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Animism
Animism
Animism
(from Latin
Latin
anima, "breath, spirit, life")[1][2] is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.[3][4][5][6] Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism
Animism
is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples,[7] especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organised religions.[8] Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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David Abram
David Abram
David Abram
(born June 24, 1957) is an American philosopher, cultural ecologist, and performance artist, best known for his work bridging the philosophical tradition of phenomenology with environmental and ecological issues.[1][2] He is the author of Becoming Animal: An Earthly Cosmology[3] (2010) and The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-than-Human World (1996), for which he received, among other prizes, the international Lannan Literary Award for Nonfiction
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Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Freud
(/frɔɪd/ FROYD;[3] German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.[4] Freud
Freud
was born to Galician Jewish
Jewish
parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna.[5][6] Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.[7] Freud
Freud
lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud
Freud
left Austria to escape the Nazis
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.[1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis
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Vital Principle
Vitalism
Vitalism
is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".[1]a Where vitalism explicitly invokes a vital principle, that element is often referred to as the "vital spark", "energy" or "élan vital", which some equate with the soul. In the 18th and 19th century vitalism was discussed among biologists, between those who felt that the known mechanics of physics would eventually explain the difference between life and non-life and vitalists who argued that the processes of life could not be reduced to a mechanistic process
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Timothy Insoll
Timothy Insoll (born 1967) is a British archaeologist and academic. He specialises in the archaeology of religions and rituals and, in particular, the archaeology of Islam in Africa, and African indigenous religions. He is a lecturer at the University of Manchester, and has published widely.Contents1 Early life 2 Academic career 3 Personal life 4 Bibliography4.1 Books5 References5.1 Footnotes6 External linksEarly life[edit] Insoll undertook his undergraduate studies in archaeology at the University of Sheffield
University of Sheffield
from 1989 to 1992, before going on to work on his PhD at St John's College, Cambridge
St John's College, Cambridge
from 1992 to 1995. Academic career[edit] Having completed his doctorate, Insoll became a Research Fellow at St John's College, Cambridge (1995-1998)
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Kinship
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox
Robin Fox
states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but [we] can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends."[1] These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups. Kinship
Kinship
can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of social relationships in one or more human cultures (i.e
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Johann Jakob Bachofen
Johann Jakob Bachofen
Johann Jakob Bachofen
(22 December 1815 – 25 November 1887) was a Swiss antiquarian, jurist, philologist, and anthropologist, professor for Roman law
Roman law
at the University of Basel
Basel
from 1841[1] to 1845. Bachofen is most often connected with his theories surrounding prehistoric matriarchy, or Das Mutterrecht, the title of his seminal 1861 book Mother Right: an investigation of the religious and juridical character of matriarchy in the Ancient World. Bachofen assembled documentation demonstrating that motherhood is the source of human society, religion, morality, and decorum
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Émile Durkheim
David Émile Durkheim
Émile Durkheim
(French: [emil dyʁkɛm] or [dyʁkajm];[1] April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and—with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science.[2][3] Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity; an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. His first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society
The Division of Labour in Society
(1893)
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Ethnographies
Ethnography
Ethnography
(from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group
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Persons
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility.[1][2][3][4] The defining features of personhood and consequently what makes a person count as a person differ widely among cultures and contexts. In addition to the question of personhood, of what makes a being count as a person to begin with, there are further questions about personal identity and self: both about what makes any particular person that particular person instead of another, and about what makes a person at one time the same person as they were or will be at another time despite any intervening changes. The common plural of "person", "people", is often used to refer to an entire nation or ethnic group (as in "a people")
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Tim Ingold
Tim Ingold
Tim Ingold
FBA FRSE Dr h.c (born 1 November 1948)[1] is a British anthropologist, and Chair of Social Anthropology
Social Anthropology
at the University of Aberdeen.Contents1 Background 2 Contributions 3 Recognition 4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 ReferencesBackground[edit] He was educated at Leighton Park School
Leighton Park School
in Reading, UK and his father was the world-renowned mycologist Cecil Terence Ingold.[2] He attended Churchill College, Cambridge, initially studying natural sciences but shifting to anthropology (BA in Social Anthropology
Social Anthropology
1970, PhD 1976).[1] His doctoral work was conducted with the Skolt Saami of northeastern Finland, studying their ecological adaptations, social organisation and ethnic politics
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Australian Aboriginals
Aboriginal Australians
Australians
are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).[3][4][5][6]Contents1 Legal and administrative definitions1.1 Definitions from Aboriginal Australians 1.2 Definitions from academia2 Origins 3 Health3.1 Tobacco
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Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget
(French: [ʒɑ̃ pjaʒɛ]; 9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development. Piaget's theory of cognitive development and epistemological view are together called "genetic epistemology". Piaget placed great importance on the education of children. As the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared in 1934 that "only education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual."[13] His theory of child development is studied in pre-service education programs
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Margaret Mead
Margaret Mead
Margaret Mead
(December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s.[1] She earned her bachelor's degree at Barnard College
Barnard College
in New York City
New York City
and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia University. Mead was a respected and often controversial academic who popularized the insights of anthropology in modern American and Western culture.[2] Her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution
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