1 Origin, history and development of the term
1.1 Through the 19th century 1.2 20th and 21st centuries
2.1 Sociocultural 2.2 Biological 2.3 Archaeological 2.4 Linguistic
3 Key topics by field: sociocultural
3.1 Art, media, music, dance and film
3.1.1 Art 3.1.2 Media 3.1.3 Music 3.1.4 Visual
3.2 Economic, political economic, applied and development
3.2.1 Economic 3.2.2 Political economy 3.2.3 Applied 3.2.4 Development
3.3 Kinship, feminism, gender and sexuality
3.3.1 Kinship 3.3.2 Feminist
3.4 Medical, nutritional, psychological, cognitive and transpersonal
3.4.1 Medical 3.4.2 Nutritional 3.4.3 Psychological 3.4.4 Cognitive 3.4.5 Transpersonal
3.5 Political and legal
3.5.1 Political 3.5.2 Legal 3.5.3 Public
3.6 Nature, science and technology
3.6.1 Cyborg 3.6.2 Digital 3.6.3 Ecological
3.7 Historical 3.8 Religion 3.9 Urban
4 Key topics by field: archaeological and biological
4.1 Anthrozoology 4.2 Biocultural 4.3 Evolutionary 4.4 Forensic 4.5 Palaeoanthropology
5.1 List of major organizations
6.1 Cultural relativism 6.2 Military involvement
7 Post–World War II developments
7.1 Basic trends 7.2 Commonalities between fields
8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading
11.1 Dictionaries and encyclopedias 11.2 Fieldnotes and memoirs 11.3 Histories 11.4 Textbooks and key theoretical works
12 External links
Origin, history and development of the term
Bernardino de Sahagún
Through the 19th century In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows:
.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 Anthropology, that is to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, and Psychology, which speaks of the soul.[n 3]
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred
subsequently, such as the use by
20th and 21st centuries
This meager statistic expanded in the 20th century to comprise
anthropology departments in the majority of the world's higher
educational institutions, many thousands in number.
Further information: American anthropology
"anthropology is perhaps the last of the great nineteenth-century conglomerate disciplines still for the most part organizationally intact. Long after natural history, moral philosophy, philology, and political economy have dissolved into their specialized successors, it has remained a diffuse assemblage of ethnology, human biology, comparative linguistics, and prehistory, held together mainly by the vested interests, sunk costs, and administrative habits of academia, and by a romantic image of comprehensive scholarship."
Sociocultural anthropology has been heavily influenced by structuralist and postmodern theories, as well as a shift toward the analysis of modern societies. During the 1970s and 1990s, there was an epistemological shift away from the positivist traditions that had largely informed the discipline.[page needed] During this shift, enduring questions about the nature and production of knowledge came to occupy a central place in cultural and social anthropology. In contrast, archaeology and biological anthropology remained largely positivist. Due to this difference in epistemology, the four sub-fields of anthropology have lacked cohesion over the last several decades.
Main articles: Cultural anthropology, Social anthropology, and
Sociocultural anthropology draws together the principle axes of
cultural anthropology and social anthropology. Cultural anthropology
is the comparative study of the manifold ways in which people make
sense of the world around them, while social anthropology is the study
of the relationships among individuals and groups.
Nama (Hottentot)Kung (San)ThongaLoziMbunduSukuBembaNyakyusa
Yurak (Samoyed)BasseriWest PunjabiGondTodaSantalUttar PradeshBurushoKazakGujaratiBengaliKhalka MongolsLoloLepchaGaroLakherBurmeseLametVietnameseRhadeKhmerSiameseSemangNicobareseAndamaneseVeddaTanalaNegeri SembilanAtayalChineseManchuKoreansJapaneseAinuGilyakYukaghir
Javanese (Miao)BalineseIbanBadjauTorajaTobeloreseAloreseTiwiArandaOrokaivaKimamKapaukuKwomaManusNew IrelandTrobriandersSiuaiTikopiaPentecostMbau FijiansAjieMaoriMarquesansWestern SamoansGilberteseMarshalleseTrukeseYapesePalauansIfugaoChukchi
QuichéMiskito (Mosquito)Bribri (Talamanca)CunaGoajiroHaitiansCalinagoWarrau (Warao)YanomamoCaribSaramaccaMundurukuCubeo (Tucano)CayapaJivaroAmahuacaIncaAymaraSirionoNambicuaraTrumaiTimbiraTupinambaBotocudoShavanteAweikomaCayua (Guarani)LenguaAbiponMapucheTehuelcheYaghan
See also: List of indigenous peoples
Main article: Biological anthropology
Forensic anthropologists can help identify skeletonized human
remains, such as these found lying in scrub in Western Australia, c.
