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Barony
A modern GEOGRAPHIC BARONY, in Scotland, Ireland
Ireland
and outlying parts of England, constitutes an administrative division of a country, usually of lower rank and importance than a county . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Surviving examples * 2.1 England
England
* 2.2 Scotland * 2.3 Ireland
Ireland
* 2.4 Norway
Norway
* 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINA geographic barony is a remnant from mediaeval times of the area of land held under the form of feudal land tenure termed feudal barony, or barony by tenure, either an English feudal barony , a Scottish feudal barony or an Irish feudal barony , which all operated under different legal and social systems
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Baronage
The BARONAGE is the collectively inclusive term denoting all members of the feudal nobility , as observed by the constitutional authority Edward Coke
Edward Coke
. It was replaced eventually by the term peerage . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Obligation to attend parliament * 3 Replacement by peerage * 4 Surviving vestiges * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References ORIGINThe term originated at a time when there was only one substantive degree of nobility, that of the feudal baron . The feudal baron held his lands directly from the king as a tenant-in-chief by the feudal land tenure per baroniam. This gave him the obligation to provide knights and troops for the royal feudal army. Barons could hold other executive offices apart from the duties they owed the king as a tenants-in-chief , such as an earldom
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Baronetcy
A BARONET (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/ ; abbreviated BART or BT ) or the rare female equivalent, a BARONETESS (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/ , /ˈbærənɪtɛs/ , or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/ ; abbreviation "Btss"), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage , with the exception of the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Black Knight
Knight
, White Knight
Knight
and Green Knight
Knight
(of which only the Green Knight
Knight
is extant)
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Administrative Division
An ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION, UNIT, ENTITY, AREA or REGION, also referred to as a SUBNATIONAL ENTITY, CONSTITUENT UNIT, or COUNTRY SUBDIVISION, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration . Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments . Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. For example, a country may be divided into provinces , which, in turn, are divided into counties , which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities ; and so on. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories , with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control
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County
A COUNTY is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes, in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French _conté_ or _cunté_ denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl ) or a viscount . The modern French is _comté_, and its equivalents in other languages are _contea_, _contado_, _comtat_, _condado_, _Grafschaft_, _graafschap_, _Gau_, etc. (cf. _conte _, _comte_, _conde_, _ Graf _). When the Normans conquered England , they brought the term with them. The Saxons had already established the districts that became the historic counties of England , calling them shires (many county names derive from the name of the county town (county seat ) with the word "shire" added on: for example, Gloucestershire and Worcestershire ). The Vikings introduced the term earl (from Old Norse, _jarl_) to the British Isles
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Feudal Land Tenure
Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto. Such tenures could be either free-hold, signifying that they were hereditable or perpetual, or non-free where the tenancy terminated on the tenant's death or at an earlier specified period. The main varieties are as follows: CONTENTS * 1 Military tenure * 2 Non-military tenure * 3 Uncategorised * 4 References MILITARY TENURE(Generally freehold) * BY BARONY (per baroniam). Such tenure constituted the holder a feudal baron , and was the highest degree of tenure. It imposed duties of military service and required attendance at parliament . All such holders were necessarily tenants-in-chief . * BY KNIGHT-SERVICE . This was a tenure ranking below barony, and was likewise for military service, of a lesser extent
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English Feudal Barony
In the kingdom of England , a FEUDAL BARONY or BARONY BY TENURE was the highest degree of feudal land tenure , namely _per baroniam_ (Latin for "by barony") under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons cannot now be defined exactly, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament . If the estate-in-land held by barony contained a significant castle as its _caput baroniae _ and if it was especially large – consisting of more than about 20 knight\'s fees (each loosely equivalent to a manor ) – then it was termed an "honour ". This type of barony must be distinguished from a barony, also feudal, which existed within a county palatine , such as the barony of Halton within the Palatinate of Chester
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Scottish Feudal Barony
In Scotland
Scotland
, a Baron
Baron
