The Info List - Ariana

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Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi),[1] was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia[2] and the Indus River,[3] comprehending the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire[4] that covered the whole countries of Pakistan and Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran.[5][6] At various times, various parts of the region were governed by the Persians (the Achaemenids from 550 to 330 BC, the Sasanians from 275 to 650 AD and the Indo-Sasanians from 345 to 450 AD), the Macedonians (the Seleucids from 330 to 250 BC, the Greco- Bactrians
from 250 to 110 BC and the Indo- Greeks
from 155 to 90 BC), Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
from Persia and Central Asia
Central Asia
(the Parthians
from 160 BC to 225 AD, the Indo-Scythians
from 90 BC to 20 AD, the Indo- Parthians
from 20 to 225 AD and the Kushans from 110 BC to 225 AD), the Xionites
(the Kidarites from 360 to 465 AD and the Hephthalites from 450 to 565 AD) and Indian empires (the Mauryans from 275 to 185 BC).


1 Etymology 2 Extent of Ariana

2.1 Inhabitants of Ariana

3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Etymology[edit] The Greek term Arianē (Latin: Ariana) is based on Aryan, a term found in Iranian Avestan
Airiiana- (especially in Airyanem Vaejah, the name of the Iranian peoples' mother country).[3] The modern name Iran represents a different form of the ancient name Ariana
which derived from Airyanem Vaejah and implies that Iran
is “the” Ariana
itself – a word of Sanskrit
origin found in Old Persian[7] – a view supported by the traditions of the country preserved in the Muslim writers of the ninth and tenth centuries.[8] The Greeks
also referred to Haroyum/Haraiva (Herat) as 'Aria', which is one of the many provinces found in Ariana.[9][10][11] The names Ariana
and Aria, and many other ancient titles of which Aria is a component element, are connected with the Sanskrit
term Aryan, the Avestan
term Airya-, and the Old Persian
Old Persian
term Ariya-, a self designation of the peoples of Ancient India
Ancient India
and Ancient Iran,[12] meaning "noble", "excellent" and "honourable".[2] Extent of Ariana[edit] The exact limits of Ariana
are laid down with little accuracy in classical sources. It seems to have been often confused (as in Pliny, Naturalis Historia, book vi, chapter 23) with the small province of Aria.[2] As a geographical term, Ariana
was introduced by the Greek geographer, Eratosthenes
(c. 276 BC – c. 195 BC), and was fully described by the Greek geographer Strabo
(64/63 BC – ca. AD 24).[13] Per Eratosthenes' definition, the borders of Ariana
were defined by the Indus River
Indus River
in the east, the sea in the south, a line from Carmania to the Caspian Gates in the west, and the so-called Taurus Mountains in the north. This large region included almost all of the countries east of Media and ancient Persia, including south of the great mountain ranges up to the deserts of Gedrosia
and Carmania,[14] i.e. the provinces of Carmania, Gedrosia, Drangiana, Arachosia, Aria, the Paropamisadae; also Bactria
was reckoned to Ariana
and was called "the ornament of Ariana
as a whole" by Apollodorus of Artemita.[15] After having described the boundaries of Ariana, Strabo
writes that the name Αρειανή could also be extended to part of the Persians and the Medes
and also to the northwards Bactrians
and the Sogdians.[16] A detailed description of that region is to be found in Strabo's Geographica, Book XV – "Persia, Ariana, the Indian subcontinent", chapter 2, sections 1–9. By Herodotus
is not mentioned, nor is it included in the geographical description of Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium
and Ptolemy, or in the narrative of Arrian.[2] Having considered these various sources, Ariana
includes modern-day Afghanistan- Pakistan
regions(Bactria, Arachosia, Aria, Drangiana
and the Paropamisadae), east and southeast Iran
(Carmania and Gedrosia), most of Tajikistan
(Sogdiana), most of Turkmenistan
(Margiana), south Uzbekistan
(parts of Sogdiana) and extending to the Indus River
Indus River
in Pakistan.[5] Inhabitants of Ariana[edit] The tribes by whom Ariana
was inhabited, as enumerated by Strabo were:[17]

Arachoti; Arii; Bactrians; Drangae; Gedrosii; Paropamisadae; Parthians; Persians Sogdians.

Pliny (vi. 25) specifies the following tribes:

Angutturi; Arii; the inhabitants of Daritis; Dorisci; Drangae; Evergetae; Gedrussi; Ichthyophagi; Methorici; Pasires; Urbi; Zarangae.

