Baron is a title of honour, often hereditary. The female equivalent is
2 Continental Europe
2.4 The Low Countries
2.5 The Nordic Countries
3 The United Kingdom and Ireland
3.2 Irish Barons
3.4 Style of address
3.5 Scottish feudal baronies
3.5.1 Chapeau and helm
3.5.2 Style of address
5 See also
The word baron comes from the
Old French baron, from a
Late Latin baro
"man; servant, soldier, mercenary" (so used in Salic Law; Alemannic
Law has barus in the same sense). The scholar
Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville in
the 7th century thought the word was from Greek βαρύς "heavy"
(because of the "heavy work" done by mercenaries), but the word is
Old Frankish origin, cognate with Old English beorn
meaning "warrior, nobleman". Cornutus in the first century already
reports a word barones which he took to be of Gaulish origin. He
glosses it as meaning servos militum and explains it as meaning
"stupid", by reference to classical Latin bārō "simpleton,
dunce"; because of this early reference, the word has also been
suggested to derive from an otherwise unknown Celtic *bar, but the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary takes this to be "a figment".
During the Ancien Régime, French baronies were very much like
Scottish ones. Feudal landholders were entitled to style themselves
baron if they were nobles; a roturier (commoner) could only be a
seigneur de la baronnie (lord of the barony). These baronies could be
sold freely until 1789 when feudal law was abolished. The title of
baron was assumed as a titre de courtoisie by many nobles, whether
members of the
Nobles of the Robe
Nobles of the Robe or cadets of
Nobles of the Sword who
held no title in their own right.
Napoléon created a new
empire nobility, in which baron was the second lowest title. The
titles followed a male-only line of descent and could not be
purchased. In 1815,
Louis XVIII created a new peerage system
based on the British model. Baron-peer was the lowest title, but the
heirs to pre-1789 barons could remain barons, as could the elder sons
of viscount-peers and younger sons of count-peers. This peerage system
was abolished in 1848.
Main article: Freiherr
Germany all the knightly families of the Holy Roman
Empire (sometimes distinguished by the prefix von or zu) eventually
were recognised as of baronial rank, although
Ritter is the literal
translation for "knight", and persons who held that title enjoyed a
distinct, but lower, rank in Germany's nobility than barons
(Freiherren). The wife of a
Freiherr (Baron) is called a Freifrau or
sometimes Baronin, his daughter Freiin or sometimes Baroness.
Families which had always held this status were called Uradel
('primordial/ancient/original nobility'), and were heraldically
entitled to a three pointed coronet. Families which had been ennobled
at a definite point in time (Briefadel or "nobility by patent") had
seven points on their coronet. These families held their fief in
vassalage from a suzerain. The holder of an allodial (i.e.,
suzerain-free) barony was thus called a Free Lord, or Freiherr.
Subsequently, sovereigns in
Germany conferred the title of
a rank in the nobility, without implication of allodial or feudal
Today, as of 1919 on, there is no legal privilege associated with
hereditary titles in Germany. In modern, republican Germany, Freiherr
Baron remain heritable only as part of the legal surname (and may
thereby be transmitted by males to their wives and children, without
implication of nobility). As opposed to this, hereditary titles have
been banned completely in Austria. Thus, a member of the formerly
House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg or any other member of the former nobility
would in most cases simply be addressed as "Herr/Frau (Habsburg)" in
an official/public surrounding, for instance in the media. Still, in
both countries, honorary styles like "His/her (Imperial/Royal)
Highness", "Serenity", etc. persists in social use as a form of
Liechtenstein (where German is the official
language), barons remain members of the recognized nobility, and the
sovereigns retain authority to confer the title (morganatic cadets of
the princely dynasty received the title
Baron of Lanskron, using both
"Freiherr" and "Baron" for different members of this branch.)
Generally, all legitimate males of a German baronial family inherit
Baron from birth, as all legitimate daughters
inherit the title of Freiin or Baroness. As a result, German barons
have been more numerous than those of such countries where
primogeniture with respect to title inheritance prevails (or
prevailed) as France and the United Kingdom.
In Italy, barone was the lowest rank of feudal nobility except for
that of signore or vassallo (lord of the manor). The title of baron
was most generally introduced into southern Italy (including Sicily)
by the Normans during the 11th century. Whereas originally a barony
might consist of two or more manors, by 1700 we see what were formerly
single manors erected into baronies, counties or even marquisates.
