing Sheffield Hallam .

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Sheffield

Sheffield
Sheffield
is located at 53°23′N 1°28′W / 53.383°N 1.467°W / 53.383; -1.467 . It lies directly beside Rotherham , from which it is separated largely by the M1 motorway . Although Barnsley
Barnsley
Metropolitan Borough
Borough
also borders Sheffield
Sheffield
to the north, the town itself is a few miles further away. The southern and western borders of the city are shared with Derbyshire
Derbyshire
; in the first half of the 20th century Sheffield
Sheffield
extended its borders south into Derbyshire, annexing a number of villages, including Totley , Dore
Dore
and the area now known as Mosborough Townships. Directly to the west of the city are the Peak District National Park and the Pennine hill range, while the lowlands of the South Yorkshire Coalfield lie to the east.

Sheffield
Sheffield
is a geographically diverse city. The city nestles in a natural amphitheatre created by several hills forming the eastern foothills of the Pennines, and the confluence of five rivers: Don , Sheaf , Rivelin , Loxley and Porter . As such, much of the city is built on hillsides with views into the city centre or out to the countryside. Blake Street, in the S6 postcode area is the third steepest residential street England, with a gradient of 16.6°. The city's lowest point is just 29 metres (95 ft) above sea level near Blackburn Meadows , while some parts of the city are at over 500 metres (1,640 ft); the highest point being 548 metres (1,798 ft) at High Stones , near Margery Hill . However, 79% of the housing in the city is between 100 and 200 metres (330 and 660 ft) above sea level.

Estimated to contain over two million trees, Sheffield
Sheffield
has more trees per person than any other city in Europe, and according to Sheffield
Sheffield
City Council, it is England's greenest city, a claim that was reinforced when it won the 2005 Entente Florale competition. It has over 170 woodlands (covering 10.91 sq mi or 28.3 km2), 78 public parks (covering 7.07 sq mi or 18.3 km2) and 10 public gardens. Added to the 52.0 square miles (134.7 km2) of national park and 4.20 square miles (10.9 km2) of water this means that 61% of the city is greenspace . Despite this, about 64% of Sheffield
Sheffield
householders live further than 300 metres (328 yd) from their nearest greenspace, although access is better in less affluent neighbourhoods across the city. Since 2012 there have been disputes between the city council and residents over the fate of the city's 36,000 highway trees, with 4,000 having been felled as part of the £2 billion Streets Ahead road improvement scheme.

Sheffield
Sheffield
also has a very wide variety of habitat , comparing favourably with any city in the United Kingdom: urban, parkland and woodland, agricultural and arable land, moors, meadows and freshwater-based habitats. There are six areas within the city that are designated as sites of special scientific interest .

The present city boundaries were set in 1974 (with slight modification in 1994), when the former county borough of Sheffield merged with Stocksbridge Urban District and two parishes from the Wortley Rural District . This area includes a significant part of the countryside surrounding the main urban region. Roughly a third of Sheffield
Sheffield
lies in the Peak District National Park . No other English city included parts of a national park within its boundary, until the creation in March 2010 of the South Downs National Park , part of which lies within Brighton and Hove . ‹ The template below (_Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

NEIGHBOURING TOWNS AND CITIES.

Huddersfield , Penistone Barnsley
Barnsley
, Leeds
Leeds
, Wakefield
Wakefield
Rotherham , Doncaster
Doncaster

Manchester
Manchester
, Glossop
Glossop

Worksop , Retford , Lincoln

SHEFFIELD

Buxton
Buxton
, Bakewell , Matlock Chesterfield
Chesterfield
, Dronfield , Derby
Derby
Mansfield
Mansfield
, Newark , Nottingham
Nottingham

CLIMATE

Like the rest of the United Kingdom, the climate in Sheffield
Sheffield
is generally temperate . The Pennines to the west of the city can create a cool, gloomy and wet environment, but they also provide shelter from the prevailing westerly winds, casting a "rain shadow" across the area. Between 1971 and 2000 Sheffield
Sheffield
averaged 824.7 millimetres (32.47 in) of rain per year; December was the wettest month with 91.9 millimetres (3.62 in) and July the driest with 51.0 millimetres (2.01 in). July was also the hottest month, with an average maximum temperature of 20.8 °C (69.4 °F). The average minimum temperature in January and February was 1.6 °C (34.9 °F), though the lowest temperatures recorded in these months can be between −10 and −15 °C (14 and 5 °F), although since 1960, the temperature has never fallen below −9.2 °C (15.4 °F), suggesting that urbanisation around the Weston Park site during the second half of the 20th century may prevent temperatures below −10 °C (14 °F) occurring.

The coldest temperature to be recorded in recent years was −8.2 °C (17.2 °F). (Note: The official Weston Park Weather Station statistics, which can also be viewed at Sheffield Central Library , has the temperature at −8.7 °C (16.3 °F), recorded on 20 December, and states that to be the lowest December temperature since 1981.)

The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city of Sheffield
Sheffield
at Weston Park , since records began in 1882, is −14.5 °C (5.9 °F), registered in February 1895. The lowest daytime maximum temperature in the city since records began is −5.6 °C (21.9 °F), also recorded in February 1895.

More recently, a −4.4 °C (24.1 °F) was recorded as a daytime maximum at Weston Park, on 20 December 2010.(from the Weston Park Weather Station statistics, which also can be viewed at Sheffield Central Library.)

On average, through the winter months of December to March, there are 67 days during which ground frost occurs.

CLIMATE DATA FOR SHEFFIELD CDL, ELEVATION: 131M (1981–2010) EXTREMES (1960–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 13.9 (57) 17.6 (63.7) 23.3 (73.9) 24.8 (76.6) 28.2 (82.8) 30.7 (87.3) 33.3 (91.9) 34.3 (93.7) 28.4 (83.1) 25.7 (78.3) 17.6 (63.7) 17.6 (63.7) 34.3 (93.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 7.1 (44.8) 9.8 (49.6) 12.5 (54.5) 16.1 (61) 18.8 (65.8) 21.1 (70) 20.6 (69.1) 17.7 (63.9) 13.5 (56.3) 9.5 (49.1) 6.9 (44.4) 13.4 (56.1)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 4.4 (39.9) 4.4 (39.9) 6.6 (43.9) 8.7 (47.7) 11.8 (53.2) 14.7 (58.5) 16.9 (62.4) 16.5 (61.7) 14.0 (57.2) 10.5 (50.9) 7.0 (44.6) 4.6 (40.3) 10.0 (50)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 1.9 (35.4) 1.7 (35.1) 3.3 (37.9) 4.8 (40.6) 7.5 (45.5) 10.5 (50.9) 12.7 (54.9) 12.4 (54.3) 10.3 (50.5) 7.5 (45.5) 4.5 (40.1) 2.3 (36.1) 6.6 (43.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −9.2 (15.4) −8.3 (17.1) −8.3 (17.1) −6.6 (20.1) −0.7 (30.7) 1.4 (34.5) 3.9 (39) 4.2 (39.6) 1.9 (35.4) −4.1 (24.6) −7.2 (19) −9.1 (15.6) −9.2 (15.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 83.4 (3.283) 60.4 (2.378) 63.4 (2.496) 65.5 (2.579) 53.8 (2.118) 75.6 (2.976) 56.0 (2.205) 65.3 (2.571) 63.8 (2.512) 81.2 (3.197) 79.4 (3.126) 86.7 (3.413) 834.6 (32.858)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 13.4 10.5 12.3 10.3 9.6 9.1 9.2 9.9 8.9 12.7 12.6 13.0 131.6

