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A regent (from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state '' pro tempore'' (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
: 'for the time being') because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, abdicated the throne, is incapacitated or dead, or unable to discharge the powers and duties of the monarchy.'' Oxford English Dictionary'' The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ''ad hoc'' or in accordance with a constitutional rule. ''Regent'' is sometimes a formal title granted to a monarch's most trusted advisor or personal assistant. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term '' prince regent'' is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as '' queen regent'' or ''
empress dowager Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) () is the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually b ...
''. If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out. This was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic countries, Nordic island country in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, with a population of 356,991 and an area of , making it the most list of countries and dependencies by population density, spars ...
, the regent represented the
King of Denmark The Monarchy of Denmark is a constitutional political system, institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark. The Kingdom includes Denmark proper, as well as the autonomous administrative division, autonomous countries of the Fa ...
as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the
Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish–Lithuanian can refer to: * Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) * Polish-Lithuanian identity as used to describe groups, families, or individuals with histories in the Polish–Lithuania ...
(1569–1795), kings were elective, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic primate (the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Gniezno, archbishop of Gniezno) who served as the regent, termed the (
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
: ruler 'between kings' as in ancient Rome). In the small republic of San Marino, the two captains regent, or , are elected semi-annually (they serve a six-month term) as joint heads of state and of government. Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent, later George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as Regency era and Regency architecture. Strictly this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, though when used as a period label it generally covers a wider period. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans was Regent of France from the death of Louis XIV in 1715 until Louis XV came of age in 1723; this is also used as a period label for many aspects of French history, as in French, again tending to cover a rather wider period than the actual regency. For a period of a month and a half, the Second French Empire was a regency. The Napoleon III, Emperor departed with his army, giving his political powers to his wife who essentially carried out all his roles and even sent him orders. He would never be able to return to France, and the empire ended as a regency 2 days after his defeat and imprisonment at the Battle of Sedan. The equivalent Greek term is (), meaning overseer. Liechtenstein (under Alois, Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein) is the only country with an active regency.


Other uses

The term regent may refer to positions lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations, typically as an equivalent of "director", and held by all members of a governing board rather than just the equivalent of the chief executive. Some university managers in North America are called regents and a management board for a college or university may be titled the "Board of Regents" . In New York (state), New York State, all activities related to public and private education (P-12 (education), P-12 and Higher education, postsecondary) and professional licensure are administered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, the appointed members of which are called regents. The term "regent" is also used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France and Belgium. In the Dutch Republic, the members of the ruling class, not formally hereditary but forming a de facto patrician (post-Roman Europe), patrician class, were informally known collectively as ''regenten'' (the Dutch language, Dutch plural for ''regent'') because they typically held positions as "regent" on the boards of town councils, as well as charitable and civic institutions. The regents group portrait, ''regentenstuk'' or ''regentessenstuk'' for female boards in Dutch language, Dutch, literally "regents' piece", is a group portrait of the board of trustees, called regents or regentesses, of a charitable organization or guild. This type of group portrait was popular in Dutch Golden Age painting during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized 'state' as a ''regentschap'' (see that term). Consequently, in the successor state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English language, English to mean a ''bupati'', the head of a ''kabupaten'' (second level local government). Again in Belgium and France (''régent'' in French, or in Dutch), "regent" is the official title of a teacher in a lower secondary school (junior high school), who does not require a college degree but is trained in a specialized ''école normale'' (normal school). In the Philippines specifically, the University of Santo Tomas the Father Regent, who must be a Dominican Order, Dominican priest and is often also a teacher, serves as the institution's spiritual head. They also form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is an individual training to be a Jesuit and who has completed his novitiate and philosophy studies, but has not yet progressed to theology studies. A regent in the Jesuits is often assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final chickens.


See also

*Interregnum queen *Queen mother *Empress dowager *Queen dowager *List of regents *Regency Acts *Viceroy, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf *Governor-General


References

{{Authority control Regency (government), Regents, Heads of state Titles Monarchy