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Ali Javan
Ali Javan (Persian: علی جوان‎, translit. Ali Javān; December 26, 1926 – September 12, 2016) was an Iranian-American physicist and inventor. He was the first to propose the concept of the gas laser in 1959 at the Bell Telephone Laboratories. A successful prototype, constructed by him in collaboration with W. R. Bennett, Jr., and D. R. Herriott was demonstrated in 1960. His other contributions to science have been in the fields of quantum physics and spectroscopy.[2]Contents1 Life and career 2 Honors 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife and career[edit] Ali Javan was born in Tehran
Tehran
to Iranian Azerbaijani parents originally from Tabriz.[3] They sent him to a school conducted by Zoroastrians.[4]:43 He graduated from Alborz High School, and started his university studies at the School of Science at the University of Tehran
Tehran
for a year
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Tehran
Tehran
Tehran
(/tɛˈræn, -ˈrɑːn, ˌtɛhə-, ˌteɪə-/; Persian: تهران‎ Tehrân [tʰehˈɾɒːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Iran
Iran
and Tehran
Tehran
Province. With a population of around 8.8 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran
Tehran
is the most populous city in Iran
Iran
and Western Asia,[4] and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East
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Special Relativity
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time
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Tabriz
Tabriz
Tabriz
(pronounced [tæbˈriːz] ( listen)) (Persian: تبریز‎; Azerbaijani: تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan,[1] one of the historical capitals of Iran
Iran
and the present capital of East Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
province. Located in the Quru River valley, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand
Sahand
and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres (4,430 and 5,250 ft) above sea level. The valley opens up into a plain that gently slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz
Tabriz
is considered a summer resort
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Zoroastrians
Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna (Persian: مَزدَیَسنا یا دین زرتشتی), is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world".[1] Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster
Zoroaster
(or Zarathustra),[2] it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazd
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Atomic Clock
An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region[2] of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standards for international time distribution services, to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS. The principle of operation of an atomic clock is based on atomic physics; it uses the microwave signal that electrons in atoms emit when they change energy levels. Early atomic clocks were based on masers at room temperature. Currently, the most accurate atomic clocks first cool the atoms to near absolute zero temperature by slowing them with lasers and probing them in atomic fountains in a microwave-filled cavity
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HeNe Laser
A helium–neon laser or HeNe laser, is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of 85% helium and 15% neon inside of a small electrical discharge. The best-known and most widely used HeNe laser operates at a wavelength of 632.8 nm, in the red part of the visible spectrum.Contents1 History of HeNe laser development 2 Construction and operation 3 Applications 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory of HeNe laser development[edit] The first HeNe lasers emitted infrared at 1.15 μm, and were the first gas lasers. However, a laser that operated at visible wavelengths was much more in demand, and a number of other neon transitions were investigated to identify ones in which a population inversion can be achieved. The 633 nm line was found to have the highest gain in the visible spectrum, making this the wavelength of choice for most HeNe lasers
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Samuel Goudsmit
Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (July 11, 1902 – December 4, 1978) was a Dutch-American
Dutch-American
physicist famous for jointly proposing the concept of electron spin with George Eugene Uhlenbeck
George Eugene Uhlenbeck
in 1925.[1][2]Contents1 Life and career 2 Works 3 References 4 External linksLife and career[edit] Goudsmit was born in The Hague, Netherlands, of Dutch Jewish descent. He was the son of Isaac Goudsmit, a manufacturer of water-closets, and Marianne Goudsmit-Gompers, who ran a millinery shop
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Ruby Laser
A ruby laser is a solid-state laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium. The first working laser was a ruby laser made by Theodore H. "Ted" Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories
Hughes Research Laboratories
on May 16, 1960.[1][2] Ruby lasers produce pulses of coherent visible light at a wavelength of 694.3 nm, which is a deep red color. Typical ruby laser pulse lengths are on the order of a millisecond.Contents1 Design 2 Applications 3 History 4 References 5 External linksDesign[edit]A ruby laser rod. Inset: The view through the rod is crystal clearSee also: Laser
