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Animism
ANIMISM (from Latin _anima_, "breath , spirit , life ") is the religious belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism is the oldest known type of belief system in the world that even predates paganism . It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous tribal peoples , especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organized religions . Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives. The animistic perspective is so widely held and inherent to most animistic indigenous peoples that they often do not even have a word in their languages that corresponds to "animism" (or even "religion"); the term is an anthropological construct . Largely due to such ethnolinguistic and cultural discrepancies, opinion has differed on whether _animism_ refers to an ancestral mode of experience common to indigenous peoples around the world, or to a full-fledged religion in its own right
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Animism (other)
ANIMISM is the worldview that non-human entities possess a spiritual essence. ANIMISM may also refer to: GAMES * Subterranean Animism , the eleventh main game of the Touhou Project scrolling shooter series, released 2008 * Animism: The Gods\' Lake , an alternate reality gameMUSIC * Animism (Forrest Fang album) , the eleventh album by Forrest Fang, released 2012 * Animism (Tanya Tagaq album) , an album by Canadian Inuk musician Tanya Tagaq, released 2014TELEVISION * Animism: The Gods\' Lake is a 6-episode cartoon accompanying the game This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ANIMISM. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Animism_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Breath
BREATHING (or RESPIRATION, or VENTILATION) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment , mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide . All aerobic creatures need oxygen for cellular respiration , which uses the oxygen to break down foods for energy and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. Breathing, or "external respiration", brings air into the lungs where gas exchange takes place in the alveoli through diffusion . The body's circulatory system transports these gasses to and from the cells, where "cellular respiration" takes place. The breathing of all vertebrates with lungs (which are by definition inside their bodies) consists of repetitive cycles of inhalation and exhalation through a highly branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli. The number of respiratory cycles per minute is the breathing or respiratory rate , and is one of the four primary vital signs of life. Under normal conditions the breathing depth and rate is automatically, and unconsciously, controlled by several homeostats which keep the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the arterial blood constant. Keeping the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the arterial blood unchanged under a wide variety of physiological circumstances, contributes significantly to tight control of the pH of the extracellular fluids (ECF)
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Soul
In many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, the SOUL is the incorporeal essence of a living being. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal . In Judeo-Christianity , only human beings have immortal souls (although immortality is disputed within Judaism and may have been influenced by Plato). For example, the Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas attributed "soul" (_anima_) to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal. Other religions (most notably Hinduism and Jainism ) hold that all biological organisms have souls, as did Aristotle, while some teach that even non-biological entities (such as rivers and mountains) possess souls. The latter belief is called animism . Greek philosophers, such as Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle , understood that the soul (ψυχή _psūchê_) must have a logical faculty, the exercise of which was the most divine of human actions. At his defense trial, Socrates even summarized his teaching as nothing other than an exhortation for his fellow Athenians to excel in matters of the psyche since all bodily goods are dependent on such excellence (_Apology _ 30a–b)
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Life
Life on Earth: * Non-cellular life * Viruses * Viroids * Cellular life * Domain Bacteria * Domain Archaea * Domain Eukarya * Archaeplastida * SAR * Excavata * Amoebozoa * Opisthokonta This article is one of a series on: LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE ASTROBIOLOGY LIFE IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM Life on Venus Life on Earth Life on Mars Life on Europa Life on Titan LIFE OUTSIDE THE SOLAR SYSTEM SETI Exoplanetology Planetary habitability Circumstellar habitable zone * v * t * e LIFE is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes , such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased , or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate. Various forms of life exist, such as plants , animals , fungi , protists , archaea , and bacteria . The criteria can at times be ambiguous and may or may not define viruses , viroids , or potential artificial life as "living". Biology is the primary science concerned with the study of life, although many other sciences are involved. The definition of life is controversial
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Religious Belief
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e BELIEF is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true . In the context of Ancient Greek thought , two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: _pistis _ and _doxa _. Simplified, we may say that _pistis_ refers to "trust" and "confidence", while _doxa_ refers to "opinion" and "acceptance". The English word "orthodoxy " derives from _doxa_. Jonathan Leicester suggests that belief has the purpose of guiding action rather than indicating truth. In epistemology , philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or false ideas and concepts. However, "belief" does not require active introspection and circumspection. For example, we never ponder whether or not the sun will rise. We simply assume the sun will rise
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Paganism
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism
Paganism
has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan". In the 19th century, paganism was adopted as a self-descriptor by members of various artistic groups that were inspired by the ancient world . In the 20th century, practitioners of contemporary pagan or neopagan religious movements adopted the term for themselves. These practioners incorporate beliefs or practices different than those in the main world religions, such as nature worship
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Anthropology Of Religion
ANTHROPOLOGY OF RELIGION is the study of religion in relation to other social institutions , and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Definition of religion * 3 Specific religious practices and beliefs * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYIn the early 11th century, Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī (973-1048), wrote detailed comparative studies on the anthropology of religions and cultures across the Middle East , Mediterranean and the Indian subcontinent . He discussed the peoples, customs, and religions of the Indian subcontinent . Anthropology circa 1940 assumed that religion is in complete continuity with magical thinking , and that it is a cultural product. The complete continuity between magic and religion has been a postulate of modern anthropology at least since early 1930s. The perspective of modern anthropology towards religion is the _projection idea_, a methodological approach which assumes that every religion is created by the human community that worships it, that "creative activity ascribed to God is projected from man." In 1841, Ludwig Feuerbach was the first to employ this concept as the basis for a systematic critique of religion
