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Barony
A modern GEOGRAPHIC BARONY, in Scotland, Ireland
Ireland
and outlying parts of England, constitutes an administrative division of a country, usually of lower rank and importance than a county . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Surviving examples * 2.1 England
England
* 2.2 Scotland * 2.3 Ireland
Ireland
* 2.4 Norway
Norway
* 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINA geographic barony is a remnant from mediaeval times of the area of land held under the form of feudal land tenure termed feudal barony, or barony by tenure, either an English feudal barony , a Scottish feudal barony or an Irish feudal barony , which all operated under different legal and social systems. Just as modern counties are no longer under the administrative control of a noble count or earl , geographic baronies are generally no longer connected with feudal barons, certainly not in England
England
where such tenure was abolished with the whole feudal system by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 . The position in Scotland is more complex, although the legal force of the Scottish feudal baron was abolished early in the 21st century
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Baronage
The _BARONAGE_ is the collectively inclusive term denoting all members of the feudal nobility , as observed by the constitutional authority Edward Coke . It was replaced eventually by the term _peerage _. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Obligation to attend parliament * 3 Replacement by peerage * 4 Surviving vestiges * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References ORIGINThe term originated at a time when there was only one substantive degree of nobility, that of the feudal baron . The feudal baron held his lands directly from the king as a tenant-in-chief by the feudal land tenure _per baroniam_. This gave him the obligation to provide knights and troops for the royal feudal army. Barons could hold other executive offices apart from the duties they owed the king as a tenants-in-chief , such as an earldom . Immediately after the Norman Conquest of 1066 a very few barons held the function of earldom , then not considered as a separate degree of nobility _per se_. An earl was at that time the highest executive office concerned with the administration of a shire . The earl held higher responsibilities than the sheriff (from shire-reeve). In Latin, a sheriff was referred to as _vice-comes_, meaning a deputy-count, that is to say a deputy-earl, "count" being the Norman-French term for the Anglo-Saxon "Earl". This later developed into the English peerage title of viscount
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Baronetcy
A BARONET (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/ ; abbreviated BART or BT ) or the rare female equivalent, a BARONETESS (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/ , /ˈbærənɪtɛs/ , or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/ ; abbreviation "Btss"), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage , with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight , White Knight and Green Knight (of which only the Green Knight is extant). A baronet is addressed as "Sir" (just as is a knight ) or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence , except for the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle (and the dormant Order of St Patrick ). Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven; currently the Official Roll of the Baronetage is overseen by the Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom) . In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families (some Peers are also Baronets), which is roughly 0.01% of UK families
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Administrative Division
An ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION, UNIT, ENTITY, AREA or REGION, also referred to as a SUBNATIONAL ENTITY, CONSTITUENT UNIT, or COUNTRY SUBDIVISION, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration . Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments . Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. For example, a country may be divided into provinces , which, in turn, are divided into counties , which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities ; and so on. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories , with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control. However, the term "administrative division" can include dependent territories as well as accepted administrative divisions (for example, in geographical databases ). For clarity and convenience the standard neutral reference for the largest administrative subdivision of a country is called the "first-level administrative division" or "first administrative level". Next smaller is called "second-level administrative division" or "second administrative level"
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County
A COUNTY is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes, in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French _conté_ or _cunté_ denoting a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of a count (earl ) or a viscount . The modern French is _comté_, and its equivalents in other languages are _contea_, _contado_, _comtat_, _condado_, _Grafschaft_, _graafschap_, _Gau_, etc. (cf. _conte _, _comte_, _conde_, _ Graf _). When the Normans conquered England , they brought the term with them. The Saxons had already established the districts that became the historic counties of England , calling them shires (many county names derive from the name of the county town (county seat ) with the word "shire" added on: for example, Gloucestershire and Worcestershire ). The Vikings introduced the term earl (from Old Norse, _jarl_) to the British Isles. Thus, the Anglo-Saxon's "earl" and "earldom" were taken as equivalent to the continental use of "count" and "county" under the conquering Normans, and over time the two blended and became equivalent terms