Main article: Archaeology
The Rosetta Stone was an example of ancient communication. Linguistic Main article: Linguistic anthropology Linguistic anthropology (not to be confused with anthropological linguistics) seeks to understand the processes of human communications, verbal and non-verbal, variation in language across time and space, the social uses of language, and the relationship between language and culture. It is the branch of anthropology that brings linguistic methods to bear on anthropological problems, linking the analysis of linguistic forms and processes to the interpretation of sociocultural processes. Linguistic anthropologists often draw on related fields including sociolinguistics, pragmatics, cognitive linguistics, semiotics, discourse analysis, and narrative analysis.
Key topics by field: sociocultural
Art, media, music, dance and film
Part of a series on the
Case studies Art
Art of the Americas Indigenous Australian art Oceanic art Film
Nanook of the North The Ax Fight Nǃai, the Story of a ǃKung Woman Incidents of Travel in Chichen Itza
National Anthropological Archives
Centro Cultural Mexiquense
List of ethnographic films
Major theorists Tim Asch Gregory Bateson Franz Boas Pierre Bourdieu John Collier Frances Densmore Robert J. Flaherty Robert Gardner Alfred Gell Robert Hugh Layton Claude Lévi-Strauss Alan Lomax John Marshall Margaret Mead Alan Merriam Bruno Nettl Hortense Powdermaker Jean Rouch
Social and cultural anthropologyvte
Main article: Media anthropology
A Punu tribe mask, Gabon, Central Africa
Main article: Ethnomusicology
Main article: Visual anthropology
Economic, political economic, applied and development Part of a series onEconomic, applied, and development anthropology Basic concepts Commodification Barter Debt Finance Embeddedness Reciprocity Redistribution Value Wealth Gift economy Limited good Inalienable possessions Singularization (commodity pathway) Spheres of exchange Social capital Cultural capital
Provisioning systems Hunting-gathering Pastoralism Nomadic pastoralism Shifting cultivation Moral economy Peasant economics
Case studies Prestations
Kula ring Moka exchange
Organ gifting Shell money Provisioning
The Anti-Politics Machine
Europe and the People Without History Political economy
Jim Crow economy
Original affluent society
The Great Transformation
Major theorists Paul Bohannan Alexander Chayanov Stanley Diamond Raymond Firth Maurice Godelier David Graeber Jane I. Guyer Keith Hart Marvin Harris Bronisław Malinowski Marcel Mauss Sidney Mintz Karl Polanyi Marshall Sahlins Harold K. Schneider Eric Wolf
Social and cultural anthropologyvte
Main article: Economic anthropology
Applied Main article: Applied anthropology Applied anthropology refers to the application of the method and theory of anthropology to the analysis and solution of practical problems. It is a "complex of related, research-based, instrumental methods which produce change or stability in specific cultural systems through the provision of data, initiation of direct action, and/or the formulation of policy". More simply, applied anthropology is the practical side of anthropological research; it includes researcher involvement and activism within the participating community. It is closely related to development anthropology (distinct from the more critical anthropology of development).