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 45.2 68.3 111.9 144.0 190.9 179.5 199.5 185.0 136.2 90.7 53.7 40.0 1,444.9

Source #1: Met Office
Met Office

Source #2: KNMI

The Weston Park Weather station, established in 1882, is one of the longest running weather stations in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It has recorded weather for more than 125 years, and a 2008 report showed that the climate of Sheffield
Sheffield
is warming faster than it has at any time during this period, with 1990 and 2006 being the hottest years on record. In collaboration with the Stockholm Environment Institute , Sheffield
Sheffield
developed a carbon footprint (based on 2004/05 consumption figures) of 5,798,361 tonnes per year. This compares to the UK's total carbon footprint of 698,568,010 tonnes per year. The factors with the greatest impact are housing (34%), transport (25%), consumer (11%), private services (9%), public services (8%), food (8%) and capital investment (5%). Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
has signed up to the 10:10 campaign.

SUBDIVISIONS

Main article: Areas of Sheffield

Sheffield
Sheffield
is made up of many suburbs and neighbourhoods, many of which developed from villages or hamlets that were absorbed into Sheffield
Sheffield
as the city grew. These historical areas are largely ignored by the modern administrative and political divisions of the city; instead it is divided into 28 electoral wards , with each ward generally covering 4–6 areas. These electoral wards are grouped into six parliamentary constituencies . Sheffield
Sheffield
is largely unparished , but Bradfield and Ecclesfield have parish councils, and Stocksbridge has a town council.

SKYLINE

Panorama of Sheffield
Sheffield
taken from Meersbrook Park

DEMOGRAPHY

Main article: Demography of Sheffield

POPULATION CHANGE

YEAR POP. ±%

1801 60,095 —

1821 84,540 +40.7%

1841 134,599 +59.2%

1861 219,634 +63.2%

1881 335,953 +53.0%

1901 451,195 +34.3%

1921 543,336 +20.4%

1941 569,884 +4.9%

1951 577,050 +1.3%

1961 574,915 −0.4%

1971 572,794 −0.4%

1981 530,844 −7.3%

1991 528,708 −0.4%

2001 513,234 −2.9%

2007 530,300 +3.3%

2011 551,800 +4.1%

The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2001 reported a resident population for Sheffield
Sheffield
of 513,234, a 2% decline from the 1991 census. The city is part of the wider Sheffield urban area , which had a population of 640,720. In 2011 the racial composition of Sheffield's population was 84% White (81% White British , 0.5% White Irish , 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Traveller , 2.3% Other White ), 2.4% of mixed race (1.0% White and Black Caribbean, 0.2% White and Black African, 0.6% White and Asian, 0.6% Other Mixed), 8% Asian (1.1% Indian , 4% Pakistani , 0.6% Bangladeshi , 1.3% Chinese , 1.0% Other Asian), 3.6% Black (2.1% African, 1% Caribbean , 0.5% Other Black ), 1.5% Arab and 0.7% of other ethnic heritage. In terms of religion, 53% of the population are Christian, 6% are Muslim, 0.6% are Hindu, 0.4% are Buddhist, 0.2% are Sikh, 0.1% are Jewish, 0.4% belong to another religion, 31% have no religion and 7% did not state their religion. The largest quinary group is 20- to 24-year-olds (9%) because of the large university student population.

The population of Sheffield
Sheffield
peaked in 1951 at 577,050, and has since declined steadily. However, the mid-2007 population estimate was 530,300, representing an increase of about 17,000 residents since 2001.

Although a city, Sheffield
Sheffield
is informally known as "the largest village in England
England
", because of a combination of topographical isolation and demographic stability. It is relatively geographically isolated, being cut off from other places by a ring of hills. (Local folklore insists that, like Rome, Sheffield
Sheffield
was built "on seven hills". ) The land surrounding Sheffield
Sheffield
was unsuitable for industrial use, and now includes several protected green belt areas. These topographical factors have served to restrict urban spread, resulting in a relatively stable population size and a low degree of mobility.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Sheffield
Economy of Sheffield
See also: List of companies in Sheffield
Sheffield

LABOUR PROFILE

Total employee jobs 255,700

Full-time 168,000 65.7%

Part-time 87,700 34.3%

Manufacturing 31,800 12.4%

Construction 8,500 3.3%

Services 214,900 84.1%

Distribution, hotels & restaurants 58,800 23.0%

Transport & communications 14,200 5.5%

Finance, IT, other business activities 51,800 20.2%

Public admin, education "> St Paul\'s Place , 2010. St Paul\'s Tower , the tallest building in Sheffield, is in the centre.

After many years of decline, the Sheffield
Sheffield
economy is going through a strong revival. The 2004 Barclays Bank
Barclays Bank
Financial Planning study revealed that, in 2003, the Sheffield
Sheffield
district of Hallam was the highest ranking area outside London for overall wealth , the proportion of people earning over £60,000 a year standing at almost 12%. A survey by Knight Frank revealed that Sheffield
Sheffield
was the fastest-growing city outside London for office and residential space and rents during the second half of 2004. This can be seen by the current surge of redevelopments, including the City Lofts Tower and accompanying St Paul\'s Place , Velocity Living and the Moor redevelopment, the forthcoming NRQ and the recently completed Winter Gardens , Peace Gardens , Millennium Galleries and many projects under the Sheffield One redevelopment agency. The Sheffield
Sheffield
economy grew from £5.6 billion in 1997 (1997 GVA) to £9.2 billion in 2007 (2007 GVA).

The "UK Cities Monitor 2008" placed Sheffield
Sheffield
among the top ten "best cities to locate a business today", the city occupying third and fourth places respectively for best office location and best new call centre location. The same report places Sheffield
Sheffield
in third place regarding "greenest reputation" and second in terms of the availability of financial incentives. The Bessemer Converter at Kelham Island Museum.

Sheffield
Sheffield
has an international reputation for metallurgy and steel-making. Many innovations in these fields have been made in Sheffield, for example Benjamin Huntsman discovered the crucible technique in the 1740s at his workshop in Handsworth . This process was rendered obsolete in 1856 by Henry Bessemer 's invention of the Bessemer converter
Bessemer converter
. Thomas Boulsover invented Sheffield
Sheffield
Plate (silver-plated copper) in the early 18th century. Stainless steel
Stainless steel
was invented by Harry Brearley in 1912, and the work of F. B. Pickering and T. Gladman throughout the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s was fundamental to the development of modern high-strength low-alloy steels. Further innovations continue, with new advanced manufacturing technologies and techniques being developed on the Advanced Manufacturing Park by Sheffield's universities and other independent research organisations. Organisations located on the AMP include the Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC, a research partnership between the Boeing Company and the University of Sheffield ), Castings Technology International (CTI), The Welding Institute
The Welding Institute
(TWI), and William Cook Group .

