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Anglo-Saxons
The Anglo- Saxons
Saxons
were a people who inhabited Great Britain
Great Britain
from the 5th century. They comprise people from Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, and indigenous British groups who adopted some aspects of Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
culture and language. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest.[1] The early Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language
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Ethnonym
An ethnonym (from the Greek: ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and used by the ethnic group itself). As an example, the ethnonym for the ethnically-dominant group in Germany
Germany
is the Germans. That ethnonym is an exonym used in English but itself comes from Latin. Conversely, Germans themselves use the autonym of Deutschen. Germans are indicated by exonyms in many other European languages, such as French (Allemands), Italian (tedeschi), Swedish (tyskar) and Polish (Niemcy).Contents1 Variations 2 Change over time 3 Linguistics 4 See also 5 ReferencesVariations[edit] Numerous ethnonyms can apply to the same ethnic or racial group, with various levels of recognition, acceptance and use
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Paul The Deacon
Paul the Deacon
Deacon
(c. 720s – 13 April 799 AD), also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, Winfridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis (i.e. "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine
Benedictine
monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife[edit] An ancestor named Leupichis entered Italy in the train of Alboin
Alboin
and received lands at or near Forum Julii (Cividale del Friuli). During an invasion, the Avars swept off the five sons of this warrior into Pannonia, but one, his namesake, returned to Italy and restored the ruined fortunes of his house
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Gaul
Gaul
Gaul
(Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe
Western Europe
during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany
Germany
on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi).[1] According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul
Gaul
was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica and Aquitania
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Exonym And Endonym
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question. An endonym or autonym is an internal name for a geographical place, or a group of people, or a language or dialect
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Gildas
Gildas
Gildas
(Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570)[a][b] — also known as Gildas
Gildas
the Wise or Gildas
Gildas
Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons. He is one of the best-documented figures of the Christian church in the British Isles
British Isles
during the sub-Roman period, and was renowned for his Biblical knowledge and literary style. In his later life, he emigrated to Brittany
Brittany
where he founded a monastery known as St
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Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is also variously known as Old Brittonic, British, and Common or Old Brythonic
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Chi Rho
The Chi Rho
Rho
(/ˈkaɪ ˈroʊ/; also known as chrismon or sigla[1]) is one of the earliest forms of christogram, formed by superimposing the first two (capital) letters—chi and rho (ΧΡ)—of the Greek word ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ (Christos) in such a way that the vertical stroke of the rho intersects the center of the chi.[2] The Chi- Rho
Rho
symbol was used by the Roman emperor Constantine I (r. 306–337) as part of a military standard (vexillum). Constantine's standard was known as the Labarum. Early symbols similar to the Chi Rho
Rho
were the Staurogram
Staurogram
() and the IX monogram
IX monogram
(). In pre-Christian times, the Chi- Rho
Rho
symbol was also to mark a particularly valuable or relevant passage in the margin of a page, abbreviating chrēston (good).[3] Some coins of Ptolemy III Euergetes (r
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Helena Hamerow
Helena Francisca Hamerow, FSA (born 18 September 1961)[1] is Professor of Early Medieval Archaeology and former Head of the School of Archaeology at Oxford University. She is the author of numerous books and academic articles on archaeology and early medieval history.Contents1 Education and appointments 2 Re-burial of excavated human remains 3 Media 4 Positions and honours 5 Selected publications 6 Notes 7 External linksEducation and appointments[edit] Hamerow obtained a BA from the University of Wisconsin-Madison[2] and a DPhil from Oxford.[3] She was a research fellow at Somerville College and a lecturer at Durham University. She is Professor
Professor
of Early Medieval Archaeology and former Head of the School of Archaeology at Oxford University
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Grave Goods
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body. They are usually personal possessions, supplies to smooth the deceased's journey into the afterlife or offerings to the gods. Grave goods may be classed as a type of votive deposit
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Illuminated Manuscript
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations. In the strictest definition, the term refers only to manuscripts decorated with gold or silver; but in both common usage and modern scholarship, the term refers to any decorated or illustrated manuscript from Western traditions. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted. Islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject; for an art-historical account, see miniature. The earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths
Kingdom of the Ostrogoths
and the Eastern Roman Empire
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Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlikʲ] ( listen)) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels
Gaels
of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.[3] In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001
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Military Occupation
Military occupation
Military occupation
is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.[1][2][3][4] Military occupation
Military occupation
is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.[2][5][6][7] Military government may be broadly characterized as the administration or supervision of occupied territory, or as the governmental form of such an administration
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Invasion
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof. An invasion can be the cause of a war, be a part of a larger strategy to end a war, or it can constitute an entire war in itself
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Danes
Danish (mutually intelligible languages incl. Norwegian, Swedish, Faroese, Icelandic)Religion Lutheranism
Lutheranism
(Church of Denmark)[21] Further details: Religion in DenmarkRelated ethnic groupsSwedes, Norwegians, Germans, Frisians, English, Faroese, Icelanders Other Germanic peoples Danes
Danes
(Danish: danskere) are the citizens of Denmark, most of whom speak Danish and consider themselves to be of Danish ethnicity. The first mentions of Danes
Danes
are from the 6th century in Jordanes' Getica, by Procopius, and by Gregory of Tours
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Irish Language
The Irish language
Irish language
(Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language,[5] is a Goidelic
Goidelic
language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland
Ireland
and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people
Irish people
for most of their recorded history, and they have brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland
Scotland
and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
and Manx respectively
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