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Tehran
Tehran
(/tɛˈræn, -ˈrɑːn, ˌtɛhə-, ˌteɪə-/; Persian: تهران‎ Tehrân [tʰehˈɾɒːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Iran
Iran
and Tehran
Tehran
Province. With a population of around 8.8 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran
Tehran
is the most populous city in Iran
Iran
and Western Asia,[4] and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.[5] In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran
Tehran
was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city.[6] It was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab, Turkic, and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran
Tehran
was first chosen as the capital of Iran
Iran
by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties. The capital has been moved several times throughout the history, and Tehran
Tehran
is the 32nd national capital of Iran. Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran
Tehran
has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran
Iran
since the 20th century.[7] Tehran
Tehran
is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, and Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran
Iran
were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, and the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower which was completed in 2007. The Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014.[8] The majority of the population of Tehran
Tehran
are Persian-speaking people,[9][10] and roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran
Tehran
and speak Persian as a second language.[11] Tehran
Tehran
is served by the international airports of Mehrabad and Khomeini, a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran
Tehran
Metro, a bus rapid transit system, trolleybuses, and a large network of highways. There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran
Tehran
to another area, due mainly to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran
Tehran
203rd for quality of life.[12] According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran
Tehran
is among the top ten fastest growing destinations.[13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Classical era 1.2 Medieval period 1.3 Early modern era 1.4 Late modern era

2 Geography

2.1 Location and subdivisions 2.2 Climate 2.3 Environmental issues

3 Demographics

3.1 Religion

4 Economy

4.1 Shopping 4.2 Tourism

5 Infrastructure

5.1 Transport

5.1.1 Highways and streets 5.1.2 Cars 5.1.3 Buses 5.1.4 Railway and subway 5.1.5 Airport

5.2 Parks and green spaces

6 Education 7 Culture

7.1 Architecture 7.2 Theater 7.3 Cinema 7.4 Sports

7.4.1 Football clubs

7.5 Food 7.6 Graffiti

8 Twin towns and partner cities 9 Panoramic views 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Tehran The origin of the name Tehran
Tehran
is uncertain.[14] The settlement of Tehran
Tehran
dates back over 7,000 years.[15] Classical era[edit] Tehran
Tehran
is situated within the historical region of Media (Old Persian: 𐎶𐎠𐎭 Māda) in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran
Tehran
was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages (Old Persian: 𐎼𐎥𐎠 Ragā). In the Avesta's Videvdat (i, 15), Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd.[16] In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province (Bistun 2, 10–18). From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, who was putting down the rebellion in Parthia
Parthia
(Bistun 3, 1–10).[16] In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster,[17] although modern historians generally place the birth of Zoroaster
Zoroaster
in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, which has been absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, which is located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme,[18] the Iranian epic poem that is based on the ancient legends of Iran. It appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk (Bivarasp), and the place where Arash
Arash
shot his arrow from.[18] Medieval period[edit] During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan.[16] Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, and Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran.[16] Because of this resistance, when the Arabs
Arabs
captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad.[16] In the 9th century, Tehran
Tehran
was a well known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, which was flourishing nearby. Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers.[16] Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad
Baghdad
displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs
Arabs
in the city remained insignificant and the population mainly consisted of Iranians of all classes.[16][19] The Oghuz Turks
Oghuz Turks
invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians.[16] Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, and massacred many of its inhabitants.[16] Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo
Ruy González de Clavijo
visited Tehran
Tehran
while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran
Iran
at the time. In his diary, Tehran
Tehran
was described as an unwalled region. Early modern era[edit] Italian traveler Pietro della Valle
Pietro della Valle
passed through Tehran
Tehran
overnight in 1618, and in his memoirs, he mentioned the city as Taheran. English traveler Thomas Herbert entered Tehran
Tehran
in 1627, and mentioned it as Tyroan. Herbert stated that the city had about 3,000 houses.[20]

A portrait of Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan, kept at London's V&A Museum

In the early 18th century, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty
Zand dynasty
ordered a palace and a government office to be built in Tehran, possibly to declare the city his capital; but he later moved his government to Shiraz. Eventually, Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan chose Tehran
Tehran
as the capital of Iran
Iran
in 1776.[21] Agha Mohammad Khan's choice of his capital was based on a similar concern for the control of both northern and southern Iran.[21] He was aware of the loyalties of the inhabitants of former capitals Isfahan and Shiraz
Shiraz
to the Safavid and Zand dynasties respectively, and was wary of the power of the local notables in these cities.[21] Thus, he probably viewed Tehran's lack of a substantial urban structure as a blessing, because it minimized the chances of resistance to his rule by the notables and by the general public.[21] Moreover, he had to remain within close reach of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran's integral northern and southern Caucasian territories[21]—at that time not yet irrevocably lost per the treaties of Golestan and Turkmenchay to the neighboring Russian Empire—which would follow in the course of the 19th century.[22]