is the head of a "feudal" barony (also known as PRESCRIPTIVE BARONY). This used to be attached to a particular piece of land on which was the "caput" (Latin meaning 'head'), or the essence of the barony , normally a building, such as a castle or manor house. Accordingly, the owner of the piece of land containing the "caput" was the Baron
Baron
or Baroness
Baroness
. The Court of the Lord Lyon issued a new ruling April 2015 that recognises a person possessing the dignity of baron and other feudal titles (Lordship/Earl/Marquis). Lord Lyon now prefers the approach of recognizing the particular feudal noble dignity as expressed in the Crown Charter that the petitioner presents. These titles are recognised as the status of a minor baron but not a peer. Scottish feudal baronies may be passed to any person, of either sex, by inheritance or conveyance
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Irish Feudal Barony
An IRISH FEUDAL BARONY was a customary title of nobility: the holder was always referred to as a Baron
Baron
, but was not the holder of a peerage , and had no right to sit in the Irish House of Lords . In 1614 the Dublin
Dublin
Government noted that there were "diverse gentlemen" in Ireland
Ireland
who were called Baron, yet: "Never was any of them Lord Baron
Baron
nor summoned to any Parliament". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 List of Irish feudal baronies (incomplete) * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References HISTORYIn Ireland
Ireland
, most originally-feudal titular baronies have long disappeared through obsolescence or disuse
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Count
COUNT (male) or COUNTESS (female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility. The word _count_ came into English from the French _comte_, itself from Latin _comes _—in its accusative _comitem_—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an English term). Alternative names for the "count" rank in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as _ Graf _ in Germany and _ Hakushaku _ during the Japanese Imperial era
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Earl
An EARL /ɜːrl/ is a member of the nobility . The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form JARL, and meant "chieftain ", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced by duke (_hertig_/_hertug_/_hertog_). In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to a duke ; in Scotland it assimilated the concept of mormaer ). However, earlier in Scandinavia, _jarl_ could also mean a sovereign prince . For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of _jarl_ and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "Earl/Count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the _hakushaku_ of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era
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Feudalism In England
FEUDALISM as practiced in the Kingdom of England was a state of human society which was formally structured and stratified on the basis of land tenure and the varieties thereof. Society was thus ordered around relationships derived from the holding of land, which landholdings are termed "fiefdoms , fiefs, or fees". These political and military customs existed in medieval Europe, having developed around 700 A.D., flourished up to about the first quarter of the 14th century and declined until their legal abolition in England with the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Classic English feudalism * 3 Vassalage * 4 Varieties of feudal tenure * 4.1 Military tenure * 4.2 Non-military tenure * 5 See also * 6 References and sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word _feudal_ derives from an ancient Gothic source _faihu_ signifying simply "property" which in its most basic sense was "cattle"
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Tenures Abolition Act 1660
THE TENURES ABOLITION ACT 1660 (12 Car 2 c 24), sometimes known as the STATUTE OF TENURES, was an Act of the Parliament of England
Parliament of England
which changed the nature of feudal land tenure in England. The long title of the Act was An act for taking away the Court of Wards and liveries, and tenures in capite, and by knights-service, and purveyance, and for settling a revenue upon his Majesty in lieu thereof. This Act was partly in force in Great Britain at the end of 2010
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Counties Of England
COUNTIES OF ENGLAND are areas used for the purposes of administrative, geographical, cultural or political demarcation. For administrative purposes, England outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties . These counties may consist of a single district or be divided into several districts. As of April 2009, 27 of these counties are divided into districts and have a county council . Six of the counties, covering the major conurbations , are known as metropolitan counties , which do not have county councils, although some functions are organised on a county-wide basis by their districts (metropolitan boroughs ) acting jointly. All of England (including Greater London and the Isles of Scilly) is also divided into 48 ceremonial counties , which are also known as geographic counties
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Westmorland
WESTMORLAND (/ˈwɛstmərlənd/ ; formerly also spelt Westmoreland; even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is an area of North West England and one of the 39 historic counties of England . It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974, when it was dissolved, after which the whole county was administered by the new administrative county of Cumbria
Cumbria
. In 2013, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government , Eric Pickles , formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Westmorland
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries
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