Main article: anthropology of development
Anthropology of development
Kinship, feminism, gender and sexuality
Part of a series on the
Cognatic / Bilateral Matrilateral House society Avunculate
Linealities Ambilineality Unilineality Matrilineality Patrilineality
Household forms and residence Extended Matrifocal Matrilocal Nuclear Patrilocal
Iroquois Crow Omaha Inuit Hawaiian Sudanese Dravidian
Sexuality Coming of Age in Samoa
Major theorists Diane Bell Tom Boellstorff Jack Goody Gilbert Herdt Don Kulick Roger Lancaster Louise Lamphere Eleanor Leacock Claude Lévi-Strauss Bronisław Malinowski Margaret Mead Henrietta Moore Lewis H. Morgan Stephen O. Murray Michelle Rosaldo David M. Schneider Marilyn Strathern
Related articles Alliance theory Matrilineal / matrilocal societies Feminist anthropology Sex and Repression in Savage Society Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship
Social anthropologyCultural anthropologyvte
Main article: Kinship
Main article: Feminist anthropology
Feminist anthropology is a four field approach to anthropology
(archeological, biological, cultural, linguistic) that seeks to reduce
male bias in research findings, anthropological hiring practices, and
the scholarly production of knowledge.
Medical, nutritional, psychological, cognitive and transpersonal Part of a series onMedical and psychologicalanthropology Basic concepts Health Culture-bound syndrome Double bind
Case studies Navajo medicine
Critical medical anthropology
Major theorists Gregory Bateson Maurice Bloch Charles L. Briggs Veena Das George Devereux Cora DuBois Paul Farmer Michael M. J. Fischer Arthur Kleinman Charles Laughlin E. Thomas Lawson Robert I. Levy Ralph Linton Tanya Luhrmann Marvin Opler Michelle Rosaldo Nancy Scheper-Hughes Richard Shweder Merrill Singer Dan Sperber Melford Spiro Beatrice Whiting John Whiting
Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Social and cultural anthropologyvte Medical Main article: Medical anthropology Medical anthropology is an interdisciplinary field which studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation". It is believed that William Caudell was the first to discover the field of medical anthropology. Currently, research in medical anthropology is one of the main growth areas in the field of anthropology as a whole. It focuses on the following six basic fields:
the development of systems of medical knowledge and medical care the patient-physician relationship the integration of alternative medical systems in culturally diverse environments the interaction of social, environmental and biological factors which influence health and illness both in the individual and the community as a whole the critical analysis of interaction between psychiatric services and migrant populations ("critical ethnopsychiatry": Beneduce 2004, 2007) the impact of biomedicine and biomedical technologies in non-Western settings
Other subjects that have become central to medical anthropology worldwide are violence and social suffering (Farmer, 1999, 2003; Beneduce, 2010) as well as other issues that involve physical and psychological harm and suffering that are not a result of illness. On the other hand, there are fields that intersect with medical anthropology in terms of research methodology and theoretical production, such as cultural psychiatry and transcultural psychiatry or ethnopsychiatry.
Nutritional Main article: Nutritional anthropology Nutritional anthropology is a synthetic concept that deals with the interplay between economic systems, nutritional status and food security, and how changes in the former affect the latter. If economic and environmental changes in a community affect access to food, food security, and dietary health, then this interplay between culture and biology is in turn connected to broader historical and economic trends associated with globalization. Nutritional status affects overall health status, work performance potential, and the overall potential for economic development (either in terms of human development or traditional western models) for any given group of people.
Psychological Main article: Psychological anthropology Psychological anthropology is an interdisciplinary subfield of anthropology that studies the interaction of cultural and mental processes. This subfield tends to focus on ways in which humans' development and enculturation within a particular cultural group – with its own history, language, practices, and conceptual categories – shape processes of human cognition, emotion, perception, motivation, and mental health. It also examines how the understanding of cognition, emotion, motivation, and similar psychological processes inform or constrain our models of cultural and social processes.
Cognitive Main article: Cognitive anthropology Cognitive anthropology seeks to explain patterns of shared knowledge, cultural innovation, and transmission over time and space using the methods and theories of the cognitive sciences (especially experimental psychology and evolutionary biology) often through close collaboration with historians, ethnographers, archaeologists, linguists, musicologists and other specialists engaged in the description and interpretation of cultural forms. Cognitive anthropology is concerned with what people from different groups know and how that implicit knowledge changes the way people perceive and relate to the world around them.
Transpersonal Main article: Transpersonal anthropology Transpersonal anthropology studies the relationship between altered states of consciousness and culture. As with transpersonal psychology, the field is much concerned with altered states of consciousness (ASC) and transpersonal experience. However, the field differs from mainstream transpersonal psychology in taking more cognizance of cross-cultural issues – for instance, the roles of myth, ritual, diet, and texts in evoking and interpreting extraordinary experiences.