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Indigenous People
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, also known as FIRST PEOPLES, ABORIGINAL PEOPLES, NATIVE PEOPLES, or AUTOCHTHONOUS PEOPLES, are ethnic groups who are descended from and identify with the original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, sometimes having adopted substantial elements of a colonising culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given locale/region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are often faced with threats to their sovereignty , economic well-being and their access to resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations , the International Labour Organization and the World Bank
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Organized Religion
ORGANIZED RELIGION (or ORGANISED RELIGION—see spelling differences ), also known as INSTITUTIONAL RELIGION, is religion as a social institution , in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established . Organized religionis typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma ), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices . Mass media
Mass media
frequently use the term _organized religion_ to refer to the world's largest religious groups , especially those known by name internationally, and it also refers to organizations with which one can legally or officially affiliate oneself or not. Organized religionis distinguished from the broader idea of religion especially in anthropology , sociology and philosophy . American philosopher William James
William James
states that Religion... shall mean for us the feelings, acts, and experiences of individual men in their solitude... in relation to whatever they may consider the divine. Since the relation may be either moral, physical, or ritual, it is evident that out of religion in the sense in which we take it, theologies, philosophies, and ecclesiastical organizations may secondarily grow
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Emic And Etic
In anthropology , folkloristics , and the social and behavioral sciences , EMIC and ETIC refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer). CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 History * 3 Importance as regards personality * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links DEFINITIONS"The emic approach investigates how local people think" (Kottak, 2006): How they perceive and categorize the world, their rules for behavior, what has meaning for them, and how they imagine and explain things. "The etic (scientist-oriented) approach shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. The etic approach realizes that members of a culture often are too involved in what they are doing..... to interpret their cultures impartially. When using the etic approach, the ethnographer emphasizes what he or she considers important." Although emics and etics are sometimes regarded as inherently in conflict and one can be preferred to the exclusion of the other, the complementarity of emic and etic approaches to anthropological research has been widely recognized, especially in the areas of interest concerning the characteristics of human nature as well as the form and function of human social systems
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Ethnolinguistic
ETHNOLINGUISTICS (sometimes called CULTURAL LINGUISTICS) is a field of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world. It is the combination between ethnology and linguistics. The former refers to the way of life of an entire community, i.e., all the characteristics which distinguish one community from the other. Those characteristics make the cultural aspects of a community or a society. Ethnolinguists study the way perception and conceptualization influences language, and show how this is linked to different cultures and societies. An example is the way spatial orientation is expressed in various cultures. In many societies, words for the cardinal directions east and west are derived from terms for sunrise/sunset. The nomenclature for cardinal directions of Inuit speakers of Greenland , however, is based on geographical landmarks such as the river system and one's position on the coast. Similarly, the Yurok lack the idea of cardinal directions; they orient themselves with respect to their principal geographic feature, the Klamath River . CULTURAL LINGUISTICS (capitalized) refers to a related branch of linguistics that explores the relationship between language and cultural conceptualisations (Sharifian, 2011)
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Edward Tylor
SIR EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist , the founder of cultural anthropology . Tylor's ideas typify 19th-century cultural evolutionism . In his works _Primitive Culture_ (1871) and _Anthropology_ (1881), he defined the context of the scientific study of anthropology, based on the evolutionary theories of Charles Lyell . He believed that there was a functional basis for the development of society and religion, which he determined was universal. Tylor maintained that all societies passed through three basic stages of development: from savagery , through barbarism to civilization . Tylor is considered by many to be a founding figure of the science of social anthropology, and his scholarly works helped to build the discipline of anthropology in the nineteenth century. He believed that "research into the history and prehistory of man... could be used as a basis for the reform of British society ." Tylor reintroduced the term _animism _ (faith in the individual soul or _anima_ of all things and natural manifestations) into common use. He regarded animism as the first phase of development of religions
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Anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY is the study of various aspects of humans within past and present societies . Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the norms and values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies how language affects social life. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans
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Spirituality
Traditionally, SPIRITUALITY refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. In modern times the emphasis is on subjective experience of a sacred dimension and the "deepest values and meanings by which people live," often in a context separate from organized religious institutions. Modern spirituality typically includes a belief in a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm, personal growth , a quest for an ultimate/sacred meaning , religious experience , or an encounter with one's own "inner dimension." The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. The term "spirituality" originally developed within early Christianity, referring to a life oriented toward the Holy Spirit . During late medieval times the meaning broadened to include mental aspects of life, while in modern times the term both spread to other religious traditions and broadened to refer to a wider range of experience, including a range of esoteric traditions
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