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Ariana
ARIANA, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή _Ar(e)ianē_ (inhabitants: _Ariani_; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί _Ar(e)ianoi_), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River
Indus River
, comprehending the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
that covered the whole country of modern day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and a few parts of India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, Iran
Iran
, Turkmenistan , and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan

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Eratosthenes
ERATOSTHENES OF CYRENE (/ɛrəˈtɒsθəniːz/ ; Greek : Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος, IPA: ; c. 276 BC – c. 195/194 BC ) was a Greek mathematician , geographer , poet , astronomer , and music theorist . He was a man of learning, becoming the chief librarian at the Library of Alexandria
Alexandria
. He invented the discipline of geography , including the terminology used today. He is best known for being the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth , which he did by applying a measuring system using stadia , a standard unit of measure during that time period. His calculation was remarkably accurate. He was also the first to calculate the tilt of the Earth\'s axis (again with remarkable accuracy). Additionally, he may have accurately calculated the distance from the Earth to the Sun
Sun
and invented the leap day . He created the first map of the world , incorporating parallels and meridians based on the available geographic knowledge of his era. Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
was the founder of scientific chronology ; he endeavored to revise the dates of the chief literary and political events from the conquest of Troy
Troy

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Circa
CIRCA (from Latin , meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated C., CA or CA. (also CIRC. or CCA.), means "approximately" in several European languages including English, usually in reference to a date. _Circa_ is widely used in genealogy and historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, _circa_ is applied before each approximate date, while dates without _circa_ immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty. Circa should only be used for dates that have occurred in the past. For example: * 1732–1799 or 1732–99: both years are known precisely. * c. 1732 – 1799: only the end year is known accurately; the start year is approximate. * 1732 – c. 1799: only the start year is known accurately; the end year is approximate. * c. 1732 – c. 1799: both years are approximate.SEE ALSO * Floruit REFERENCES * ^ "circa". Dictionary.com . Retrieved 16 July 2010
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Ariana (other)
ARIANA is a historical term for a region of central Asia. ARIANA may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Places * 3 Other uses * 4 See also NAME * Ariana (name) , a given namePLACES* Ariana Governorate , Tunisia * Ariana, or Aryanah , coastal town * Lake Ariana , in Sofia, BulgariaOTHER USES* Ariana beer , a Bulgarian beer brand * Ariana Brewery , a former Bulgarian brewery * Ariana TV , a television network based in Kabul, Afghanistan * Ariana Afghanistan , a satellite television channel based in California, U.S. * Ariana Afghan Airlines SEE ALSO * Arianna (other) * Ariane (other) * Ariadne (other) * Aria (region) , sometimes confused with Ariana * Aryana (TV series) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ARIANA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ariana_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Aryana (TV Series)
ARYANA is a 2012 Philippine
Philippine
fantasy drama that aired on ABS-CBN . From May 7, 2012 to January 25, 2013, the series is composed of three seasons and 189 episodes in total. It starred teen star Ella Cruz in her first leading role, replacing Lumayo Ka Man Sa Akin . It was later replaced by Kahit Konting Pagtingin . CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Synopsis * 2 Cast * 2.1 Main cast * 2.2 Supporting cast * 2.3 Special participation * 3 Production * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OVERVIEWSYNOPSISAryana narrates the journey of a girl as she struggles in the awkward but exciting adolescent stage while trying to escape her inevitable destiny as a mermaid on her fourteenth birthday. Two mothers from entirely different worlds: Ofelia is a human, who struggles for the acceptance of her mother-in-law, hopes that with the birth of her daughter she will gain the happiness and acceptance of her husband's family. Neptuna, an adult mermaid with a bright orange-and-gold scaly fish tail and matching bra whose pure and strong motherly love for her daughter, Perlita, knows no bounds and will do anything to make sure she is safe and happy. While Perlita has a dream of living happily with humans often goes near the seashore to watch the humans and even once stole the mystical pearl that can transform a mermaid into a human and back at will
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Latinization (literature)
LATINISATION (also spelled LATINIZATION : see spelling differences ) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style . It is commonly found with historical personal names , with toponyms , and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation , which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic
Cyrillic
). This was often done in the classical era for much the same reason as English-speaking cultures produce English versions of some foreign names. In the case of personal names in the post-Roman era this may be done to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by: * transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir ), and/or * adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek . The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects . Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians, playwrights, and philosophers . It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance . This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language
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Geographical
GEOGRAPHY (from Greek γεωγραφία, _geographia_, literally "earth description" ) is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth
Earth
. The first person to use the word "γεωγραφία" was Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
(276–194 BC). Geography
Geography
is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth
Earth
and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography
Geography
is often defined in terms of the two branches of human geography and physical geography . Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere , hydrosphere , biosphere , and geosphere . The four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences . Geography
Geography
has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences "
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Ancient Greece
ANCIENT GREECE was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (c. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Byzantine
Byzantine
era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece , Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the period of Archaic Greece
Archaic Greece
and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin . This was followed by the period of Classical Greece , an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars , lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia , Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea . The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic , which established the Roman province
Roman province
of Macedonia in Roman Greece , and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Ancient Rome
ANCIENT ROME was originally an Italic settlement dating from the 8th century BC that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world , though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire . Through conquest and assimilation , it eventually dominated the Mediterranean region, Western Europe , Asia Minor , North Africa , and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe . It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece , and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world . Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language, and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called _res publica _, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France
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Ancient History
ANCIENT HISTORY is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the Postclassical Era . The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script , the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC. The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to history in the Old World from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (First Olympiad ). This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome , and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece . Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. In India , ancient history includes the early period of the Middle Kingdoms , and, in China , the time up to the Qin Dynasty
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Central Asia
CENTRAL ASIA stretches from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
in the west to China
China
in the east and from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the south to Russia
Russia
in the north. It is also colloquially referred to as "the -stans " as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of". Central Asia's five former Soviet republics are Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(pop. 18 million), Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(5.7 million), Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(8.0 million), Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
(5.2 million), and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(30 million), giving the region a total population of about 66 million. Although not a former Soviet republic, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(pop. 29 million) is also sometimes included. Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road
Silk Road
. It has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe
Europe
, Western Asia
Western Asia
, South Asia
South Asia
, and East Asia
East Asia

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Indus River
The INDUS RIVER (Urdu : دریائے سندھ‎; Hindi :सिंधु; Chinese : 印度河) also called SINDHū or ABāSīN, is a major south-flowing river in South Asia . It is the namesake of the modern nation of India . The total length of the river is 3,610 km (1,988mi) which makes it one of the longest rivers in Asia . Originating in the western part of Tibet in the vicinity of Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar , the river runs a course through Ladakh , Gilgit-Baltistan , and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , and then flows along the entire length of Punjab to merge into the Arabian Sea near the city of Thatta in Sindh . It is the longest river and national river of Pakistan . The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3 (58 cu mi), twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh . In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, the Jhelum , the Ravi , the Beas , and the Sutlej
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Achaemenid Empire
The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (/əˈkiːmənɪd/ ; c. 550–330 BC), also called the FIRST PERSIAN EMPIRE, was an empire based in Western Asia , founded by Cyrus the Great . Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history , spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history . It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings ), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system , the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires. It is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon . The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus , one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World , was built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well. By the 7th century BC , the Persians had settled in the southwestern portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis , which came to be their heartland
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