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Animism
ANIMISM (from Latin _anima_, "breath , spirit , life ") is the religious belief that objects, places, and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism is the oldest known type of belief system in the world that even predates paganism . It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous tribal peoples , especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organized religions . Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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Animism (other)
ANIMISM is the worldview that non-human entities possess a spiritual essence. ANIMISM may also refer to: GAMES * Subterranean Animism , the eleventh main game of the Touhou Project scrolling shooter series, released 2008 * Animism: The Gods\' Lake , an alternate reality gameMUSIC * Animism (Forrest Fang album) , the eleventh album by Forrest Fang, released 2012 * Animism (Tanya Tagaq album) , an album by Canadian Inuk musician Tanya Tagaq, released 2014TELEVISION * Animism: The Gods\' Lake is a 6-episode cartoon accompanying the game This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ANIMISM. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Animism_(other) additional terms may apply
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine
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Breath
BREATHING (or RESPIRATION, or VENTILATION) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment , mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide . All aerobic creatures need oxygen for cellular respiration , which uses the oxygen to break down foods for energy and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. Breathing, or "external respiration", brings air into the lungs where gas exchange takes place in the alveoli through diffusion . The body's circulatory system transports these gasses to and from the cells, where "cellular respiration" takes place. The breathing of all vertebrates with lungs (which are by definition inside their bodies) consists of repetitive cycles of inhalation and exhalation through a highly branched system of tubes or airways which lead from the nose to the alveoli
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Soul
In many religious, philosophical and mythological traditions, the SOUL is the incorporeal essence of a living being. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc. Depending on the philosophical system, a soul can either be mortal or immortal . In Judeo-Christianity , only human beings have immortal souls (although immortality is disputed within Judaism and may have been influenced by Plato). For example, the Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas attributed "soul" (_anima_) to all organisms but argued that only human souls are immortal. Other religions (most notably Hinduism and Jainism ) hold that all biological organisms have souls, as did Aristotle, while some teach that even non-biological entities (such as rivers and mountains) possess souls
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Life
Life on Earth: * Non-cellular life * Viruses * Viroids * Cellular life * Domain Bacteria * Domain Archaea * Domain Eukarya *
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Religious Belief
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability * v * t * e BELIEF is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true . In the context of Ancient Greek thought , two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: _pistis _ and _doxa _. Simplified, we may say that _pistis_ refers to "trust" and "confidence", while _doxa_ refers to "opinion" and "acceptance". The English word "orthodoxy " derives from _doxa_. Jonathan Leicester suggests that belief has the purpose of guiding action rather than indicating truth
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Paganism
PAGANISM is a term first used in the 4th century, by the early Christian community, for populations of the Roman world who worshipped many deities, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ). Alternate terms in Christian texts for the same group were "hellene " and "gentile ". Pagans and paganism were pejorative terms for the same polytheistic group, implying its inferiority. Paganism
Paganism
has broadly connoted the "religion of the peasantry", and for much of its history was a derogatory term. Both during and after the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, paganism was a pejorative term that was applied to any non-Abrahamic or unfamiliar religion , and the term presumed a belief in false god(s). No one before the 20th century self-identified as a "pagan"
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Anthropology Of Religion
ANTHROPOLOGY OF RELIGION is the study of religion in relation to other social institutions , and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Definition of religion * 3 Specific religious practices and beliefs * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYIn the early 11th century, Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī (973-1048), wrote detailed comparative studies on the anthropology of religions and cultures across the Middle East , Mediterranean and the Indian subcontinent . He discussed the peoples, customs, and religions of the Indian subcontinent . Anthropology circa 1940 assumed that religion is in complete continuity with magical thinking , and that it is a cultural product. The complete continuity between magic and religion has been a postulate of modern anthropology at least since early 1930s
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Indigenous People
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES, also known as FIRST PEOPLES, ABORIGINAL PEOPLES, NATIVE PEOPLES, or AUTOCHTHONOUS PEOPLES, are ethnic groups who are descended from and identify with the original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, sometimes having adopted substantial elements of a colonising culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given locale/region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world
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Organized Religion
ORGANIZED RELIGION (or ORGANISED RELIGION—see spelling differences ), also known as INSTITUTIONAL RELIGION, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established . Organized religion is typically characterized by an official doctrine (or dogma ), a hierarchical or bureaucratic leadership structure, and a codification of rules and practices . Mass media
Mass media
frequently use the term organized religion to refer to the world's largest religious groups , especially those known by name internationally, and it also refers to organizations with which one can legally or officially affiliate oneself or not. Organized religion is distinguished from the broader idea of religion especially in anthropology , sociology and philosophy . American philosopher William James
William James
states that Religion..
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Emic And Etic
In anthropology , folkloristics , and the social and behavioral sciences , EMIC and ETIC refer to two kinds of field research done and viewpoints obtained: emic, from within the social group (from the perspective of the subject) and etic, from outside (from the perspective of the observer). CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 History * 3 Importance as regards personality * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links DEFINITIONS"The emic approach investigates how local people think" (Kottak, 2006): How they perceive and categorize the world, their rules for behavior, what has meaning for them, and how they imagine and explain things. "The etic (scientist-oriented) approach shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. The etic approach realizes that members of a culture often are too involved in what they are doing..... to interpret their cultures impartially
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Ethnolinguistic
ETHNOLINGUISTICS (sometimes called CULTURAL LINGUISTICS) is a field of linguistics which studies the relationship between language and culture, and the way different ethnic groups perceive the world. It is the combination between ethnology and linguistics. The former refers to the way of life of an entire community, i.e., all the characteristics which distinguish one community from the other. Those characteristics make the cultural aspects of a community or a society. Ethnolinguists study the way perception and conceptualization influences language, and show how this is linked to different cultures and societies. An example is the way spatial orientation is expressed in various cultures
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Edward Tylor
SIR EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist , the founder of cultural anthropology . Tylor's ideas typify 19th-century cultural evolutionism . In his works Primitive Culture (1871) and Anthropology (1881), he defined the context of the scientific study of anthropology, based on the evolutionary theories of Charles Lyell . He believed that there was a functional basis for the development of society and religion, which he determined was universal. Tylor maintained that all societies passed through three basic stages of development: from savagery , through barbarism to civilization . Tylor is considered by many to be a founding figure of the science of social anthropology, and his scholarly works helped to build the disci