Forgemasters , founded in 1805, is the sole remaining independent steel works in the world and dominates the north east of Sheffield around the Lower Don Valley . The firm has a global reputation for producing the largest and most complex steel forgings and castings and is certified to produce critical nuclear components, with recent projects including the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
's Astute class submarines. The firm also has the capacity for pouring the largest single ingot (570 tonnes) in Europe and is currently in the process of expanding its capabilities.

While iron and steel have long been the main industries of Sheffield, coal mining has also been a major industry, particularly in the outlying areas, and the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
in London was built using limestone from quarries in the nearby village of Anston . Other areas of employment include call centres , the City Council
City Council
, universities and hospitals. Fargate shopping area

Sheffield
Sheffield
is a major retail centre, and is home to many High Street and department stores as well as designer boutiques. The main shopping areas in the city centre are on The Moor precinct, Fargate , Orchard Square
Orchard Square
and the Devonshire Quarter . Department stores in the city centre include John Lewis , Marks and Spencer
Marks and Spencer
, Atkinsons and Debenhams . Sheffield's main market was once Castle Market , built above the remains of the castle. This has since been demolished. Sheffield
Sheffield
Moor market opened in 2013. Shopping areas outside the city centre include the Meadowhall
Meadowhall
shopping centre and retail parks, Ecclesall Road , London Road , Hillsborough , Firth Park and the Crystal Peaks shopping centre. In a 2010 survey of forecast expenditure at retail centres in the United Kingdom, Meadowhall
Meadowhall
was ranked 12th and Sheffield City Centre 19th.

Sheffield
Sheffield
has a District Energy system that exploits the city's domestic waste, by incinerating it and converting the energy from it to electricity. It also provides hot water, which is distributed through over 25 miles (40 km) of pipes under the city, via two networks. These networks supply heat and hot water for many buildings throughout the city. These include not only cinemas, hospitals, shops and offices, but also universities ( Sheffield Hallam University and the University of Sheffield ), and residential properties. Energy generated in a waste plant produces 60 megawatts of thermal energy and up to 19 megawatts of electrical energy from 225,000 tonnes of waste.

In 2012, Sheffield City Region Enterprise Zone was launched to promote development in a number of sites in Sheffield
Sheffield
and across the wider region. In March 2014 additional sites were added to the zone.

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Sheffield

NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL

Sheffield railway station

Road

Sheffield
Sheffield
is linked into the national motorway network via the M1 and M18 motorways. The M1 skirts the north-east of the city, linking Sheffield
Sheffield
with London to the south and Leeds
Leeds
to the north, and crosses Tinsley Viaduct near Rotherham; the M18 branches from the M1 close to Sheffield, linking the city with Doncaster
Doncaster
, Robin Hood Doncaster Sheffield
Sheffield
Airport , and the Humber
Humber
ports. The Sheffield
Sheffield
Parkway connects the city centre with the motorways.

Rail

Major railway routes through Sheffield railway station include the Midland Main Line , which links the city to London via the East Midlands, the Cross Country Route
Cross Country Route
which links the East of Scotland and Northeast of England
England
with the West Midlands and the Southwest, and the lines linking Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester
Manchester
with Hull and East Anglia
East Anglia
. With the redevelopment of London St Pancras station (now St Pancras International ) complete, Sheffield
Sheffield
has a direct connection to continental Europe . East Midlands Trains run services to St Pancras International and Eurostar
Eurostar
run services from there to France and Belgium. The Master Cutler , a named passenger express train running from Sheffield railway station to London St Pancras, provides a direct connection to the capital.

The coalition government announced in October 2010 that Sheffield would be included in the proposed High Speed Rail network connecting the North of England
England
with London. The plan will see Sheffield
Sheffield
and Leeds
Leeds
served by the same line which will connect with another to Manchester
Manchester
just south of Birmingham, with London Euston station being the probable London terminus. Construction of the Yorkshire/East Midlands High Speed line is likely to begin 2025 and services begin operation in 2032.

Other trains serving Sheffield
Sheffield
(apart from East Midland Trains) are provided by CrossCountry
CrossCountry
, TransPennine Express
TransPennine Express
and Northern . Aside from the main railway station there are five other stations in Sheffield. Meadowhall
Meadowhall
, a bus, rail and tram interchange, is the second largest station and accommodates a number of services including the long distance CrossCountry
CrossCountry
service. Dore
Dore
and Totley , Woodhouse , Chapeltown and Darnall stations serve as commuter stations for suburban communities but are also connected to the national rail network . Railway station, Sheffield
Sheffield
2013

Coach

Coach services running through Sheffield
Sheffield
are operated by National Express and to a lesser extent Megabus , part of the Stagecoach Group . National Express services call at Sheffield Interchange , Meadowhall Interchange and Meadowhead Bus Stop. Megabus services only call at Meadowhall. National Express services 564, 560, 350, 320, 310 and 240 call at Sheffield, as do others on a less frequent basis. The 560/564 service is a direct connection to London Victoria Coach Station via Chesterfield
Chesterfield
and Milton Keynes , operating 12 times a day in both directions. The 350 and 240 services connect Sheffield
Sheffield
to Manchester Airport and Heathrow /Gatwick Airports respectively. Two Megabus services, the M12 and M20, call at Sheffield
Sheffield
en route to London from Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
and Inverness
Inverness
respectively.

Canal

The Sheffield
Sheffield
and South Yorkshire Navigation (S"> The Sheffield Parkway terminus at Park Square . The opposite end connects to the M1 motorway at Junction 33.

The A57 and A61 roads are the major trunk roads through Sheffield. These run east–west and north–south respectively, crossing in the city centre, from where the other major roads generally radiate spoke-like. An inner ring road , mostly constructed in the 1970s and extended in 2007 to form a complete ring, allows traffic to avoid the city centre, and an outer ring road runs to the east, south east and north, nearer the edge of the city, but does not serve the western side of Sheffield.

Sheffield
Sheffield
does not have as extensive a suburban and inter-urban railway network as other comparable British cities. However, there are several local rail routes running along the city's valleys and beyond, connecting it with other parts of South Yorkshire , West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
, Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and Derbyshire
Derbyshire
. These local routes include the Penistone Line , the Dearne Valley Line , the Hope Valley Line and the Hallam Line . As well as the main stations of Sheffield
Sheffield
and Meadowhall, there are five suburban stations, at Chapeltown , Darnall , Woodhouse , and Dore
Dore
and Totley . Sheffield Interchange

The Sheffield Supertram (not derived from the previous tramways ), operated by Stagecoach , opened in 1994, shortly after the similar Metrolink scheme in Manchester. Its network consists of 37 miles (60 km) of track and three lines, from Halfway to Malin Bridge (Blue Line), from Meadowhall
Meadowhall
to Middlewood (Yellow Line), and from Meadowhall
Meadowhall
to Herdings Park (Purple Line), with all three lines running via the city centre. The system contains both on-street and segregated running, depending upon the section and line.