Map of Tehran
Tehran
in 1857

After 50 years of Qajar rule, the city still barely had more than 80,000 inhabitants.[21] Up until the 1870s, Tehran
Tehran
consisted of a walled citadel, a roofed bazaar, and the three main neighborhoods of Udlajan, Chale-Meydan, and Sangelaj, where the majority resided. The first development plan of Tehran
Tehran
in 1855 emphasized the traditional spatial structure. Architecture, however, found an eclectic expression to reflect the new lifestyle. The second major planning exercise in Tehran
Tehran
took place under the supervision of Dar ol Fonun. The 1878 plan of Tehran
Tehran
included new city walls, in the form of a perfect octagon with an area of 19 square kilometers, which mimicked the Renaissance
Renaissance
cities of Europe.[23] Late modern era[edit]

The Triumph of Tehran: Sardar Asad II and Sepahsalar e Tonekaboni conquering Tehran
Tehran
in July 1909

The growing social awareness of civil rights resulted in the Constitutional Revolution and the first constitution of Iran
Iran
in 1906. On June 2, 1907, the parliament passed a law on local governance known as the Baladie (municipal law), providing a detailed outline on issues such as the role of councils within the city, the members' qualifications, the election process, and the requirements to be entitled to vote. The then Qajar monarch Mohammad Ali Shah abolished the constitution and bombarded the parliament with the help of the Russian-controlled Cossack Brigade on June 23, 1908. That followed the capture of the city by the revolutionary forces of Ali-Qoli Khan (Sardar Asad II) and Mohammad Vali Khan (Sepahsalar e Tonekaboni) on July 13, 1909. As a result, the monarch was exiled and replaced with his son Ahmad, and the parliament was re-established. After World War I, the constituent assembly elected Reza Shah
Reza Shah
of the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
as the new monarch, who immediately suspended the Baladie law of 1907, replacing the decentralized and autonomous city councils with centralist approaches of governance and planning.[23] From the 1920s to the 1930s, under the rule of Reza Shah, the city was essentially rebuilt from scratch. That followed a systematic demolition of several old buildings, including parts of the Golestan Palace, Tekye Dowlat, and Tupkhane Square, which were replaced with modern buildings influenced by classical Iranian architecture, particularly the building of the National Bank, the Police Headquarters, the Telegraph Office, and the Military Academy. The changes in urban fabric started with the street-widening act of 1933, which served as a framework for changes in all other cities. The Grand Bazaar
Bazaar
was divided in half and many historic buildings were demolished to be replaced with wide straight avenues.[24] As a result, the traditional texture of the city was replaced with intersecting cruciform streets that created large roundabouts, located on major public spaces such as the bazaar. As an attempt to create a network for easy transportation within the city, the old citadel and city walls were demolished in 1937, replaced by wide streets cutting through the urban fabric. The new city map of Tehran
Tehran
in 1937 was heavily influenced by modernist planning patterns of zoning and gridiron networks.[23] During World War II, Soviet and British troops entered the city. In 1943, Tehran
Tehran
was the site of the Tehran
Tehran
Conference, attended by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

Tupkhane Square in 1911

A former Parliament Building, built in the 1920s

A street in Tehran
Tehran
during the 1930s

National Bank of Iran, Sabze Meydan, in the 1940s

The Tehran
Tehran
Conference, 1943

Expressways in Tehran

The establishment of the planning organization of Iran
Iran
in 1948 resulted in the first socio-economic development plan to cover from 1949 to 1955. These plans not only failed to slow the unbalanced growth of Tehran, but with the 1962 land reforms that Reza Shah's son and successor Mohammad Reza Shah
Reza Shah
named the White Revolution, Tehran's chaotic growth was further accentuated. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Tehran
Tehran
was rapidly developing under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah. Modern buildings altered the face of Tehran
Tehran
and ambitious projects were envisioned for the following decades. In order to resolve the problem of social exclusion, the first comprehensive plan of Tehran
Tehran
was approved in 1968. The consortium of Iranian architect Abd-ol-Aziz Farmanfarmaian and the American firm of Victor Gruen
Victor Gruen
Associates identified the main problems blighting the city to be high density suburbs, air and water pollution, inefficient infrastructure, unemployment, and rural-urban migration. Eventually, the whole plan was marginalized by the 1979 Revolution and the subsequent Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War.[23]

The Azadi Tower
Azadi Tower
was built in 1971.

Tehran's most famous landmark, the Azadi Tower, was built by the order of the Shah in 1971. It was designed by Hossein Amanat, an architect who won a competition to design the monument, combining elements of classical Sassanian architecture with post-classical Iranian architecture. Formerly known as the Shahyad Tower, it was built in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran. During the 1980–1988 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, Tehran
Tehran
was the target of repeated Scud
Scud
missile attacks and air strikes. The 435-meter-high Milad Tower, which was part of the proposed development projects in pre-revolutionary Iran,[25] was completed in 2007, and has thence become a famous landmark of Tehran. The 270-meter pedestrian overpass of Tabiat Bridge
Tabiat Bridge
is a newly-built landmark,[8] designed by award winning architect Leila Araghian, which was completed in 2014.