Since the early 1800s, when feudalism was abolished in the various
Italian states, it has often been granted as a simple hereditary title
without any territorial designation or predicato. The untitled younger
son of a baron is a nobile dei baroni and in informal usage might be
called a baron, while certain baronies devolve to heirs male general.
Since 1948 titles of nobility have not been recognised by the Italian
state. In the absence of a nobiliary or heraldic authority in Italy
there are, in fact, numerous persons who claim to be barons or counts
without any basis for such claims.
Baron and noble (nobile) are
hereditary titles and, as such, could only be created or recognised by
the kings of Italy or (before 1860) the pre-unitary Italian states
such as the Two Sicilies, Tuscany, Parma or Modena, or by the Holy See
(Vatican) or the Republic of San Marino. Beginning around 1800, a
number of signori (lords of the manor) began to style themselves
barone but in many cases this was not sanctioned legally by decree,
while there was even less justification in the holder of any large
(non-feudal) landed estate calling himself a baron. Nevertheless, both
were common practices. In most of peninsular Italy the widespread
medieval introduction of the title was Longobardic, while in Sicily
and Sardinia it was coeval with Norman rule some centuries later, and
one referred to the baronage when speaking of landed nobles generally.
The heraldic coronet of an Italian baron is a jewelled rim of gold
surmounted by seven visible pearls, set upon the rim directly or upon
stems; alternately, the French style coronet (entwined in a string of
small pearls, with or without four bigger visible pearls set upon the
rim) is used.
The Low Countries
In the medieval era, some allodial and enfiefed lands held by nobles
were created or recognized as baronies by the Holy Roman Emperors,
within whose realm most of the
Low Countries lay. Subsequently, the
Habsburgs continued to confer the baronial title in the Southern
Netherlands, first as kings of Spain and then, again, as emperors
until abolition of the Holy Roman Empire, but these had become titular
elevations rather than grants of new territory.
Netherlands after 1815, titles of baron authorized by previous
monarchs (except those of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland) were
usually recognized by the Dutch kings. But such recognition was not
automatic, having to be authenticated by the Supreme Council of
Nobility and then approved by the sovereign. This ceased to be
possible after the Dutch constitution was revised in 1983. More than
one hundred Dutch baronial families have been recognized. The title is
usually inherited by all males descended patrilineally from the
original recipient of the title, although in a few noble families
baron is the title of cadet family members, while in a few others it
is heritable according to primogeniture.
After its secession in 1830, Belgium incorporated into its nobility
all titles of baron borne by Belgian citizens which had been
recognized by the
Netherlands since 1815. In addition, its monarchs
have since created or recognized other titles of baron, and the
sovereign continues to exercise the prerogative to confer baronial and
other titles of nobility.
Baron is the third lowest title within the
nobility system above Chevalier/Ridder and below Viscount. There are
still a number of families in Belgium that bear the title of baron.
Luxembourg's monarch retains the right to confer the baronial title.
Two of the grand duchy's prime ministers inherited baronial titles
that were used during their tenures in office,
Victor de Tornaco
Victor de Tornaco and
Félix de Blochausen.
The Nordic Countries
In Norway, king
Magnus VI of Norway
Magnus VI of Norway (1238–1280) replaced the title
Lendmann with Baron, but in 1308
Haakon V abolished the title.
The present corresponding title is
Baron in the
Danish nobility and in
the Norwegian nobility, Friherre (
Baron is used orally, while it is
written as Friherre) in the Swedish nobility, and Vapaaherra in the
nobility of Finland.
In the beginning, Finnish nobles were all without honorific
titulature, and known simply as lords. Since the Middle Ages, each
head of a noble family had been entitled to a vote in any of Finland's
provincial diets whenever held, as in the realm's Herrainpäivät,
Aatelissääty of the Riksdag of the Estates. In 1561, Sweden's
Eric XIV granted the hereditary titles of count and vapaaherra to
some of these, but not all. Although their cadet family members were
not entitled to vote or sit in the Riksdag, they were legally entitled
to the same title as the head of the family, but in customary address
they became Paroni or Paronitar. Theoretically, in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, families elevated to vapaaherra status were
granted a barony in fief, enjoying some rights of taxation and
judicial authority. Subsequently, the "barony" was titular, usually
attached to a family property, which was sometimes entailed. Their
exemptions from taxes on landed properties continued into the
twentieth century, although in the nineteenth century tax reforms
narrowed this privilege. Nobility creations continued until 1917, the
end of Finland's grand ducal monarchy.