Laser
construction A ruby laser most often consists of a ruby rod that must be pumped with very high energy, usually from a flashtube, to achieve a population inversion. The rod is often placed between two mirrors, forming an optical cavity, which oscillate the light produced by the ruby's fluorescence, causing stimulated emission
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Theodore Maiman
Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman (July 11, 1927 – May 5, 2007) was an American engineer and physicist who was widely, but not universally, credited with the invention of the laser (Others attribute the invention to Gordon Gould).[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Maiman's laser led to the subsequent development of many other types of lasers.[8][9] The laser was successfully fired on May 16, 1960. In a July 7, 1960 press conference in Manhattan,[10] Maiman and his employer, Hughes Aircraft Company, announced the laser to the world.[11] Maiman was granted a patent for his invention,[12] and he received many awards and honors for his work
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Lyndon Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson (/ˈlɪndən ˈbeɪnz/; August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States
President of the United States
from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963. A Democrat from Texas, he also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people who have served in all four federal elected positions.[a] Born in a farmhouse in Stonewall, Texas, Johnson was a high school teacher and worked as a Congressional aide before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1937. He won election to the Senate in 1948, and was appointed the position of Senate Majority Whip in 1951. He became the Senate Minority Leader in 1953 and the Senate Majority Leader in 1955
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University Of Isfahan
University of Isfahan
Isfahan
(UI) (Persian: دانشگاه اصفهان Dāneshgāh-e Esfāhān) is a state-operated university in Isfahan
Isfahan
and among the top 10 comprehensive universities of Iran. The university is located in Azadi square of Isfahan. It has another campus in Khansar. University of Isfahan
Isfahan
offers undergraduate degrees in 70 fields and graduate degrees in 55 areas. Students can study a wide variety of courses at Bachelor, Master and Doctoral levels full-time and part-time. The University has twelve faculties and forty-five departments,.[2] University of Isfahan
Isfahan
includes more than five hundred full-time academic members. The student body consists of 12,000 undergraduate students and 4,500 graduate students from thirty provinces
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Michelson–Morley Experiment
The Michelson–Morley experiment
Michelson–Morley experiment
was performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson
Albert A. Michelson
and Edward W
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Los Angeles, California
Los AngelesCSA Los Angeles-Long BeachMSA Los Angeles-Long Beach-AnaheimPueblo September 4, 1781[3]City status May 23, 1835[4]Incorporated April 4, 1850[5]Named for Our Lady, Queen of the AngelsGovernment • Type Mayor-Council-Commission[6] • Body Los Angeles
Los Angeles
City Council • Mayor Eric Garcetti[7] • City Attorney Mike Feuer[7] • City Controller Ron Galperin[7]Area[8] • City in California 502.7
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Albert A. Michelson
Albert Abraham Michelson FFRS H FRSE
FRSE
(December 19, 1852 – May 9, 1931) was an American physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, becoming the first American to win the Nobel Prize in a science.Contents1 Biography 2 Family 3 Speed of light3.1 Early measurements 3.2 Mount Wilson and Lookout Mountain 3.3 Michelson, Pease, and Pearson 3.4 Michelson-Morley Interferometry Experiment4 Astronomical interferometry 5 Michelson in popular culture 6 Honors and awards 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksBiography[edit] Michelson was born in Strzelno, Province of Posen
Province of Posen
in Germany
Germany
(now Poland), the son of Samuel Michelson and his wife, Rozalia Przyłubska, both of Jewish descent.[2] He moved to the US with his parents in 1855, at the age of two
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John L. Hall
John Lewis "Jan" Hall (born August 21, 1934) is an American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics. He shared one fourth of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
with Theodor W. Hänsch
Theodor W. Hänsch
and Roy Glauber
Roy Glauber
for his work in precision spectroscopy.Contents1 Biography 2 Honours and awards 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Denver, Colorado, Hall holds three degrees from Carnegie Institute of Technology, a B.S. in 1956, an M.S. in 1958, and a Ph.D. in 1961. He completed his postdoctoral studies at the Department of Commerce's National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where he remained from 1962 until his retirement in 2004
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