Pliny (vi. 23) says that some add to India
four satrapies to the west of the river, – the Gedrosii, Arachosii, Arii, and Paropamisadae, as far as the river Cophes (the river Kabul). Pliny therefore agrees on the whole with Strabo. Dionysius Periegetes
Dionysius Periegetes
(1097) agrees with Strabo in extending the northern boundary of the Ariani to the Paropamisus, and (714) speaks of them as inhabiting the shores of the Erythraean Sea. It is probable, from Strabo
(xv. p.724), that the term was extended to include the east Persians, Bactrians, and Sogdians, with the people of Ariana
below the mountains, because they were for the most part of one speech.[2] Rüdiger Schmitt, the German scholar of Iranian Studies, also believes that Ariana
should have included other Iranian people. He writes in the Encyclopædia Iranica:

Eratosthenes’ use of this term (followed by Diodorus
2.37.6) is obviously due to a mistake, since, firstly, not all inhabitants of these lands belonged to the same tribe and, secondly, the term "Aryan" originally was an ethnical one and only later a political one as the name of the Iranian empire (for all North Indians and Iranians designated themselves as "Aryan"; See Aryan), thus comprising still other Iranian tribes outside of Ariana
proper, like Medes, Persians or Sogdians
(so possibly in Diodorus
1.94.2, where Zarathushtra
is said to have preached Ahura Mazdā's laws "among the Arianoi").[3] — R. Schmitt, 1986

See also[edit]

Arianus Avestan
geography Āryāvarta Greater Khorasan Arya (Buddhism)


^ Pliny, Naturalis Historia, book vi, page 23 ^ a b c d e Smith, William (1980). "Ariana". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. pp. 210–211. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ a b c Schmitt, R. (1986). "Aria". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles. "Ărĭāna". A Latin Dictionary. Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ a b The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008 ^ Sagar, Krishna Chandra (1 January 1992). Foreign Influence on Ancient India. Northern Book Centre. p. 91. ISBN 9788172110284. According to Strabo
(c. 54 B.C., A.D. 24), who refers to the authority of Apollodorus of Artemia, the Greeks
of Bactria
became masters of Ariana, a vague term roughly indicating the eastern districts of the Persian empire, and of India.  ^ Gnoli, G. (2006). "Iranian identity ii. Pre-Islamic Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ Ashraf, A. (2006). "Iranian identity iii. Medieval Islamic Period". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ Ed Eduljee. "Haroyu, Aria / Airan, Herat
& Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ Ed Eduljee. " Aryan
Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, Location. Aryans and Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ Ed Eduljee. " Aryan
Homeland, Airyana Vaeja, in the Avesta. Aryan lands and Zoroastrianism". Heritageinstitute.com. Retrieved 2016-10-21.  ^ Schmitt, R. (1987). "Aryans". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2013-05-10.  ^ Strabo
2.1.22f ^ Strabo
2.5.32 ^ Strabo
11.11.1 ^ Gnoli, Gherardo (2002). The "Aryan" Language. Roma: Instituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente. p. 86.  ^ " Strabo
Geography, Book XV, Chapter 2". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2013-05-10. 

Further reading[edit]

Horace Hayman Wilson, Charles Masson, Ariana
Antiqua: a Descriptive Account of the Antiquities and Coins of Afghanistan, 1841 Henry Walter Bellew, An inquiry into the ethnography of Afghanistan, 1891 Tomaschek in Pauly-Wissowa, II/1, cols. 619f., and 813f. G. Gnoli, Postilla ad Ariyō šayana, RSO 41, 1966, pp. 329–34. P. Calmeyer, AMI 15, 1982, pp. 135ff.

External links[edit]

Encyclopaedia Iranica Aria region in the eastern part of the Persian empire 'Ărĭāna', Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Perseus Digital Library. 'Ariana', Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography, William Smith, 1870 'Stabo GeographyY', Book XV, Chapter 2. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap. 23. (20.)—The Indus, Perseus Digital Library. Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Chap. 25.—The Ariani and the adjoining nations, Perseus Digital Library. Pomponius Mela: De Chorographia Liber Primus Ariana
antiqua: a descriptive account of the antiquities and coins of Afghanistan
By Horace Hayman Wilson, Charles Masson Eratosthenes, Duane W. Roller, Strabo, 2010, 'Eratos