Muscovite Russia had no traditional baronial titles of its own; they
were introduced in early
Imperial Russia by Peter the Great. In the
hierarchy of nobility introduced by Peter the Great, barons
(барон) ranked above untitled nobility and below counts (граф
graf). The styles "Your Well-born" (Rus. Ваше
благородие) and "Master Baron" (Rus. Господин
барон) were used to address a Russian baron.
There were two main groups of nobility which held the baronial title.
One was the Baltic German nobility, for which Russia merely recognized
their pre-existing titles; the other was new barons created by the
Emperors of Russia post 1721. Like in many other countries, new
baronial titles were often created by ennoblement of rich bourgeoisie.
The title of baron, along with the rest of the noble hierarchy, was
abolished in December 1917 after the Bolshevik Revolution; however,
certain leaders of the White movement like
Baron Peter Wrangel and
Roman von Ungern-Sternberg continued to use the title until the end of
the Russian Civil War.
In Spain the title follows Vizconde in the noble hierarchy, and ranks
above Señor. Baronesa is the feminine form, for the wife of a baron
or for a woman who has been granted the title in her own right. In
general, titles of baron created before the nineteenth century
originate from the Crown of Aragon. Barons lost territorial
jurisdiction around the middle of the nineteenth century, and from
then on the title became purely honorific. Although most barons have
not held the rank of grandeza as well, the title has been conferred in
conjunction with the grandeza. The sovereign continues to grant
The United Kingdom and Ireland
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In the Peerage of England, the Peerage of Great Britain, the Peerage
of Ireland and the
Peerage of the United Kingdom (but not in the
Peerage of Scotland) barons form the lowest rank, placed immediately
below viscounts. A female of baronial rank has the title baroness. In
the kingdom of England, the medieval Latin word baro, baronis was used
originally to denote a tenant-in-chief of the early Norman kings who
held his lands by the feudal tenure of "barony" (in Latin per
baroniam), and who was entitled to attend the Great Council (Magnum
Concilium) which by the 13th century had developed into the Parliament
of England. Feudal baronies (or "baronies by tenure") are now
England and without any legal force but any such
historical titles are held in gross, that is to say are deemed to be
enveloped within a more modern extant peerage title also held by the
holder, sometimes along with vestigial manorial rights and tenures by
William I introduced the rank of baron in
England to distinguish those
men who had pledged their loyalty to him under the feudal system.
Previously, in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England, the king's
companions held the title of earl and in Scotland, the title of thane.
All who held their feudal barony "in-chief of the king", that is with
the king as his immediate overlord, became alike barones regis
("barons of the king"), bound to perform a stipulated annual military
service, and obliged to attend his council. Eventually the greatest of
the nobles, especially those in the marches, such as the Earls of
Chester or the Bishops of Durham, whose territories were often deemed
palatine, that is to say "worthy of a prince", might refer to their
own tenants as "barons", where lesser magnates spoke simply of their
The robe worn by a baron during his creation ceremony in 17th-century
Britain, engraved by Wenceslas Hollar.
Initially those who held land directly from the king by military
service, from earls downwards, all bore alike the title of baron,
which was thus the factor uniting all members of the ancient baronage
as peers one of another. Under
King Henry II, the Dialogus de
Scaccario already distinguished between greater barons, who held per
baroniam by knight's service, and lesser barons, who held manors.
Technically, Lords of Manors are barons, or freemen, however they are
not entitled to be styled as such.
John Selden in his esteemed work
Titles of Honour writes, "The word Baro (Latin for Baron) hath been
also so much communicated, that not only all Lords of Mannors have
been from antient time, and are at this day called sometimes Barons
(as in the stile of their Court Barons, which is Curia Baronis,
&c. And I have read hors de son
Barony in a barr to an Avowry for
hors de son fee) But also the Judges of the Exchequer have it from
antient time fixed on them." Within a century of the Norman
Conquest of 1066, as in the case of
Thomas Becket in 1164, there arose
the practice of sending to each greater baron a personal summons
demanding his attendance at the King's Council, which evolved into the
Parliament and later into the House of Lords, whilst as was stipulated
Magna Carta of 1215, the lesser barons of each county would receive
a single summons as a group through the sheriff, and representatives
only from their number would be elected to attend on behalf of the
group. These representatives developed into the Knights of the
Shire, elected by the
County Court presided over by the sheriff, who
themselves formed the precursor of the House of Commons. Thus appeared
a definite distinction, which eventually had the effect of restricting
to the greater barons alone the privileges and duties of peerage.