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Feudal Land Tenure
Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto. Such tenures could be either free-hold, signifying that they were hereditable or perpetual, or non-free where the tenancy terminated on the tenant's death or at an earlier specified period. The main varieties are as follows: CONTENTS * 1 Military tenure * 2 Non-military tenure * 3 Uncategorised * 4 References MILITARY TENURE(Generally freehold) * BY BARONY (_per baroniam_). Such tenure constituted the holder a feudal baron , and was the highest degree of tenure. It imposed duties of military service and required attendance at parliament . All such holders were necessarily tenants-in-chief . * BY KNIGHT-SERVICE . This was a tenure ranking below barony, and was likewise for military service, of a lesser extent. It could be held _in capite _ from the king or as a _mesne _ tenancy from a tenant-in-chief. * BY CASTLE-GUARD . This was a form of military service which involved guarding a nearby castle for a specified number of days per year. * BY SCUTAGE where the military service obligations had been commuted, or replaced, by money payments.NON-MILITARY TENURE * BY SERJEANTY . Such tenure was in return for acting as a servant to the king, in a non-military capacity
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English Feudal Barony
In the kingdom of England , a FEUDAL BARONY or BARONY BY TENURE was the highest degree of feudal land tenure , namely _per baroniam_ (Latin for "by barony") under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons cannot now be defined exactly, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament . If the estate-in-land held by barony contained a significant castle as its _caput baroniae _ and if it was especially large – consisting of more than about 20 knight\'s fees (each loosely equivalent to a manor ) – then it was termed an "honour ". This type of barony must be distinguished from a barony, also feudal, which existed within a county palatine , such as the barony of Halton within the Palatinate of Chester
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Scottish Feudal Barony
In Scotland , a Baron is the head of a "feudal" barony (also known as PRESCRIPTIVE BARONY). This used to be attached to a particular piece of land on which was the "caput" (Latin meaning 'head'), or the essence of the barony , normally a building, such as a castle or manor house. Accordingly, the owner of the piece of land containing the "caput" was the Baron or Baroness . The Court of the Lord Lyon issued a new ruling April 2015 that recognises a person possessing the dignity of baron and other feudal titles (Lordship/Earl/Marquis). Lord Lyon now prefers the approach of recognizing the particular feudal noble dignity as expressed in the Crown Charter that the petitioner presents. These titles are recognised as the status of a minor baron but not a peer. Scottish feudal baronies may be passed to any person, of either sex, by inheritance or conveyance. Scotland has a distinct legal system within the United Kingdom . Historically, in the Kingdom of Scotland , the Lord Lyon King of Arms , as the Sovereign’s Minister in matters armorial, is at once Herald and Judge
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Irish Feudal Barony
An IRISH FEUDAL BARONY was a customary title of nobility: the holder was always referred to as a Baron , but was not the holder of a peerage , and had no right to sit in the Irish House of Lords . In 1614 the Dublin Government noted that there were "diverse gentlemen" in Ireland who were called Baron, yet: "Never was any of them Lord Baron nor summoned to any Parliament". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 List of Irish feudal baronies (incomplete) * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References HISTORYIn Ireland , most originally-feudal titular baronies have long disappeared through obsolescence or disuse. The Lordship of Fingal was granted to Walter de Lacy, Lord of Meath for seven knight's fees, "although the lords thereof hold elsewhere in capite", according to the unusual grant in 1208 by King John as Lord of Ireland , who allowed de Lacy to retain custody of his fees. Fingal at the time spread from the River Liffey to the River Delvin, north of Dublin, similar to the administrative boundary of today's County Fingal (minus Dublin City) created from part of County Dublin in 1994
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Count
COUNT (male) or COUNTESS (female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility. The word _count_ came into English from the French _comte_, itself from Latin _comes _—in its accusative _comitem_—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an English term). Alternative names for the "count" rank in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as _ Graf _ in Germany and _ Hakushaku _ during the Japanese Imperial era
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Earl
An EARL /ɜːrl/ is a member of the nobility . The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form JARL, and meant "chieftain ", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced by duke (_hertig_/_hertug_/_hertog_). In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to a duke ; in Scotland it assimilated the concept of mormaer ). However, earlier in Scandinavia, _jarl_ could also mean a sovereign prince . For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of _jarl_ and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "Earl/Count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the _hakushaku_ of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era . In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage , ranking below a marquess and above a viscount . A feminine form of _earl_ never developed; instead, _countess_ is used
