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ARIANA, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Indus River
Indus River
, comprehending the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
that covered the whole country of modern day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, and a few parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, Iran
Iran
, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
, and Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
.

At various times, various parts of the region were governed by the Persians (the Achaemenids from 550 to 330 BC, the Sasanians from 275 to 650 AD and the Indo-Sasanians from 345 to 450 AD), the Macedonians (the Seleucids from 330 to 250 BC, the Greco- Bactrians
Bactrians
from 250 to 110 BC and the Indo- Greeks
Greeks
from 155 to 90 BC), Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
from Persia and Central Asia
Central Asia
(the Parthians
Parthians
from 160 BC to 225 AD, the Indo-Scythians
Indo-Scythians
from 90 BC to 20 AD, the Indo- Parthians
Parthians
from 20 to 225 AD and the Kushans from 110 BC to 225 AD), the Xionites
Xionites
(the Kidarites from 360 to 465 AD and the Hephthalites from 450 to 565 AD) and Indian empires (the Mauryans from 275 to 185 BC).

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Extent of Ariana
Ariana

* 2.1 Inhabitants of Ariana
Ariana

* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The Greek term Arianē (Latin: Ariana) is based on Ayran
Ayran
, a term found in Iranian Avestan
Avestan
Airiiana- (especially in Airyanem Vaejah , the name of the Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
' mother country). The modern name Iran
Iran
represents a different form of the ancient name Ariana
Ariana
which derived from Airyanem Vaejah and implies that Iran
Iran
is “the” Ariana itself – a word of Ayran
Ayran
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
origin found in Old Persian
Old Persian
– a view supported by the traditions of the country preserved in the Muslim writers of the ninth and tenth centuries. The Greeks
Greeks
also referred to Haroyum/Haraiva ( Herat
Herat
) as 'Aria', which is one of the many provinces found in Ariana.

The names Ariana
Ariana
and Aria, and many other ancient titles of which Aria is a component element, are connected with the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term Aryan
Aryan
, the Avestan
Avestan
term Airya-, and the Old Persian
Old Persian
term Ariya-, a self designation of the peoples of Ancient India
Ancient India
and Ancient Iran
Iran
, meaning "noble", "excellent" and "honourable".

EXTENT OF ARIANA

The exact limits of Ariana
Ariana
are laid down with little accuracy in classical sources. It seems to have been often confused (as in Pliny , Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
, book vi, chapter 23) with the small province of Aria .

As a geographical term, Ariana
Ariana
was introduced by the Greek geographer, Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
(c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC), and was fully described by the Greek geographer Strabo
Strabo
(64/63 BC – ca. AD 24).

Per Eratosthenes' definition, the borders of Ariana
Ariana
were defined by the Indus River
Indus River
in the east, the sea in the south, a line from Carmania to the Caspian Gates in the west, and the so-called Taurus Mountains in the north. This large region included almost all of the countries east of Media and ancient Persia
Persia
, including south of the great mountain ranges up to the deserts of Gedrosia
Gedrosia
and Carmania, i.e. the provinces of Carmania, Gedrosia, Drangiana
Drangiana
, Arachosia
Arachosia
, Aria , the Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
; also Bactria
Bactria
was reckoned to Ariana
Ariana
and was called "the ornament of Ariana
Ariana
as a whole" by Apollodorus of Artemita .

After having described the boundaries of Ariana, Strabo
Strabo
writes that the name Αρειανή could also be extended to part of the Persians and the Medes
Medes
and also to the northwards Bactrians
Bactrians
and the Sogdians
Sogdians
. A detailed description of that region is to be found in Strabo's Geographica
Geographica
, Book XV – "Persia, Ariana, the Indian subcontinent", chapter 2, sections 1–9.

By Herodotus
Herodotus
Ariana
Ariana
is not mentioned, nor is it included in the geographical description of Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
and Ptolemy
Ptolemy
, or in the narrative of Arrian .

Having considered these various sources, Ariana
Ariana
includes modern-day Afghanistan
Afghanistan
- Pakistan
Pakistan
regions( Bactria
Bactria
, Arachosia
Arachosia
, Aria , Drangiana and the Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
), east and southeast Iran
Iran
(Carmania and Gedrosia
Gedrosia
), most of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
( Sogdiana
Sogdiana
), most of Turkmenistan ( Margiana
Margiana
), south Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(parts of Sogdiana
Sogdiana
) and extending to the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan
Pakistan
.