Later, the king started to create new baronies in one of two ways: by
a writ of summons directing a chosen man to attend Parliament, and in
an even later development by letters patent. Writs of summons
became the normal method in medieval times, displacing the method of
feudal barony, but creation of baronies by letters patent is the sole
method adopted in modern times.
Since the adoption of summons by writ, baronies thus no longer relate
directly to land-holding, and thus no more feudal baronies needed
thenceforth to be created. Following the Modus Tenendi Parliamenta of
1419, the Tenures Abolition Act 1660, the Feudal Tenure Act (1662),
and the Fines and Recoveries Act of 1834, titles of feudal barony
became obsolete and without legal force. The Abolition Act 1660
specifically states: baronies by tenure were converted into baronies
by writ. The rest ceased to exist as feudal baronies by tenure,
becoming baronies in free socage, that is to say under a "free"
(hereditable) contract requiring payment of monetary rents.
In the twentieth-century Britain introduced the concept of
non-hereditary life peers. All appointees to this distinction have
(thus far) been at the rank of baron. In accordance with the
tradition applied to hereditary peers they too are formally addressed
in parliament by their peers as "The Noble Lord".
In addition, baronies are often used by their holders as subsidiary
titles, for example as courtesy titles for the son and heir of an Earl
or higher-ranked peer. The Scottish baronial title tends to be used
when a landed family is not in possession of any United Kingdom
peerage title of higher rank, subsequently granted, or has been
created a knight of the realm.
Several members of the royal family with the style of Royal Highness
are also titled Barons. For example, Charles,
Prince of Wales is also
Baron of Renfrew. Similarly, his eldest son
Prince William, Duke
of Cambridge is also The
Baron Carrickfergus and
Prince Andrew, Duke
of York is The
Baron Killyleagh. Some non-royal Barons are somehow
related to the royal family, for example Maurice Roche, 6th Baron
Fermoy is William's first cousin once removed, through William's late
Princess of Wales, who was the 4th
The title of baron (Irish: barún) was created in the Peerage of
Ireland shortly after the
Norman invasion of Ireland
Norman invasion of Ireland (1169). Ireland's
first baronies included
Baron Athenry (1172),
Baron Offaly (c. 1193),
Baron Kerry (1223),
Baron Dunboyne (1324),
Baron Slane (1370),
Baron of Dunsany (1439),
(c. 1458) and
Baron Trimlestown (1461).
A person holding a peerage in the rank of baron is entitled to a
coronet bearing six silver balls (called pearls) around the rim,
equally spaced and all of equal size and height. The rim itself is
neither jeweled, nor "chased" (which is the case for the coronets of
peers of higher degree).
The actual coronet is mostly worn on certain ceremonial occasions,
such as the coronation of a new monarch, but a baron can bear his
coronet of rank on his coat of arms above the shield. In heraldry, the
baron's coronet is shown with four of the balls visible.
Style of address
Normally one refers to or addresses
Baron [X] as
Lord [X] and his wife
Lady [X]. Women who hold baronies in their own right may
be styled as Baroness [X], or
Lady [X]. In direct address,
they can also be referred to as My Lord, Your Lordship, or Your
Ladyship, but never as My
Lady (except in the case of a female judge).
The husband of a Baroness in her own right gains no title or style
from his wife. Children of Barons and Baronesses in their own right,
whether hereditary or for life, have the style The Honourable
[Forename] [Surname]. After the death of the father or mother, the
child may continue to use the style The Honourable.
Barons are styled The Right Honourable The
Lord [Barony]. Barons'
wives are styled The Right Honourable The
Lady [Barony]. Baronesses in
their own right, whether hereditary or for life, are either styled The
Right Honourable The Baroness [Barony] or The Right Honourable The
Lady [Barony], mainly based on personal preference (e.g., Margaret,
Baroness Thatcher and Brenda,
Lady Hale, both created baronesses in
their own right for life). Note the order of the names: '
Hale' would denote that she were the daughter of an earl, marquess or
duke and, in the case of men, '
Lord Digby Jones' would denote that he
were the younger son of a marquess or duke, and should be properly
Lord Jones. The Right Honourable is frequently
abbreviated to The Rt Hon. or Rt Hon. When referred to by the
Sovereign in public instruments, The Right Honourable is changed to
Our right trusty and well-beloved, with Counsellor attached if they
are a Privy Counsellor.
