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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta
Embryophyta
(unranked): Spermatophyta
Spermatophyta
(unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms
Basal angiosperms
* Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht.
Takht.
they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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John Lindley
JOHN LINDLEY FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist . CONTENTS * 1 Early years * 2 Career * 2.1 Horticultural Society of London
London
* 3 Middle years * 4 Later years * 5 Selected writings * 5.1 Taxonomic works * 5.2 Edited works * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links EARLY YEARSBorn in Catton , near Norwich
Norwich
, England, John Lindley
John Lindley
was one of four children of George and Mary Lindley. George Lindley was a nurseryman and pomologist and ran a commercial nursery garden. Although he had great horticultural knowledge, the undertaking was not profitable and George lived in a state of indebtedness. As a boy he would assist in the garden and also collected wild flowers he found growing in the Norfolk countryside. Lindley was educated at Norwich
Norwich
School
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Arthur J. Cronquist
ARTHUR JOHN CRONQUIST (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States
United States
biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae . He is considered one of the most influential botanists of the 20th century, largely due to his formulation of the Cronquist system
Cronquist system
. Two plant genera in the aster family have been named in his honor. These are Cronquistia, a possible synonym of Carphochaete , and Cronquistianthus , which is sometimes included as a group within Eupatorium . The former was applied by R.M. King and the latter by him and Harold E. Robinson
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Character (biology)
A PHENOTYPIC TRAIT, or simply TRAIT, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism ; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a CHARACTER of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms * 3 Mendelian expression of genes in diploid organisms * 4 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
of dominance and extensions to expression of traits * 5 Schizotypy * 6 See also * 7 Citations * 8 References DEFINITIONA phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is hair color; underlying genes, which make up the genotype , "control" the hair color, but the actual hair color, the part we see, is the phenotype
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Takht.
ARMEN LEONOVICH TAKHTAJAN or TAKHTAJIAN (Armenian : Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Russian : Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet -Armenian botanist , one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography . His other interests included morphology of flowering plants , paleobotany , and the flora of the Caucasus
Caucasus
. He was born in Shusha
Shusha
. He was one of the most influential taxonomists of the latter twentieth century
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Ecological Niche
In ecology , a NICHE (CanE , UK : /ˈniːʃ/ or US : /ˈnɪtʃ/ ) is a term with a variety of meanings related to the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (for example, by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators , parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (for example, limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey). "The type and number of variables comprising the dimensions of an environmental niche vary from one species to another the relative importance of particular environmental variables for a species may vary according to the geographic and biotic contexts". The notion of ecological niche is central to ecological biogeography , which focuses on spatial patterns of ecological communities
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Bud
In botany , a BUD is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem . Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development. The term bud is also used in zoology , where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Types of buds * 2.1 Image gallery * 3 Within zoology * 4 References OVERVIEW Inflorescence
Inflorescence
bud scales in Halesia carolina The buds of many woody plants , especially in temperate or cold climates, are protected by a covering of modified leaves called scales which tightly enclose the more delicate parts of the bud. Many bud scales are covered by a gummy substance which serves as added protection
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Endosperm
The ENDOSPERM is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch , though it can also contain oils and protein . This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in the human diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour ), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production. Other examples of endosperm that forms the bulk of the edible portion are coconut "meat" and coconut "water", and corn . Some plants, such as orchids , lack endosperm in their seeds
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Stamen
The STAMEN (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen -producing reproductive organ of a flower . Collectively the stamens form the ANDROECIUM. CONTENTS * 1 Morphology and terminology * 2 Etymology * 3 Variation in morphology * 4 Pollen production * 5 Sexual reproduction in plants
Sexual reproduction in plants
* 6 Descriptive terms * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGYA stamen typically consists of a stalk called the FILAMENT and an ANTHER which contains microsporangia . Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the CONNECTIVE. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte . The stamens in a flower are collectively called the ANDROECIUM. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Reproductive Organ
A SEX ORGAN (also called a REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN, PRIMARY SEX ORGAN or PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTIC) is any anatomical part of the body in a complex organism that is involved in sexual reproduction and together constitute the reproductive system . The external and visible organs, in males and females, are the primary sex organs known as the GENITALS or GENITALIA. The internal organs are known as the secondary sex organs and are sometimes referred to as the internal genitalia. The characteristics that begin to appear during puberty , such as, in humans, pubic hair on both sexes and facial hair on the male, are known as secondary sex characteristics . Mosses , ferns , and some similar plants have gametangia for reproductive organs, which are part of the gametophyte . The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and egg cells , but the sex organs themselves are inside the gametophytes within the pollen and the ovule
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Fruit
In botany , a FRUIT is the seed -bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering . Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples , bananas , grapes , lemons , oranges , and strawberries
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene . Some geologists assert that the