The Supertram serves as an important connection between areas in the North East of Sheffield
Sheffield
(namely Meadowhall
Meadowhall
and Valley Centertainment ) and the city centre. Because it is operated by the Stagecoach Group , the ticketing system for the Supertram is integrated with Stagecoach buses in Sheffield, meaning passengers can switch between the two modes of transport without having to buy a separate ticket. The network is due to be extended to Rotherham Parkgate by 2017, with a fleet of new "train-trams" sharing a conventional rail line between Sheffield
Sheffield
and Rotherham.

Sheffield's local bus infrastructure has its main hub at Sheffield Interchange . Other bus stations lie at Halfway , Hillsborough and Meadowhall
Meadowhall
. A flurry of new operators was created after deregulation in 1986, though a series of mergers has reduced the number. A Sheffield Supertram

There are numerous bus operators within Sheffield: First South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, Stagecoach Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, TM Travel , Hulleys of Baslow , Powells , G one (the Northern route) via Meadowhall
Meadowhall
and Templeborough , and the other via the developing employment centre and Waverley .

Cycling

For cycling, although hilly, Sheffield
Sheffield
is compact and has few major trunk roads. It is on the Trans-Pennine Trail , a National Cycle Network route running from West to East from Southport
Southport
in Merseyside to Hornsea
Hornsea
in the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and North to South from Leeds
Leeds
in West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to Chesterfield
Chesterfield
in Derbyshire. There are many cycle routes going along country paths in the woods surrounding the city, though very few cycle lanes in the city itself.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Sheffield The Arts Tower , on the University of Sheffield campus Hallam Square and the entrance to Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam University's City Campus

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES

Sheffield
Sheffield
has two universities, the University of Sheffield and Sheffield Hallam University . The two combined bring about 60,000 students to the city every year. Sheffield
Sheffield
University was established in 1897 as University College Sheffield
Sheffield
and became the University of Sheffield in 1905.

Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) is a university on two sites in Sheffield. City Campus is located in the city centre, close to Sheffield
Sheffield
railway station, and Collegiate Crescent Campus is about two miles away, adjacent to Ecclesall Road in south-west Sheffield. The university is the third largest in the UK, with more than 37,000 students (of whom over 4,000 are international students), 4,170 staff and 747 courses. Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam University's history goes back to 1843 with the establishment of the Sheffield
Sheffield
School of Design. During the 1960s several independent colleges (including the School of Design) joined to become Sheffield
Sheffield
Polytechnic ( Sheffield
Sheffield
City Polytechnic from 1976) and was finally renamed Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam University in 1992.

Sheffield
Sheffield
has three main further education providers, The Sheffield College , Longley Park Sixth Form College and Chapeltown Academy . The Sheffield College is organised on a federal basis and was originally created from the merger of six colleges around the city, since reduced to just four: Sheffield
Sheffield
City (formerly Castle) near the city centre, Hillsborough, serving the north of the city and Norton and Peaks to the south.

SECONDARY, PRIMARY AND PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in Sheffield

There are 137 primary schools, 26 secondary schools – of which 10 have sixth forms : (High Storrs , King Ecgberts , King Edward VII , Silverdale , Meadowhead , Tapton , UTC Sheffield , Notre Dame Catholic High , Bradfield and All Saints Catholic High ) – and a sixth-form college, Longley Park Sixth Form College . The city's five independent private schools include Birkdale School
Birkdale School
and the Sheffield High School . There are also 12 special schools and a number of Integrated Resource Units in mainstream schools which are, along with all other schools, managed by Sheffield
Sheffield
City Council. All schools are non-selective, mixed sex schools (apart from Sheffield
Sheffield
High School which is an all-girls school). The Early Years Education and Childcare Service of Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
manages 32 nurseries and children's centres in the city.

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Sheffield Bramall Lane , the home of Sheffield
Sheffield
United , is close to the city centre

Sheffield
Sheffield
has a long sporting heritage. In 1857 a collective of cricketers formed the world's first-ever official football club, Sheffield F.C. , and the world's second-ever, Hallam F.C. , who also play at the world\'s oldest football ground in the suburb of Crosspool . Sheffield
Sheffield
and Hallam are today Sheffield's two major non-league sides, although Sheffield
Sheffield
now play just outside the city in nearby Dronfield , Derbyshire. Sheffield
Sheffield
and Hallam contest what has become known as the Sheffield
Sheffield
derby. By 1860 there were 15 football clubs in Sheffield, with the first ever amateur league and cup competitions taking place in the city. Hillsborough , the home of Sheffield Wednesday , is the city's largest stadium with a capacity of just under 40,000

Sheffield
Sheffield
is best known for its two professional football teams, Sheffield
Sheffield
United , known locally as The Blades, and Sheffield Wednesday , known locally as The Owls. United, who play at Bramall Lane south of the city centre, and Wednesday, who play at Hillsborough in the north west of the city, both now compete in the Football League Championship following United's promotion from League One and Wednesday's failure to advance in the Championship Play-Offs at the end of the 2016-17 season . The two clubs contest the Steel
Steel
City Derby , which is considered by many to be one of the most fierce football rivalries in English Football. In the pre-war era, both Wednesday and United enjoyed large amounts of success and found themselves two of the country's top clubs; Sheffield Wednesday have been champions of the Football League four times - in 1902–03 , 1903–04 , 1928–29 and 1929–30 , whilst Sheffield
Sheffield
United have won it once, in 1897–98 . During the 1970s and early 1980s the two sides fell from grace, with Wednesday finding themselves in the Third Division by the mid 70s and United as far as the Fourth Division in 1981 . Wednesday once again became one of England's high-flying clubs following promotion back to the First Division in 1984 , winning the League Cup in 1991 , competing in the UE FA Cup
FA Cup
in 1992–93 , and reaching the final of both the League Cup and FA Cup
FA Cup
in the same season . United and Wednesday were both founding members of the Premier League in 1992, but The Blades were relegated in 1994 . The Owls remained until 2000 . Both clubs have gone into decline in the 21st century, Wednesday twice relegated to League One and United suffering the same fate in 2011 , despite a brief spell in the Premier League in 2006–07 . Sheffield Wednesday's new owner Dejphon Chansiri is aiming for promotion back to the Premier League, which has currently resulted in two unsuccessful Play-Off campaigns but increased league standings. Brazilian legend Pelé (left) in Sheffield
Sheffield
in November 2007, marking the 150th anniversary of the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F.C.

Sheffield
Sheffield
was the site of the deadliest sports venue disaster in the United Kingdom, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, when 96 Liverpool supporters were killed in a stampede and crush during an FA Cup
FA Cup
semi final at the venue.

Rotherham United , who play in League One, did play their home games in the city between 2008 and 2012, having moved to play at Sheffield's Don Valley Stadium in 2008 following a dispute with their previous landlord at their traditional home ground of Millmoor , Rotherham. However, in July 2012, the club moved to the new 12,000 seat New York Stadium in Rotherham, whilst United and Wednesday contest the Steel City derby . There are also facilities for golf, climbing and bowling, as well as a newly inaugurated national ice-skating arena ( IceSheffield ).

