CHLORANTHACEAE /ˌklɔərænˈθeɪʃiː/ is a family of flowering plants (angiosperms), the only family in the order CHLORANTHALES. It is not closely related to any other family of flowering plants, and is among the early-diverging lineages in the angiosperms. They are woody or weakly woody plants occurring in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Madagascar, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The family consists of four extant genera, totalling about 77 known species according to Christenhusz and Byng in 2016. Some species are used in traditional medicine. The type genus is Chloranthus .
* 1 Description
* 1.1 Differences between the genera
* 2 Taxonomy
* 2.1 Historical classifications
* 3 References * 4 External links
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GENERA
The four genera assigned to this family can be distinguished from
each other by the following characters.
Sarcandra species are shrubs
with wood without vessels , that have bisexual flowers, with only one,
club-shaped stamen in which the connective tissue (between the lobes
which carry the pollen ) is wide, and with a smooth and moist stigma .
This genus has four species which occur in Malaysia, China, Indochina,
Japan, India, and Sri Lanka.
Chloranthus species are dwarf shrubs or
herbaceous plants , with xylem that does contain vessels, that has
bisexual flowers, each of which containing three stamens on straight,
filaments with three lobes and a wide connective , and with a smooth
and moist stigma . The twenty species occur in southern and eastern
Ascarina has separate male and female flowers. The male flowers
are subtended by two bracts and have between one and five stamens, in
which the connective is not widened. The female flower is without
bracts, the stigma is dry and covered in papillae . The fruit is a
drupje-like berry. Twelve species can be found on islands in the
Pacific and insular South-East Asia, from New Zealand and the
A study based on comparison of homologous DNA-fragments, published in
2004 indicated that the both the family
The extinct genus Chloranthistemon also belongs to this family.
* ^ A B C D Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III (2009). "An update of
the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and
families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the
Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi
* ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of
known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa.
Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi :10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1 .
* ^ A B Stevens, P.F. (2001) . "Chloranthaceae". Angiosperm
Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 2016-06-12.
* ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society.
181 (1): 1–20. doi :10.1111/boj.12385 .
* ^ Eklund, Helena; Doyle, James A.; Herendeen, Patrick S. (2004).
"Morphological Phylogenetic Analysis of Living and Fossil
Chloranthaceae". International Journal of