Political and legal Part of a series onPolitical andlegal anthropology Basic concepts Status and rank
Ascribed status Achieved status Social status Caste Age grade/Age set Leveling mechanism Leadership
Big man Patriarchy Matriarchy Pantribal sodalities Chief Paramount chief Polities
Customary law Legal culture
Case studies Acephelous
Societies without hierarchical leaders African Political Systems Papuan Big man system The Art of Not Being Governed State
Non-western state systems Negara Mandala
Technology, Tradition, and the State in Africa Legal systems
Europe and the People Without History Cargo cult
Major theorists E. Adamson Hoebel Georges Balandier F. G. Bailey Fredrik Barth Jeremy Boissevain Robert L. Carneiro Henri J. M. Claessen Jean Comaroff John Comaroff Pierre Clastres E. E. Evans-Pritchard Wolfgang Fikentscher Meyer Fortes Morton Fried Ernest Gellner Lesley Gill Ulf Hannerz Thomas Blom Hansen Ted C. Lewellen Edmund Leach Ralph Linton Elizabeth Mertz Sidney Mintz Sally Falk Moore Rodney Needham Marshall Sahlins James C. Scott Elman Service Aidan Southall Jonathan Spencer Bjorn Thomassen Douglas R. White Eric Wolf
Social and cultural anthropologyvte Political Main article: Political anthropology Political anthropology concerns the structure of political systems, looked at from the basis of the structure of societies. Political anthropology developed as a discipline concerned primarily with politics in stateless societies, a new development started from the 1960s, and is still unfolding: anthropologists started increasingly to study more "complex" social settings in which the presence of states, bureaucracies and markets entered both ethnographic accounts and analysis of local phenomena. The turn towards complex societies meant that political themes were taken up at two main levels. Firstly, anthropologists continued to study political organization and political phenomena that lay outside the state-regulated sphere (as in patron-client relations or tribal political organization). Secondly, anthropologists slowly started to develop a disciplinary concern with states and their institutions (and on the relationship between formal and informal political institutions). An anthropology of the state developed, and it is a most thriving field today. Geertz' comparative work on "Negara", the Balinese state, is an early, famous example.
Legal Main article: Legal anthropology Legal anthropology or anthropology of law specializes in "the cross-cultural study of social ordering". Earlier legal anthropological research often focused more narrowly on conflict management, crime, sanctions, or formal regulation. More recent applications include issues such as human rights, legal pluralism, and political uprisings.
Public Main article: Public anthropology Public anthropology was created by Robert Borofsky, a professor at Hawaii Pacific University, to "demonstrate the ability of anthropology and anthropologists to effectively address problems beyond the discipline – illuminating larger social issues of our times as well as encouraging broad, public conversations about them with the explicit goal of fostering social change".
Nature, science and technology
Part of a series on
Related articles Cultural ecology Cyborg anthropology Digital anthropology Ecological anthropology Environmental anthropology Political ecology Science, technology and society
Major theorists Tom Boellstorff Gabriella Coleman Roy Ellen Donna Haraway Mizuko Ito Daniel Miller Mike Wesch Leslie White
Social and cultural anthropologyvte
Main article: Cyborg anthropology
Digital Main article: Digital anthropology Digital anthropology is the study of the relationship between humans and digital-era technology, and extends to various areas where anthropology and technology intersect. It is sometimes grouped with sociocultural anthropology, and sometimes considered part of material culture. The field is new, and thus has a variety of names with a variety of emphases. These include techno-anthropology, digital ethnography, cyberanthropology, and virtual anthropology.
Main article: Ecological anthropology
Historical Main article: Ethnohistory See also: Historical anthropology Ethnohistory is the study of ethnographic cultures and indigenous customs by examining historical records. It is also the study of the history of various ethnic groups that may or may not exist today. Ethnohistory uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. Its historical methods and materials go beyond the standard use of documents and manuscripts. Practitioners recognize the utility of such source material as maps, music, paintings, photography, folklore, oral tradition, site exploration, archaeological materials, museum collections, enduring customs, language, and place names.