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Feudalism In England
FEUDALISM as practiced in the Kingdom of England was a state of human society which was formally structured and stratified on the basis of land tenure and the varieties thereof. Society was thus ordered around relationships derived from the holding of land, which landholdings are termed "fiefdoms , fiefs, or fees". These political and military customs existed in medieval Europe, having developed around 700 A.D., flourished up to about the first quarter of the 14th century and declined until their legal abolition in England with the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Classic English feudalism * 3 Vassalage * 4 Varieties of feudal tenure * 4.1 Military tenure * 4.2 Non-military tenure * 5 See also * 6 References and sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word _feudal_ derives from an ancient Gothic source _faihu_ signifying simply "property" which in its most basic sense was "cattle". This can be compared to the very ancient classical Latin word _pecunia_, which means both cattle and money. Many societies in existence today demonstrate the traditional use of cattle as financial currency, for example the Masai of Kenya, who pay dowries in this form. Because feudalism was in its origin a Teutonic or Gothic system from northern Europe untouched by Roman civilization, it did not exist in ancient Rome, where the nearest equivalent was clientelism
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Tenures Abolition Act 1660
THE TENURES ABOLITION ACT 1660 (12 Car 2 c 24), sometimes known as the STATUTE OF TENURES, was an Act of the Parliament of England which changed the nature of feudal land tenure in England. The long title of the Act was _An act for taking away the Court of Wards and liveries, and tenures in capite, and by knights-service, and purveyance, and for settling a revenue upon his Majesty in lieu thereof_. This Act was partly in force in Great Britain at the end of 2010. though only section 4: _And that all tenures hereafter to be created by the Kings Majestie his Heires or Successors upon any gifts or grants of any Mannours Lands Tenements or Hereditaments of any Estate of Inheritance at the common Law shall be in free and common Soccage, and shall be adjudged to be in free and common Soccage onely, and not by Knight service or in Capite, and shall be discharged of all Wardship value and forfeiture of Marriage Livery Primer-Seizin Ouster le main Aide pur faier fitz Chivalier the duty was placed on the manufactured beverage, and not the raw tea or coffee, treating it in much the same way as beer or spirits. The Act also let a father, by will, designate a guardian for his children. The rights of this guardian superseded those of the children's mother
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Counties Of England
COUNTIES OF ENGLAND are areas used for the purposes of administrative, geographical, cultural or political demarcation. For administrative purposes, England outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties . These counties may consist of a single district or be divided into several districts. As of April 2009, 27 of these counties are divided into districts and have a county council . Six of the counties, covering the major conurbations , are known as metropolitan counties , which do not have county councils, although some functions are organised on a county-wide basis by their districts (metropolitan boroughs ) acting jointly. All of England (including Greater London and the Isles of Scilly) is also divided into 48 ceremonial counties , which are also known as geographic counties. Most ceremonial counties correspond to a metropolitan or non-metropolitan county of the same name but often with reduced boundaries. The current arrangement is the result of incremental reform. Many of the counties have their origins in the Middle Ages , although the larger counties of Yorkshire and Sussex lost many or all of their administrative functions centuries ago. The geographic counties which existed before the local government reforms of 1965 and 1974 are referred to as ancient counties or historic counties
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Westmorland
WESTMORLAND (/ˈwɛstmərlənd/ ; formerly also spelt Westmoreland; even older spellings are Westmerland and Westmereland) is an area of North West England and one of the 39 historic counties of England . It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974, when it was dissolved, after which the whole county was administered by the new administrative county of Cumbria
Cumbria
. In 2013, the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government , Eric Pickles , formally recognised and acknowledged the continued existence of England's 39 historic counties, including Westmorland. CONTENTS* 1 Early history * 1.1 Division into wards * 2 Modern history * 3 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
* 4 Legacy * 5 Notable people * 6 Surnames * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY HISTORYAt the time of Domesday Book
Domesday Book
in 1086, parts of the county were considered either to form part of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
or to be within the separate Kingdom of Strathclyde . The Normans conquered the area that is now Cumbria
Cumbria
in 1092 during the reign of William II and created the baronies of Kendal and Westmorland. These were originally distinct jurisdictions with separate sheriffs, but were formed into a single county of Westmorland
Westmorland
in 1226/7
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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