Sheffield Eagles RLFC are the city's professional Rugby league
Rugby league
team who play their matches at Owlerton Stadium . They currently play in the second tier of the professional league, the Championship and are current champions, having won back to back titles in 2012 and 2013. Their most successful moment came in 1998, when, against all the odds they defeated Wigan in the Challenge Cup final, despite being huge underdogs. The team then hit troubled times before reforming in 2003. Since then they have played their rugby in the Championship (second tier). In 2011, they made the playoffs finishing in fifth place. They made the Grand Final, by defeating Leigh , who were huge favourites in a playoff semi final. In the final, they were comprehensively beaten by Featherstone Rovers . Sheffield
Sheffield
also put in a bid to be a host city for the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, but their bid was unsuccessful.

Sheffield
Sheffield
is also home to the Sheffield Steelers ice hockey team who play out of the 8,500 seater Sheffield Arena . They play in the 10 team professional Elite Ice Hockey League
Elite Ice Hockey League
. Many of Sheffield's sporting facilities were built for the World Student Games , which the city hosted in 1991, including Sheffield Arena and the Ponds Forge international diving and swimming complex. Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge
is also the home of Sheffield City Swimming Club , a local swimming club competing in the Speedo league. The former Don Valley International Athletics Stadium , once the largest athletics stadium in the UK, was also constructed for the Universiade
Universiade
games. The Sheffield Ski Village was the largest artificial ski resort in Europe, before being destroyed in a series of suspected arson attacks in 2012 and 2013. The city also has two indoor climbing centres. Sheffield
Sheffield
was the UK's first National City of Sport and is now home to the English Institute of Sport – Sheffield
Sheffield
, where British athletes trained for the 2012 Olympics.

Sheffield
Sheffield
also has close ties with snooker , with the city's Crucible Theatre being the venue for the World Snooker
Snooker
Championships . The English Institute of Sport hosts most of the top fencing competitions each year, including the National Championships for Seniors, Juniors (U20's) and Cadets (U17's) as well as the 2011 Senior European Fencing Championships. The English squash open is also held in the city every year. The International Open and World Matchplay Championship bowls tournaments have both been held at Ponds Forge
Ponds Forge
. The city also hosts the Sheffield
Sheffield
Tigers rugby union , Sheffield Sharks basketball, Sheffield
Sheffield
University Bankers hockey , Sheffield Steelers ice hockey and Sheffield
Sheffield
Tigers speedway teams. Sheffield
Sheffield
also has many golf courses all around the city. English Institute of Sport, Sheffield
Sheffield

Sheffield
Sheffield
was selected as a candidate host city by the Football Association (FA) as part of the English 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bid on 16 December 2009. Hillsborough Stadium was chosen as the proposed venue for matches in Sheffield. The bid failed.

The National Hockey League 's Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
was made in Sheffield
Sheffield
in 1892. Sheffield
Sheffield
is also home to the Sheffield
Sheffield
Steel
Steel
Rollergirls , a roller derby team.

Sheffield
Sheffield
hosted the finish of Stage 2 of the 2014 Tour de France . Within the City limits and located just 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the finish, was the ninth and final climb of the stage, the Category
Category
4 Côte de Jenkin Road. The one point in the King of the Mountains Competition was claimed by Chris Froome
Chris Froome
of Team Sky. The climb was just 0.8 kilometres (0.50 mi) long at an average gradient of 10.8%. The stage was won by the eventual overall winner, Vincenzo Nibali
Vincenzo Nibali
of Astana Pro Team.

CULTURE AND ATTRACTIONS

Main article: Culture of Sheffield

Sheffield
Sheffield
made the shortlist for the first city to be designated UK City of Culture , but in July 2010 it was announced that Derry
Derry
had been selected.

ATTRACTIONS

Main article: Visitor attractions in Sheffield Bishops' House The Grade II* listed Weston Park Museum

The Sheffield
Sheffield
Walk of Fame in the City Centre honours famous Sheffield
Sheffield
residents past and present in a similar way to the Hollywood version. Sheffield
Sheffield
also had its own Ferris Wheel known as the Wheel of Sheffield
Sheffield
, located atop Fargate shopping precinct. The Wheel was dismantled in October 2010 and moved to London's Hyde Park. Heeley City Farm and Graves Park are home to Sheffield's two farm animal collections, both of which are fully open to the public.

There are about 1,100 listed buildings in Sheffield
Sheffield
(including the whole of the Sheffield
Sheffield
postal district ). Of these, only five are Grade I listed. Fifty-nine are Grade II*, but the overwhelming majority are listed as Grade II. Compared to other English cities, Sheffield
Sheffield
has few buildings with the highest Grade I listing: Liverpool
Liverpool
, for example, has 26 Grade I listed buildings . This situation led the noted architecture historian Nikolaus Pevsner , writing in 1959, to comment that the city was "architecturally a miserable disappointment", with no pre-19th-century buildings of any distinction. By contrast, in November 2007, Sheffield's Peace and Winter Gardens beat London\'s South Bank to gain the Royal Institute of British Architects ' Academy of Urbanism "Great Place" Award, as an "outstanding example of how cities can be improved, to make urban spaces as attractive and accessible as possible". In the summer of 2016 a public art event across the city occurred called the Herd of Sheffield
Sheffield
which raised £410,000 for the Sheffield
Sheffield
Children\'s Hospital .

MUSIC

See also: List of musicians from Sheffield Sheffield Arena

Sheffield
Sheffield
has been home to several well-known bands and musicians, with a notably large number of synthpop and other electronic bands originating from the city. These include The Human League , Heaven 17 , ABC and the more industrially inclined Cabaret Voltaire "> Sheffield
Sheffield
City Hall, a Grade II* listed building

In 1999, the National Centre for Popular Music , a museum dedicated to the subject of popular music , was opened in the city. It was not as successful as was hoped, however, and later evolved to become a live music venue; then in February 2005, the unusual steel-covered building became the students\' union for Sheffield Hallam University . Live music venues in the city include the Harley Hotel, Leadmill , West Street Live, the Boardwalk , Dove & Rainbow, The Casbah, The Cremorne , Corporation , New Barrack Tavern, The Broadfield Hotel, Redstone bar and nightclub, the City Hall , the University of Sheffield
Sheffield
Students\' Union , the Studio Theatre at the Crucible Theatre , the O2 Academy Sheffield and The Grapes .

Sheffield
Sheffield
hosts a number of festivals, the Grin Up North Sheffield Comedy Festival, the Sensoria Music "> The Crucible Theatre (centre) and Lyceum Theatre (right)

Sheffield
Sheffield
has two large theatres, the Lyceum Theatre and the Crucible Theatre , which together with the smaller Studio Theatre make up the largest theatre complex outside London, located in Tudor Square . The Crucible Theatre
Crucible Theatre
is the home (since 1977) of the World Snooker Championships and hosts many well-known stage productions throughout the year. The Lyceum, which opened in 1897, serves as a venue for touring West End productions and operas by Opera North, as well as locally produced shows. Sheffield
Sheffield
also has the Montgomery Theatre , a small 420 seater theatre located a short distance from Tudor Square, opposite the town hall on Surrey Street. There are also a large number of smaller amateur theatres scattered throughout the city.