Courtesy barons are styled
Lord [Barony], and their wives Lady
[Barony]: the article "The" is always absent; if the courtesy baron is
not a Privy Counsellor, the style The Right Honourable will also be
The United Kingdom has a policy of including titles of nobility on
passports: the title is entered into the surname field and a standard
observation is recorded giving the holder's full name and title. A
Baron would therefore record their surname as
Lord [Barony], and the
observation would note that The holder is The Right Honourable [given
Lord [Barony]. However, if the title of an
applicant's peerage is different from their surname, they can choose
whether to use their surname or title in the surname field. A baroness
in their own right would substitute "Baroness" for "Lord", and the
wife of a
Baron would similarly substitute "Lady". Titles of nobility
are checked against Debrett's Peerage, Who's Who or the London Gazette
by the passport office on application.
Scottish feudal baronies
A Scottish Baron's helmet
Main article: Barons in Scotland
In Scotland, the rank of baron is a rank of the ancient feudal
Scotland and refers to a holder of a feudal barony,
formerly a feudal superiority over a proper territorial entity erected
into a free barony by a Crown Charter this being the status of a minor
baron, recognized by the crown as noble, but not a peer.
The Court of
Lord Lyon will officially recognise feudal barons or
those possessing the dignity of baron who meet certain criteria,
and will grant them arms with a helmet befitting their degree.
Scottish barons rank below Lords of
Parliament and while noble have
the status of minor baron, being a non-Peerage rank; as such it can be
transferred by either inheritance or conveyance.
In showing that Scottish barons are titles of nobility, reference may
be made, amongst others, to the Lyon Court in the Petition of Maclean
of Ardgour for a Birthbrieve by Interlocutor dated 26 February 1943
which "Finds and Declares that the Minor Barons of
Scotland are, and
have both in this Nobiliary Court, and in the Court of Session, been
recognised as 'titled' nobility, and that the estait of the Baronage
(The Barones Minores) is of the ancient Feudal Nobility of Scotland".
Sir Thomas Innes of Learney in his 'Scots Heraldry' (2nd Ed.,
p. 88, note 1) states that 'The Act 1672, cap 47, specially
qualifies the degrees thus: Nobles (i.e. peers, the term being here
used in a restricted seventeenth-century English sense), Barons (i.e.
Lairds of baronial fiefs and their "heirs", who, even if fiefless, are
equivalent to heads of Continental baronial houses) and Gentlemen
(apparently all other armigers).' Baronets and knights are evidently
classed as 'Gentlemen' here and are of a lower degree than Barons.
The Scottish equivalent of an English baron is a
Chapeau and helm
Scottish feudal barons were entitled to a red cap of maintenance
(chapeau) turned up ermine if petitioning for a grant or matriculation
of a coat of arms between the 1930s and 2004. This chapeau is
identical to the red cap worn by an English baron, but without the
silver balls or gilt. This is sometimes depicted in armorial paintings
between the shield and the helmet. Additionally, if the baron is the
head of a family he may include a chiefly coronet which is similar to
a ducal coronet, but with four strawberry leaves. Because the chapeau
was a relatively recent innovation, a number of ancient Arms of
Scottish feudal barons do not display the chapeau. Now Scottish barons
are principally recognised by the baron's helm, which in
Scotland is a
steel helmet with grille of three grilles, garnished in gold.
Occasionally the great tilting-helm garnished with gold is shown, or a
helmet befitting a higher rank, if held.
Style of address
Scottish barons style their surnames similarly to Clan Chiefs, with
the name of their barony following their name, as in John Smith of
Edinburgh or John Smith,
Baron of Edinburgh. Most
formally, and in writing, they are styled as
The Much Honoured
The Much Honoured Baron
of Edinburgh. Their wives are styled
Lady Edinburgh, or The Baroness
of Edinburgh. The phrase
Lady of Edinburgh is wrong if the lady in
question does not hold a Scottish barony in her own right. Orally,
Scottish barons may be addressed with the name of their barony, as in
Edinburgh or else as
Baron without anything else following, which if
present would suggest a peerage barony. Informally, when referring to
a Scots feudal baron in the third person, the name
Baron of [X] is
used or simply [X].