Part of a series on
Case studies Magic
Coral Gardens and Their Magic Treatise on the Apparitions ofSpirits and on Vampires or Revenants Neo-Paganism
Angakkuq Babaylan Bobohizan Bomoh Bora Dukun Miko Jhākri Pawang Slametan Wu
Cargo cult Ghost Dance Handsome Lake
The Elementary Formsof the Religious Life
Purity and Danger
Myth and ritual
Major theorists Augustin Calmet Akbar S. Ahmed Talal Asad Joseph Campbell Mary Douglas Émile Durkheim Arnold van Gennep E. E. Evans-Pritchard James Frazer Clifford Geertz Robin Horton Claude Lévi-Strauss Robert Marett Roy Rappaport Saba Mahmood Marshall Sahlins Melford Spiro Stanley Tambiah Victor Turner Edward Burnett Tylor Daniel Martin Varisco Anthony F. C. Wallace
Journals Anthropological Perspectives on Religion Folklore The Hibbert Journal The Journal of Religion Oceania
Religions Ethnic and folk religions
Alaska Native religion
Chinese folk religion
Native American religion
Mahayana Nichiren Pure Land Shingon Theravada Tiantai Tibetan Vajrayana Zen
Adventism Anglicanism Armenian Apostolic Church Baptists Calvinism Catholic Church Coptic Orthodoxy Eastern Orthodoxy Ethiopian Orthodoxy Greek Orthodoxy Lutheranism Methodism Nestorianism Oriental Orthodoxy Pentecostalism Protestantism Quakers Russian Orthodoxy
Hindu denominations Shaivism Shaktism Smartism Vaishnavism
Ahmadiyya Ibadi Mahdavia Non-denominational Quranists Shia Sufism Sunni Yazdânism
Conservative Hasidic Karaite Orthodox Reform
Social and cultural anthropologyvte
Main article: Urban anthropology
Urban anthropology is concerned with issues of urbanization, poverty,
Key topics by field: archaeological and biological
Biocultural Main article: Biocultural anthropology Biocultural anthropology is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture. Physical anthropologists throughout the first half of the 20th century viewed this relationship from a racial perspective; that is, from the assumption that typological human biological differences lead to cultural differences. After World War II the emphasis began to shift toward an effort to explore the role culture plays in shaping human biology.
Main article: Evolutionary anthropology
Main article: Forensic anthropology
Main article: Palaeoanthropology
Organizations Contemporary anthropology is an established science with academic departments at most universities and colleges. The single largest organization of anthropologists is the American Anthropological Association (AAA), which was founded in 1903. Its members are anthropologists from around the globe. In 1989, a group of European and American scholars in the field of anthropology established the European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA) which serves as a major professional organization for anthropologists working in Europe. The EASA seeks to advance the status of anthropology in Europe and to increase visibility of marginalized anthropological traditions and thereby contribute to the project of a global anthropology or world anthropology. Hundreds of other organizations exist in the various sub-fields of anthropology, sometimes divided up by nation or region, and many anthropologists work with collaborators in other disciplines, such as geology, physics, zoology, paleontology, anatomy, music theory, art history, sociology and so on, belonging to professional societies in those disciplines as well.
List of major organizations
American Anthropological Association
American Ethnological Society
Asociación de Antropólogos Iberoamericanos en Red, AIBR
Ethics As the field has matured it has debated and arrived at ethical principles aimed at protecting both the subjects of anthropological research as well as the researchers themselves, and professional societies have generated codes of ethics. Anthropologists, like other researchers (especially historians and scientists engaged in field research), have over time assisted state policies and projects, especially colonialism. Some commentators have contended:
That the discipline grew out of colonialism, perhaps was in league with it, and derives some of its key notions from it, consciously or not. (See, for example, Gough, Pels and Salemink, but cf. Lewis 2004). That ethnographic work is often ahistorical, writing about people as if they were "out of time" in an "ethnographic present" (Johannes Fabian, Time and Its Other). Cultural relativism As part of their quest for scientific objectivity, present-day anthropologists typically urge cultural relativism, which has an influence on all the sub-fields of anthropology. This is the notion that cultures should not be judged by another's values or viewpoints, but be examined dispassionately on their own terms. There should be no notions, in good anthropology, of one culture being better or worse than another culture. Ethical commitments in anthropology include noticing and documenting genocide, infanticide, racism, mutilation (including circumcision and subincision), and torture. Topics like racism, slavery, and human sacrifice attract anthropological attention and theories ranging from nutritional deficiencies to genes to acculturation have been proposed, not to mention theories of colonialism and many others as root causes of Man's inhumanity to man. To illustrate the depth of an anthropological approach, one can take just one of these topics, such as "racism" and find thousands of anthropological references, stretching across all the major and minor sub-fields.