MUSEUMS

Sheffield's museums are managed by two distinct organisations. Museums Sheffield manages the Weston Park Museum (a Grade II* listed Building), Millennium Galleries and Graves Art Gallery . Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust manages the museums dedicated to Sheffield's industrial heritage of which there are three. Kelham Island Museum (located just to the North of the city centre) showcases the city's history of steel manufacturing. Abbeydale Industrial Hamlet (in the south of the city) is a Grade I Listed building
Listed building
and a Scheduled Ancient Monument . Shepherd Wheel (in the south-East of the city) is a former water-powered grinding workshop , Grade II listed and a Scheduled Ancient Monument.

GREENSPACE

Sheffield Winter Gardens "> Sheffield Winter Garden
Sheffield Winter Garden
– inside 2013

Also within the city there are a number of nature reserves which when combined occupy 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of land. There are also 170 woodland areas within the city, 80 of which are classed as ancient.

The South West boundary of the city overlaps with the Peak District National Park , the first national park in England
England
(est. 1951). As a consequence, several communities actually reside within both entities. The Peak District is home to many notable, natural, features and also man-made features such as Chatsworth House , the setting for the BBC series _ Pride and Prejudice
Pride and Prejudice
_.

Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
has created a new chain of parks spanning the hill side behind Sheffield Station . The park, known as Sheaf Valley Park , has an open-air amphitheatre and will include an arboretum. The site was once home to a medieval deer park, latterly owned by the Duke of Norfolk .

ENTERTAINMENT

The Oasis food court at Meadowhall Centre
Meadowhall Centre

Sheffield
Sheffield
has six cinema complexes, four of which are in the city centre and a further two in the Lower Don Valley. One of these complexes is located at Valley Centertainment , a leisure and entertainment complex in the Don Valley . It was built on land previously occupied by steel mills near what is now Meadowhall
Meadowhall
and the Sheffield
Sheffield
Arena. It is home to several restaurants, bars, a cinema multiplex and a bowling alley . It is also the largest Cineworld complex in the United Kingdom, containing 20 screens in one building. Odeon Sheffield , situated on Arundel Gate in the city Centre and Vue , located within Meadowhall
Meadowhall
Shopping Centre, are the two other mainstream cinemas in the city. The Showroom , an independent cinema showing non-mainstream productions, is located in Sheaf Square , close to Sheffield station . In 2002 the Showroom was voted as the best Independent cinema in the country by _Guardian_ readers. A Curzon Cinemas complex has also recently opened in the city centre, close to the existing Odeon complex. The cinema is based in the former Sheffield
Sheffield
Banking Company building, located just off Arundel Gate. The cinema features 4K resolution projectors and was opened in January 2015.

Sheffield
Sheffield
has a thriving poetry and spoken word scene: from Wordlife\'s events across the city to the sustained work of Sheffield Authors; from the vibrant monthly arts night, Verse Matters, at the Moor Theatre Deli to the longstanding work of The Poetry Business, there's always opportunities for new and experienced writers to get writing and to share their work.

Owing to its long history, Sheffield
Sheffield
has a large number of pubs throughout the city. West Street, running through the heart of the West End district of the city centre, is home to many pubs, bars and clubs and attracts many student visitors. A recent addition to the city's nightlife is Leopold Square , situated just off the northern end of West Street. Aagrah, an Indian restaurant in the square which serves Kashmiri cuisine , has recently been voted "Best Restaurant Group in the UK" at the prestigious British Curry Awards .

MEDIA AND FILM

Sheffield
Sheffield
has two commercial newspapers, _The Star _ and _Sheffield Telegraph _, both published by Johnston Press PLC . _The Star_ has been published daily since 1897; the _ Sheffield
Sheffield
Telegraph_, now a weekly publication, originated in 1855.

Sheffield
Sheffield
has its own TV station; Sheffield
Sheffield
Live TV , a not-for-profit company which began broadcasting on 23 September 2014. SLTV has been awarded a 12-year licence to provide the digital terrestrial broadcasting service. Regional broadcasters BBC Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Television also cover the city. Five local radio stations broadcast in the city. The professional services are BBC Radio Sheffield , the independent Hallam FM and its sister station Magic AM . Sheffield
Sheffield
is also home to two FM licensed community radio stations: Sheffield
Sheffield
Live 93.2, and Burngreave Community Radio on 103.1.

Sheffield
Sheffield
Hospital Radio (Hospital Broadcasting Sheffield) broadcasts a 24-hour service to the Royal Hallamshire, Jessop Wing, Northern General and Weston Park Hospital and also offers a dedicated patient visiting service. The charity is operated by volunteers from studios at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital
Royal Hallamshire Hospital
and is provided free to bedside terminals via Hospedia and on medium wave 1431am from a transmitter at the Northern General Hospital.

The films and plays _ The Full Monty _, _ Threads _, _Looks and Smiles _, _When Saturday Comes _, _ Whatever Happened to Harold Smith? _, _The History Boys _ and _ Four Lions
Four Lions
_ are set in the city. _ F.I.S.T. _, _ Kill List _ and _The Princess Bride _ also include several scenes filmed in Sheffield
Sheffield
and a substantial part of _ Among Giants _ was filmed in the city. The documentary festival Sheffield Doc/Fest has been run annually since 1994 at the Showroom Cinema , and in 2007 Sheffield
Sheffield
hosted the Awards of the International Indian Film Academy .

FOLK CULTURE

Sheffield
Sheffield
has a thriving folk music, song and dance community. Singing and music sessions occur weekly in many pubs around the city and it also hosts the annual Sheffield
Sheffield
Sessions Festival. The University of Sheffield runs a number of courses and research projects dedicated to folk culture.

The tradition of singing carols in pubs around Christmas is still kept alive in the city. The Sheffield
Sheffield
Carols, as they are known locally, predate modern carols by over a century and are sung with alternative words and verses. Although there is a core of carols that are sung at most venues, each particular place has its own mini-tradition. The repertoire at two nearby places can vary widely, and woe betide those who try to strike up a ‘foreign’ carol. Some are unaccompanied, some have a piano or organ, there is a flip chart with the words on in one place, a string quartet (quintet, sextet, septet) accompanies the singing at another, some encourage soloists, others stick to audience participation, a brass band plays at certain events, the choir takes the lead at another. It is thought this tradition is now unique in Britain.

The city is home to thirteen morris dance teams - thought to be one of the highest concentration of sides in the country. Nearly all forms of the dance are represented in the city, including Cotswold (Five Rivers Morris, Pecsaetan Morris, Harthill Morris, Lord Conyer's Morris Men, Sheffield
Sheffield
City Morris, William Morris ), border (Boggart's Breakfast ), North West ( Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Chandelier, Silkstone Greens, Lizzie Dripping ), rapper ( Sheffield
Sheffield
Steel
Steel
Rapper ) and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Longsword .

PUBLIC SERVICES

The Royal Hallamshire Hospital
Royal Hallamshire Hospital

Sheffield
Sheffield
is policed by South Yorkshire Police (a territorial police force ) whose headquarters are in the city. Sheffield
Sheffield
constitutes one of its four Basic Command Units (Barnsley, Doncaster
Doncaster
and Rotherham being the other three). The force polices an area of approximately 1,554 square kilometres and is the 13th largest force in England, Wales and Northern Ireland . The force has in its possession one Police helicopter
Police helicopter
, known as Sierra Yankee 99.