Scottish feudal Barons may record [surname] of [territorial
designation] in the surname field of their passport, and an official
observation would then note that The holder is [given names] [surname]
Baron of [territorial designation]; applicants must provide evidence
Lord Lyon has recognised their feudal barony, or else be
included in Burke's Peerage.
Like other major Western noble titles, baron is sometimes used to
render certain titles in non-Western languages with their own
traditions, even though they are necessarily historically unrelated
and thus hard to compare, which are considered 'equivalent' in
relative rank. This is the case with China's nanjue (nan-chueh)
(Chinese: 男爵), hereditary title of nobility of the fifth rank, as
well as its derivatives and adaptations:
the Indian equivalent damapatiRao
the Japanese equivalent danshaku (Japanese: だんしゃく, 男爵)
the Korean equivalent namjak (Korean: 남작, 男爵)
the Manchu equivalent ashan-i hafan
the Vietnamese equivalent nam tước
The Hungarian equivalent Báró
The Croatian equivalent Barun
the Romanian equivalent
Baron (female: baronesă).
The Serbian equivalent Bojar or Boyar
The Thai equivalent Khun, which should not be confused with the
similar-sounding courtesy title
In some republics of continental Europe, the unofficial title of
"Baron" retains a purely social prestige, with no particular political
In Armenian, the word "Baron" should not be confused with the similar
word "Paron" (Armenian: Պարոն), which is a title given to
ordinary men, equivalent to 'Sir' or 'Mr'.
In the Polynesian island monarchy of Tonga, as opposed to the
situation in Europe, barons are granted this imported title (in
English), alongside traditional chiefly styles, and continue to hold
and exercise some political power.
Irish feudal barony
List of baronies in the peerages of the British Isles
Honour (feudal land tenure)
List of barons in the peerages of Britain and Ireland
Robber baron (feudalism)
Sanders, I. J. English Baronies: A Study of their Origin and Descent,
1086–1327. Clarendon Press, 1960.
Round, J. Horace, "The House of Lords", published in: Peerage and
Pedigree, Studies in Peerage Law and Family History, Vol.1, London,
1910, pp. 324–362
The Royal Ark
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Baron". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 421–423.
^ servos militum, qui utique stultissimi sunt, servos videlicet
^ OED; see also Online Etymology Dictionary
^ Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels Furstliche Hauser Band XVI.
Limburg an der Lahn, Germany: C.A. Starke Verlag. 2001. p. 64.
^ Sanders, I.J., Feudal Military Service in England: A Study of the
Constitutional and Military Powers of the 'Barones' in Medieval
England, Oxford, 1956, Part I, The "Baro" and the "Baronia"
^ Selden, John (1672). Titles of Honor: By the Late and Famous
John Selden of Inner Temple,
Esquire (Third ed.). London:
Thomas Dring. p. 570.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Pine, L.G. (1992). Titles: How the
His Majesty. New York: Barnes & Noble. pp. 76–77,
108–112. ISBN 978-1-56619-085-5.
^ "1660 Abolition Act". Retrieved 4 May 2013.
^ "Forms of Address – Barons and their Wives". Debrett's. Archived
from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
^ a b "British Titles – Baron". Burke's Peerage. Archived from the
original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
^ "Forms of Address – Baroness in Her Own Right and Life Baroness".
Debrett's. Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved
10 August 2013.
^ "British Titles – Lady". Burke's Peerage. Archived from the
original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
^ "The Court of the
Lord Lyon – News". Retrieved 10 August
^ "The Court of the
Lord Lyon". Retrieved 7 January 2010.
^ Senior-Milne, Graham (27 June 2005). "Forms of Address". The Feudal
Baronies of Scotland. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
^ "Titles and Usages". The Convention of The
Baronage of Scotland.
Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 13 March
^ "Forms of Address – Scottish Feudal Baronies". Debrett's. Archived
from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
^ "Royal and Noble Ranks, Styles and Addresses". The International
Commission on Nobility and Royalty. The International Commission on
Nobility and Royalty. 2009. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
HM Passport Office
HM Passport Office (13 January 2012), "Titles included in passports"
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