Anthropologists' involvement with the U.S. government, in particular,
has caused bitter controversy within the discipline. Franz Boas
publicly objected to US participation in World War I, and after the
war he published a brief expose and condemnation of the participation
of several American archaeologists in espionage in Mexico under their
cover as scientists.
But by the 1940s, many of Boas' anthropologist contemporaries were
active in the allied war effort against the
Post–World War II developments
There are several characteristics that tend to unite anthropological
work. One of the central characteristics is that anthropology tends to
provide a comparatively more holistic account of phenomena and tends
to be highly empirical. The quest for holism leads most
anthropologists to study a particular place, problem or phenomenon in
detail, using a variety of methods, over a more extensive period than
normal in many parts of academia.
In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a
culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends
and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology
were heard. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed
on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many
local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology,
whether cultural, biological, linguistic or
Biological anthropologists are interested in both human
variation and in the possibility of human
universals (behaviors, ideas or concepts shared by virtually all human
cultures). They use many different methods
of study, but modern population genetics, participant observation and
other techniques often take anthropologists "into the field," which
means traveling to a community in its own setting, to do something
called "fieldwork." On the biological or physical side, human
measurements, genetic samples, nutritional data may be gathered and
published as articles or monographs.
Along with dividing up their project by theoretical emphasis,
anthropologists typically divide the world up into relevant time
periods and geographic regions.
Commonalities between fields
Because anthropology developed from so many different enterprises (see
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Outline of anthropology
Anthropological science fiction
Christian anthropology, a sub-field of theology
^ Richard Harvey's 1593 Philadelphus, a defense of the legend of
Brutus in British history, includes the passage "Genealogy or issue
which they had, Artes which they studied, Actes which they did. This
^ John Kersey's 1706 edition of The New World of English Words includes the definition "Anthropology, a Discourse or Description of Man, or of a Man's Body."
^ In French: L'Anthropologie, c'est à dire la science qui traite de l'homme, est divisée ordinairment & avec raison en l'Anatomie, qui considere le corps & les parties, et en la Psychologie, qui parle de l'Ame.
^ As Fletcher points out, the French society was by no means the first to include anthropology or parts of it as its topic. Previous organizations used other names. The German Anthropological Association of St. Petersburg, however, in fact met first in 1861, but due to the death of its founder never met again.
^ Hunt's choice of theorists does not exclude the numerous other theorists that were beginning to publish a large volume of anthropological studies.
^ "It seems to be one of the postulates of modern anthropology that there is complete continuity between magic and religion. [note 35: See, for instance, RR Marett, Faith, Hope, and Charity in Primitive Religion, the Gifford Lectures (Macmillan, 1932), Lecture II, pp. 21 ff.] ... We have no empirical evidence at all that there ever was an age of magic that has been followed and superseded by an age of religion."
^ Note that anthrozoology should not be confused with "animal studies", which often refers to animal testing.
^ a b c "anthropology". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 August 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
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^ a b c "What is Anthropology?". American Anthropological Association. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
^ Burkhart, Louise M. (2003). "Bernardino de Sahagun: First Anthropologist (review)". The Catholic Historical Review. 89 (2): 351–352. doi:10.1353/cat.2003.0100.
^ a b c d Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "anthropology, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1885.