INHABITANTS OF ARIANA

The tribes by whom Ariana
Ariana
was inhabited, as enumerated by Strabo were:

* Arachoti ; * Arii ; * Bactrians
Bactrians
; * Drangae ; * Gedrosii ; * Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
; * Parthians
Parthians
; * Persians * Sogdians
Sogdians
.

Pliny (vi. 25) specifies the following tribes:

* Angutturi; * Arii ; * the inhabitants of Daritis; * Dorisci; * Drangae; * Evergetae; * Gedrussi ; * Ichthyophagi ; * Methorici; * Pasires; * Urbi; * Zarangae .

Pliny (vi. 23) says that some add to India
India
four satrapies to the west of the river, – the Gedrosii, Arachosii, Arii, and Paropamisadae, as far as the river Cophes (the river Kabul ). Pliny therefore agrees on the whole with Strabo. Dionysius Periegetes (1097) agrees with Strabo in extending the northern boundary of the Ariani to the Paropamisus , and (714) speaks of them as inhabiting the shores of the Erythraean Sea . It is probable, from Strabo
Strabo
(xv. p.724), that the term was extended to include the east Persians, Bactrians, and Sogdians, with the people of Ariana
Ariana
below the mountains, because they were for the most part of one speech.

Rüdiger Schmitt, the German scholar of Iranian Studies, also believes that Ariana
Ariana
should have included other Iranian people
Iranian people
. He writes in the Encyclopædia Iranica :

Eratosthenes’ use of this term (followed by Diodorus
Diodorus
2.37.6) is obviously due to a mistake, since, firstly, not all inhabitants of these lands belonged to the same tribe and, secondly, the term "Aryan " originally was an ethnical one and only later a political one as the name of the Iranian empire (for all North Indians and Iranians designated themselves as "Aryan"; See Aryan
Aryan
), thus comprising still other Iranian tribes outside of Ariana
Ariana
proper, like Medes, Persians or Sogdians
Sogdians
(so possibly in Diodorus
Diodorus
1.94.2, where Zarathushtra is said to have preached Ahura Mazdā 's laws "among the Arianoi"). — R. Schmitt, 1986

SEE ALSO

* Arianus * Avestan
Avestan
geography * Āryāvarta
Āryāvarta
* Greater Khorasan
Greater Khorasan
* Arya (Buddhism)

REFERENCES

* ^ Pliny , Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
, book vi, page 23 * ^ A B C D E Smith, William (1980). "Ariana". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. pp. 210–211. Retrieved 2013-05-10. * ^ A B C Schmitt, R. (1986). "Aria". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10. * ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles. "Ărĭāna". A Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 2013-05-10. * ^ A B The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008 * ^ Sagar, Krishna Chandra (1 January 1992). Foreign Influence on Ancient India. Northern Book Centre. p. 91. ISBN 9788172110284 . According to Strabo
Strabo
(c. 54 B.C., A.D. 24), who refers to the authority of Apollodorus of Artemia, the Greeks
Greeks
of Bactria
Bactria
became masters of Ariana, a vague term roughly indicating the eastern districts of the Persian empire, and of India. * ^ Gnoli, G. (2006). "Iranian identity ii. Pre-Islamic Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10. * ^ Ashraf, A. (2006). "Iranian identity iii. Medieval Islamic Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10. * ^ Ed Eduljee. "Haroyu, Aria / Airan, Herat
Herat
& Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21. * ^ Ed Eduljee. " Aryan
Aryan
Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, Location. Aryans and Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21. * ^ Ed Eduljee. " Aryan
Aryan
Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, in the Avesta. Aryan
Aryan
lands and Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21. * ^ Schmitt, R. (1987). "Aryans". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10. * ^ Strabo
Strabo
2.1.22f * ^ Strabo
Strabo
2.5.32 * ^ Strabo
Strabo
11.11.1 * ^ Gnoli, Gherardo (2002). The "Aryan" Language. Roma: Instituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente. p. 86. * ^ " Strabo
Strabo
Geography, Book XV, Chapter 2". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-10.

FURTHER READING

* Horace Hayman Wilson, Charles Masson, Ariana
Ariana
Antiqua: a Descriptive Account of the Antiquities and Coins of Afghanistan, 1841 * Henry Walter Bellew, An inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891 * Tomaschek in Pauly-Wissowa, II/1, cols. 619f., and 813f. * G. Gnoli, Postilla ad Ariyō šayana, RSO 41, 1966, pp. 329–34. * P. Calmeyer, AMI 15, 1982, pp. 135ff.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Encyclopaedia Iranica Aria region in the

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