Medical services in Sheffield
Sheffield
are provided by three NHS Foundation Trusts. Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust provides healthcare to people (primarily adults) throughout Sheffield
Sheffield
and South Yorkshire. The trusts title includes the word 'teaching' because it undertakes training of medical students at the University of Sheffield and has strong links to Sheffield Hallam University as well. The trust has two campuses: The West Campus containing the Royal Hallamshire Hospital , the Jessop Wing (maternity wing), Weston Park Hospital (specialist cancer treatment) and Charles Clifford Dental Hospital. The Northern General Hospital is the second 'campus' and is a large facility in the northern suburbs of Sheffield, containing the city's A">

Council owned/run buildings are maintained by Kier Group Sheffield
Sheffield
in partnership with the council.

SISTER CITIES

The " Sheffield
Sheffield
International Linking Committee" promotes Sheffield overseas, especially with five sister cities :

* Chengdu
Chengdu
, China * Anshan
Anshan
, China * Bochum
Bochum
, Germany * Donetsk
Donetsk
, Ukraine * Estelí , Nicaragua

A further four cities have a Friendship Agreement with Sheffield:

* Kawasaki , Japan * Kitwe , Zambia * Kotli , Pakistan-administered Kashmir * Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
, United States

Two roads in Sheffield
Sheffield
have been named after sister cities; a section of the A6102 in Norton is named Bochum
Bochum
Parkway, and a road in Hackenthorpe is named Donetsk
Donetsk
Way. Likewise in Bochum, Germany
Germany
there is a major road called the Sheffield-Ring.

SEE ALSO

* Book: Sheffield
Sheffield

* Yorkshire
Yorkshire
portal

* List of metropolitan areas in Europe * List of people from Sheffield * List of pubs in Sheffield * People of Sheffield * Timeline of Sheffield history

REFERENCES AND NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "British Urban Pattern: Population Data (Epson)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. * ^ The mid-mid-2016 est. population for the whole City of Sheffield
Sheffield
was 575,400 according to the Office for National Statistics ("Population Estimates for UK, England
England
and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2016". Office for National Statistics . 22 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. ), though some population figures, like those given at List of English cities by population , use just the urban core of the city and are therefore lower. * ^ "Sheffield". Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. * ^ "Income & Wealth". Sheffield City Council
Sheffield City Council
. 30 November 2007. Archived from the original on 21 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "City Profile Introduction". Sheffield
Sheffield
City Council. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013. * ^ editor, Helen Pidd North of England
England
(28 November 2016). " Sheffield
Sheffield
trees dispute prompts \'scenes you\'d expect in Putin\'s Russia\'". _The Guardian_. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 4 August 2017. * ^ "\'End tree protests or face prison and damages\' - Sheffield Council\'s warning to campaigners". _ Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Post_. Retrieved 4 August 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Rawcliffe, Jonathan (24 June 2015). " Pelé joins Sheffield
Sheffield
celebrations". _ BBC
BBC
News_. BBC. * ^ Pike, Alistair W.G.; Gilmour, Mabs; Pettitt, Paul; Jacobid, Roger; Ripoll, Sergio; Bahn, Paul; Muñoz, Francisco (2005). "Verification of the age of the Palaeolithic cave art at Creswell Crags, UK". _Journal of Archaeological Science_. 32 (11): 1649–1655. doi :10.1016/j.jas.2005.05.002 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Vickers, J. Edward (1999). _Old Sheffield
Sheffield
Town. An Historical Miscellany_ (2nd ed.). The Hallamshire Press Limited. ISBN 1-874718-44-X . * ^ Cox, Tony (2003). "The Ancient Kingdom of Elmet". _The Barwicker_. 39: 43. Retrieved 17 July 2010. * ^ The word _Wales_ derives from the Germanic word _ Walhaz _, and was originally used by the Anglo-Saxons to refer to the native Britons. In reference to the villages of Wales and Waleswood, S.O. Addy , in his _A Glossary of Words Used in the Neighbourhood of Sheffield_, p. 274, states "The Anglo-Saxon invaders or settlers called the old inhabitants or aborigines of this country wealas, or foreigners." See also, "Welsh" in Simpson, Jacqueline; Roud, Stephen (1989). _ Oxford English Dictionary _. Clarendon Press
Clarendon Press
. ISBN 0-19-210019-X . * ^ In an entry dated 827, the _ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle _ states "Egbert led an army against the Northumbrians as far as Dore, where they met him, and offered terms of obedience and subjection, on the acceptance of which they returned home" (transcription). Most sources (for example Vickers, _Old Sheffield
Sheffield
Town_) state that the date given in the chronicle is incorrect, and that 829 is the more likely date for this event. * ^ Fry, Plantagenet Somerset (1990). _The Kings & Queens of England
England
& Scotland_. Grove Atlantic Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-8021-1386-9 .

