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Animism
ANIMISM (from Latin
Latin
anima, "breath , spirit , life ") is the religious belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism
Animism
is the oldest known type of belief system in the world that even predates paganism . It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animism
Animism
is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous tribal peoples , especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organized religions . Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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Biology
BIOLOGY is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms , including their physical and chemical structure , function , development and evolution . Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches . Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity , and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species . It is also understood that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment
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Vital Principle
VITALISM is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things". a Where vitalism explicitly invokes a vital principle, that element is often referred to as the "vital spark", "energy" or "élan vital ", which some equate with the soul . In the 18th and 19th century vitalism was discussed among biologists , between those who felt that the known mechanics of physics would eventually explain the difference between life and non-life and vitalists who argued that life could not be reduced to a mechanistic process. Some vitalist biologists proposed testable hypotheses meant to show inadequacies with mechanistic explanations, but these experiments failed to provide support for vitalism. Biologists now consider vitalism to have been refuted by empirical evidence , and hence as belonging to the realm of religion rather than that of science
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Timothy Insoll
TIMOTHY INSOLL (born 1967) is a British archaeologist and academic. He specialises in the archaeology of religions and rituals and, in particular, the archaeology of Islam in Africa, and African indigenous religions. He is a lecturer at the University of Manchester
University of Manchester
, and has published widely. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Academic career * 3 Personal life * 4 Bibliography * 4.1 Books * 5 References * 5.1 Footnotes * 6 External links EARLY LIFEInsoll undertook his undergraduate studies in archaeology at the University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
from 1989 to 1992, before going on to work on his PhD at St John\'s College, Cambridge from 1992 to 1995. ACADEMIC CAREERHaving completed his doctorate , Insoll became a Research Fellow at St John\'s College, Cambridge (1995-1998)
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Auguste Comte
ISIDORE MARIE AUGUSTE FRANçOIS XAVIER COMTE (French: ; 19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism . He is sometimes regarded as the first philosopher of science in the modern sense of the term. Influenced by the utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon , Comte developed the positive philosophy in an attempt to remedy the social malaise of the French Revolution
French Revolution
, calling for a new social doctrine based on the sciences . Comte was a major influence on 19th-century thought, influencing the work of social thinkers such as Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
, and George Eliot
George Eliot

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Ojibwe
The OJIBWE, OJIBWA, or CHIPPEWA are an Anishinaabeg group of indigenous peoples in North America
North America
. They live in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
and are one of the largest Indigenous ethnic groups north of the Rio Grande . In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree
Cree
. In the United States, they have the fourth-largest population among Native American tribes, surpassed only by the Navajo , Cherokee
Cherokee
, and Lakota-Dakota-Nakota people . The Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people traditionally have spoken the Ojibwe language , a branch of the Algonquian language family
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Alfred Irving Hallowell
ALFRED IRVING "PETE" HALLOWELL (/ˈhæləwɛl/ ; 1892–1974) was an American anthropologist , archaeologist and businessman. He was born in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, and attended the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
receiving his B.S. degree in 1914, his A.M. in 1920, and his Ph.D. in anthropology in 1924. He was a student of the anthropologist Frank Speck . From 1927 through 1963 he was a professor of anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
excepting 1944 through 1947 when he taught the subject at Northwestern University . Hallowell's main field of study was Native Americans . He also held the presidency of the American Anthropological Association for a period. His students included the anthropologists Melford Spiro , Anthony F. C. Wallace , Raymond D. Fogelson , George W
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Persons
A PERSON is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason , morality , consciousness or self-consciousness , and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship , ownership of property , or legal responsibility . The defining features of personhood and consequently what makes a person count as a person differ widely among cultures and contexts. In addition to the question of personhood, of what makes a being count as a person to begin with, there are further questions about personal identity and self : both about what makes any particular person that particular person instead of another, and about what makes a person at one time the same person as they were or will be at another time despite any intervening changes. The common plural of "person", "people ", is often used to refer to an entire nation or ethnic group (as in "a people"). The plural "persons" is often used in philosophical and legal writing
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Object (philosophy)
An OBJECT is a technical term in modern philosophy often used in contrast to the term subject . A subject is an observer and an object is a thing observed. For modern philosophers like Descartes , consciousness is a state of cognition that includes the subject—which can never be doubted as only it can be the one who doubts–—and some object(s) that may be considered as not having real or full existence or value independent of the subject who observes it. Metaphysical frameworks also differ in whether they consider objects exist independently of their properties and, if so, in what way. The pragmatist Charles S. Peirce defines the broad notion of an object as anything that we can think or talk about. In a general sense it is any entity : the pyramids , Alpha Centauri , the number seven , a disbelief in predestination or the fear of cats . In a strict sense it refers to any definite being . A related notion is OBJECTHOOD
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Kinship
In anthropology , KINSHIP is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization , siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends." These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups. Kinship
Kinship
can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures (i.e
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Johann Jakob Bachofen
JOHANN JAKOB BACHOFEN (22 December 1815 – 25 November 1887) was a Swiss antiquarian , jurist , philologist , and anthropologist , professor for Roman law
Roman law
at the University of Basel
Basel
from 1841 to 1845. Bachofen is most often connected with his theories surrounding prehistoric matriarchy , or Das Mutterrecht, the title of his seminal 1861 book Mother Right: an investigation of the religious and juridical character of matriarchy in the Ancient World. Bachofen assembled documentation demonstrating that motherhood is the source of human society, religion, morality, and decorum. He postulated an archaic "mother-right" within the context of a primeval Matriarchal religion or Urreligion
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Australian Aboriginals
ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIANS are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania
Tasmania
)
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Jean Piaget
JEAN PIAGET (French: ; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss clinical psychologist known for his pioneering work in child development. Piaget\'s theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology ". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education , he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual." Piaget's theory and research influenced several people. His theory of child development is studied in pre-service education programs. Educators continue to incorporate constructionist-based strategies. Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva
Geneva
in 1955 while on the faculty of the University of Geneva
Geneva
and directed the Center until his death in 1980
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Margaret Mead
MARGARET MEAD (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her bachelor's degree at Barnard College in New York City
New York City
and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia University . Mead was a respected and often controversial academic who popularized the insights of anthropology in modern American and Western culture . Her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution . She was a proponent of broadening sexual mores within a context of traditional Western religious life
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Tim Ingold
TIM INGOLD FBA FRSE Dr h.c (born 1 November 1948) is a British anthropologist, and Chair of Social Anthropology
Social Anthropology
at the University of Aberdeen
Aberdeen
. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Contributions * 3 Recognition * 4 Bibliography * 5 See also * 6 Further reading * 7 References BACKGROUNDHe was educated at Leighton Park School in Reading, UK and his father was the world-renowned mycologist Cecil Terence Ingold . He attended Churchill College, Cambridge
Churchill College, Cambridge
, initially studying natural sciences but shifting to anthropology (BA in Social Anthropology
Social Anthropology
1970, PhD 1976). His doctoral work was conducted with the Skolt Saami of northeastern Finland, studying their ecological adaptations, social organisation and ethnic politics
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