^ Israel Institute of the
^ a b Bartholin, Caspar; Bartholin, Thomas (1647). "Preface". Institutions anatomiques de Gaspar Bartholin, augmentées et enrichies pour la seconde fois tant des opinions et observations nouvelles des modernes. Translated from the Latin by Abr. Du Prat. Paris: M. Hénault et J. Hénault.
^ Schiller 1979, pp. 130–132
^ Schiller 1979, p. 221
^ a b Fletcher, Robert (1882). "
^ Schiller 1979, p. 143
^ Schiller 1979, p. 136
^ Waitz 1863, p. 5
^ Waitz 1863, pp. 11–12
^ a b Hunt 1863, Introductory Address
^ Maccurdy, George Grant (1899). "Extent of Instruction in
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^ a b Hylland Eriksen, Thomas. (2004) "What is Anthropology" Pluto. London. p. 79. ISBN 0-7453-2320-0.
^ a b c Ingold, Tim (1994). "Introduction to culture". Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-415-02137-1.
^ On varieties of cultural relativism in anthropology, see Spiro,
Melford E. (1987) "Some Reflections on Cultural Determinism and
^ Heyck, Thomas William; Stocking, George W.; Goody, Jack (1997).
"After Tylor: British Social
^ Layton, Robert (1998) An Introduction to Theory in Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
^ What is
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^ Ahmed, Akbar S. (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist". RAIN. 60 (60): 9–10. doi:10.2307/3033407. JSTOR 3033407.
^ Bloch, Maurice (1991). "Language,
^ Daniel A. Segal; Sylvia J. Yanagisako, eds. (2005). Unwrapping the Sacred Bundle. Durham and London: Duke University Press. pp. Back Cover. ISBN 978-0-8223-8684-1.
^ Geertz, Behar, Clifford & James
^ a b Ingold, Tim (1994). "General Introduction". Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Taylor & Francis. pp. xv. ISBN 978-0-415-02137-1.
^ Bernard, H. Russell (2002). Research Methods in
^ George Peter Murdock; Douglas R. White (1969). "Standard Cross-Cultural Sample". Ethnology. 9: 329–369.
^ "Research Subfields: Physical or Biological". University of Toronto. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
^ Robbins, R.H. & Larkin, S.N. (2007). Cultural Anthropology: A
problem based approach. Toronto, ON: Nelson
^ "What is Anthropology? - Advance Your Career". www.americananthro.org. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
^ Salzmann, Zdeněk. (1993) Language, culture, and society: an introduction to linguistic anthropology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
^ Layton, Robert. (1981) The
^ Spitulnik, Deborah (1993). "
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Further reading Main article: Bibliography of anthropology Dictionaries and encyclopedias
Barnard, Alan; Spencer, Jonathan, eds. (2010). The Routledge Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology. London: Routledge. Barfield, Thomas (1997). The dictionary of anthropology. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. Jackson, John L. (2013). Oxford Bibliographies: Anthropology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Levinson, David; Ember, Melvin, eds. (1996). Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. Volumes 1–4. New York: Henry Holt. Rapport, Nigel; Overing, Joanna (2007). Social and Cultural Anthropology: The Key Concepts. New York: Routledge.
Fieldnotes and memoirs
Barley, Nigel (1983). The innocent anthropologist: notes from a mud hut. London: British Museum Publications. Geertz, Clifford (1995). After the fact: two countries, four decades, one anthropologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Lévi-Strauss, Claude (1967). Tristes tropiques. Translated from the French by John Russell. New York: Atheneum. Malinowski, Bronisław (1967). A diary in the strict sense of the term. Translated by Norbert Guterman. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. Mead, Margaret (1972). Blackberry winter: my earlier years. New York: William Marrow. —— (1977). Letters from the field, 1925–1975. New York: Harper & Row. Rabinow, Paul (1977). Reflections on fieldwork in Morocco. Quantum Books. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Asad, Talal, ed. (1973).
Textbooks and key theoretical works
Carneiro's circumscription theory
Clifford, James; Marcus, George E. (1986). Writing culture: the
poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of
Geertz, Clifford (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures. New York:
Harris, Marvin (1997). Culture, People, Nature: An Introduction to
Anthropologyat's sister projects
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Haller, Dieter. "Interviews with German Anthropologists: Video Portal
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