* ^ Hunter, Joseph (1819). " Sheffield
Sheffield
under De Busli and De Lovetot ". _ Hallamshire
Hallamshire
: The History and Topography of the Parish of Sheffield
Sheffield
in the County of York_. Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mayor, and Jones. pp. 24–29. * ^ "Markets history – 1700s and before". Sheffield
Sheffield
City Council. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 7 October 2008. * ^ Geoffrey Chaucer in The Reeve\'s Tale from his book _The Canterbury Tales _ wrote: "Ther was no man, for peril, dorste hym touche. A Sheffeld thwitel baar he in his hose. Round was his face, and camus was his nose" * ^ Hey, David (1997). "The Establishment of the Cutlers Company". In Binfield, Clyde; Hey, David. _Mesters to Masters: a History of the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire_. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. pp. 12–25. ISBN 0-19-828997-9 . * ^ Leader, John Daniel (1880). _Mary queen of Scots in captivity: a narrative of events from January 1569, to December, 1584, whilst George Earl of Shrewsbury was the guardian of the Scottish Queen_. Leader & Sons. ISBN 1-177-40664-0 . OCLC
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57701910 . * ^ Tweedale, Geoffrey (1986). "Metallurgy and Technological Change: A Case Study of Sheffield
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Specialty Steel
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University Press. pp. 306–419. ISBN 0-521-78432-8 . * ^ "History of the Lord Mayor". Sheffield
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City Council. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2013. * ^ Harrison, Samuel (1864). _A complete history of the great flood at Sheffield
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on March 11 & 12, 1864_. S. Harrison. ISBN 0-904293-01-7 . OCLC
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Sheffield
City Libraries. ISBN 0-900660-55-4 . OCLC
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7273086 . * ^ Taylor, Ian R.; Evans, Karen; Fraser, Penny (1996). "The catastrophic decline of Sheffield's industrial district". _A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England
England
: a study in Manchester
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and Sheffield_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 63–72. ISBN 0-415-13829-9 . * ^ "SI (Chris Knight, Keith Tyssen and Brett Payne) with Keiko Mukaide \'Cutting Edge\', 2006". _Public Art Research Archive_. Sheffield
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Hallam University. Retrieved 15 March 2007. * ^ Price, David (2008). "Blunkett and the Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire". _ Sheffield
Sheffield
Troublemakers: Rebels and Radicals in Sheffield
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History_. Phillimore & Co. Ltd. pp. 149–160. ISBN 978-1-86077-569-7 . * ^ "Introducing Museums Sheffield". _ Museums Sheffield website_. Sheffield
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Galleries & Museums Trust. Archived from the original on 21 June 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009. * ^ "About SIMT". _ Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust website_. Sheffield
Sheffield
Industrial Museums Trust. Retrieved 15 July 2010. * ^ Harston, Jonathan G. " Sheffield
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Parliamentary Boundary Review". _MDFS_. Jonathan G. Harston. Retrieved 18 July 2010. * ^ Harston, Jonathan G. (2005). "The borders of Sheffield
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from 1843 to 1994". MDFS. Retrieved 26 December 2005. * ^ "Greenstructure and Urban Planning – Case Study – Sheffield, UK". _Greenstructures and Urban Planning_. European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2010. * ^ It is often stated that Sheffield
Sheffield
is built on seven hills (for an example, see George Orwell 's _ The Road to Wigan Pier _). However, a study by J.G.Harston found there to be eight. * ^ Meierhans, Jennifer (19 March 2017). "Where is England\'s steepest street?". _ BBC
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News_. Retrieved 19 March 2017. * ^ Beer, A. R. (2000). " Sheffield
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Sheffield
City Council. Retrieved 11 August 2006. * ^ "Gardens and Open Spaces". Sheffield
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City Council. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ Barbosa, O; Tratalos, Jamie A.; Armsworth, Paul R.; Davies, Richard G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Johnson, Pat; Gaston, Kevin J. (2007). "Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK.". _Landscape and Urban Planning_. 83 (2–3): 187–195. doi :10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.04.004 . * ^ " Sheffield
Sheffield
residents are involved bitter row with the council over tree-felling". _The Independent_. 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015. * ^ "A dawn raid, dissenters silenced: is this a war on trees?". _The Guardian_. 21 November 2016. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 22 November 2016. * ^ editor, Helen Pidd North of England
England
(28 November 2016). " Sheffield
Sheffield
trees dispute prompts \'scenes you\'d expect in Putin\'s Russia\'". _The Guardian_. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 4 August 2017. * ^ "\'End tree protests or face prison and damages\' - Sheffield Council\'s warning to campaigners". _ Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Post_. Retrieved 4 August 2017. * ^ "About Us – Trees & Woodlands Section". Sheffield
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extreme values". KNMI . Retrieved 8 November 2011. * ^ Boon, Gaynor. "Whatever the Weather Changing Climate Changing Cultures" (PDF). Museums Sheffield. Retrieved 13 August 2010. * ^ "Sheffield\'s Carbon Footprint". Sheffield
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Is My Planet_. Sheffield City Council. Retrieved 7 July 2010. * ^ "Sheffield\'s Ward Boundaries". Sheffield
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Census 2001. " Sheffield
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(Local Authority)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 11 July 2007. * ^ "Usual Resident population: Census 2001, Key statistics for urban areas". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original (XLS File) on 28 June 2011. * ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England
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and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 12 December 2012. * ^ "2011 Census: Religion, local authorities in England
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and Wales". _ United Kingdom
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Census 2011_. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 12 December 2012. * ^ "Mid-2005 Population Estimates; Quinary
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age groups and sex for Primary Care Organisations (PCOs) for England; estimated resident population (experimental). On boundaries as at 1 October 2006". _National Statistics_. Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2007. * ^ "Population estimates for UK, England
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and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland". _National Statistics Online_. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 22 July 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Baldwin, John; Bottoms, A.E; Walker, Monica A. (1976). _The urban criminal: a study in Sheffield_. Social science paperbacks. 159. Taylor & Francis. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-422-74870-4 . * ^ Binfield, Clyde, ed. (1993). _The History of the City of Sheffield, 1843–1993: Society_. 2. Sheffield
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University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-19-215321-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Taylor, Ian R.; Evans, Karen; Fraser, Penny (1996). _A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England
England
: a study in Manchester
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and Sheffield_. International library of sociology. Routledge. pp. 28, 87–88. ISBN 978-0-415-13828-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Mann, Peter H. (1965). _An approach to urban sociology_. International library of sociology and social reconstruction (2nd ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-7100-3453-3 . * ^ "Wealth hotspots \'outside London\'". BBC
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\'hotbed\' for investment". BBC
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News. 6 November 2005. Retrieved 4 January 2010. * ^ "Metamorphosis of The Moor". _ Sheffield
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Sheffield
for metallurgy, and in particular steel and cutlery manufacture. Some examples are: the Oxford English Dictionary , which begins its entry for _Sheffield_, "The name of a manufacturing city of Yorkshire, famous for cutlery"; and the _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_, which in its entry for "Sheffield" states that by 1830 Sheffield
Sheffield
had earned "recognition as the world centre of high-grade steel manufacture". David Hey in the preface to his 1997 book _Mesters to Masters: A History of the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire._ (Oxford University Press , ISBN 0-19-828997-9 ) states "It (Sheffield) was known for its cutlery wares long before the incorporation of the Cutlers\' Company in 1624, and long before it acquired an international reputation as the steel capital of the world." * ^ Mezenin, N. (1972). "Huntsman". _Metallurgist_. Springer. 16 (7): 510–512. doi :10.1007/BF00731738 . * ^ " Harry Brearley 1871–1948". _Tilt Hammer_. Archived from the original on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2006. * ^ Llewellyn, D.T.; Hudd, Roger C. (1998). _Steels: metallurgy and applications_. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 196–290. ISBN 0-7506-3757-9 . * ^ Rae, Bob (25 January 2008). "Hi-tech centre celebrates a year of success". _The Star_. Retrieved 21 July 2009. * ^ "The AMP". _ Advanced Manufacturing Park website_. Advanced Manufacturing Park. Retrieved 13 October 2013. * ^ Rebecca. "Leading cast steel engineering group becomes latest Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre partner". _amrc.co.uk_. The University of Sheffield Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre. Retrieved 24 June 2016. * ^ "Leading cast steel engineering group becomes latest Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre partner". _attheamp.com_. Advanced Manufacturing Park. Retrieved 24 June 2016. * ^ "History: 19th century". Sheffield Forgemasters International. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010. * ^ "Overview – Sheffield Forgemasters International Ltd.". Sheffield Forgemasters International. Retrieved 26 August 2010. * ^ " Steel
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forgings, steel castings and engineering solutions". Sheffield Forgemasters International. Retrieved 24 August 2011. * ^ Taylor, Ian R.; Evans, Karen; Fraser, Penny (1996). "Shop 'Til You Drop: The 'Nice Shops' and the Markets in Manchester
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and Sheffield". _A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England: a study in Manchester
Manchester
and Sheffield_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 115–162. ISBN 0-415-13829-9 . * ^ "Old market site to come down by end of the year". * ^ "Retail Footprint 2010 reveals Britain\'s shopping successes and strugglers". CACI Ltd . 21 May 2010. Archived from the original on 18 June 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010. * ^ Pierce, Morris A. (1996). " Sheffield
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and South Yorkshire". BBC
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