Geography[edit] Location and subdivisions[edit] The metropolis of Tehran
Tehran
is divided into 22 municipal districts, each with its own administrative center. 20 of the 22 municipal districts are located in Tehran
Tehran
County's Central District, while the districts 1 and 20 are respectively located in the counties of Shemiranat and Ray. Although administratively separate, the cities of Ray and Shemiran
Shemiran
are often considered part of Greater Tehran.

Sulqan RD Kan District Aftab District Aftab RD Khalazir
Khalazir
RD Central District Siyahrud RD Tehran D-1 (Shemiranat County) D-2 D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 D-7 D-8 D-9 D-10 D-11 D-12 D-13 D-14 D-15 D-16 D-17 D-18 D-19 D-20 (Rey County) D-21 D-22

Regions and municipal districts of Tehran

North: District 1:  • Čizar  • Dar Abad  • Darake  • Darband  • Džamaran  • Velenjak  • Gejtarije  • Nobonjad  • Tadžriš  • Zafaranije District 2:  • Farahzad  • Shahrara  • Giša  • Punak-e    Bahtari  • Sadat Abad  • Sadegije  • Šahrak-e Garb  • Šahrak-e    Žandarmeri  • Tarašt  • Tovhid District 3:  • Darus  • Davudije  • Ehtijarije  • Golhak  • Vanak  • Žordan District 5:  • Bulvar-e    Firdusi  • Džanat Abad  • Ekbatan  • Punak District 6:  • Amir Abad  • Aržantin  • Jusef Abad  • Park-e Lale

East: District 4:  • Khak Sefid  • Hakimije  • Lavizan  • Ozgol  • Pasdaran  • Resalat  • Šams Abad  • Šemiran No  • Tehranpars  • Zargande District 7:  • Abas Abad  • Behdžat    Abad  • Emam    Hosein  • Sabalan District 8:  • Moalem  • Narmak  • Samangan  • Nezam Abad District 13:  • Dušan Tape  • Niru Havaji  • Teheran No  • Piroozi District 14:  • Čaharsad    Dastgah  • Dulab  • Esfahanak  • Horasan  • Sad Dastgah

Center: District 10:  • Berjanak  • Haft Čenar  • Salsabil District 11:  • Dohanijat  • Laškar  • Monirije  • Šejh Hadi District 12:  • Baharestan  • Bazar-e Tehran  • Firdusi  • Gorgan  • Park-e Šar  • Pič-e Šemiran District 17:  • Emamzade    Hasan  • Hazane Falah  • Kale Morgi

South: District 15:  • Afsarije  • Bisim  • Havaran  • Kijanšar  • Masudije  • Moširije District 16:  • Ali Abad  • Bag-e Azari  • Hazane    Boharae  • Jahči Abad  • Javadieh  • Nazi Abad District 19:  • Abdol Abad  • Hava Niruz  • Nemat Abad District 20:  • Dovlat Abad  • Džavanm.-e    Kasab  • Ebn-e    Babavejh  • Hazrat-e    Abdol-Azim  • Sizdah-e    Aban

West: District 9:  • Džej  • Sar-Asjab District 18:  • Čahar Bari  • Jaft Abad  • Šad Abad  • Šahrak-e    Vali-Asr  • Tolid Daru District 21:  • Iran
Iran
Hodro  • Tehransar  • Vardavard District 22:  • Bag-e    Hadž-Sejf  • Kan  • Kuj-e    Sazman-e    Barname  • Parc Čitgar  • Pejkanšar  • Stadium-e    Azadi  • Šahrak-e    Češme  • Šahrak-e    Rah-Ahan  • Šahrak-e    Omid

Municipal districts of Tehran

Name Persian Name County Number of Municipal Regions Area Population Population Density Location within Tehran

District 1 منطقه ۱ – Mantaqe ye Yek Shemiranat County 10 7001640000000000000♠64.0 km² 379,962 7003593690000000000♠5,936.9/km²

District 2 منطقه ۲ – Mantaqe ye Dow Tehran
Tehran
County 9 7001640000000000000♠64.0 km² 650,000 7004101562999900000♠10,156.3/km²

District 3 منطقه ۳ – Mantaqe ye Se Tehran
Tehran
County 6 7001312000000000000♠31.2 km² 293,181 7003939680000099999♠9,396.8/km²

District 4 منطقه ۴ – Mantaqe ye Ĉahār Tehran
Tehran
County 9 7001614000000000000♠61.4 km² 864,946 7004140871000000000♠14,087.1/km²

District 5 منطقه ۵ – Mantaqe ye Panj Tehran
Tehran
County 7 7001529000000000000♠52.9 km² 800,000 7004151229000000000♠15,122.9/km²

District 6 منطقه ۶ – Mantaqe ye Ŝeŝ Tehran
Tehran
County 6 7001214009999900000♠21.4 km² 217,127 7004101461000000000♠10,146.1/km²

District 7 منطقه ۷ – Mantaqe ye Haft Tehran
Tehran
County 5 7001154000000000000♠15.4 km² 309,745 7004201133000000000♠20,113.3/km²

District 8 منطقه ۸ – Mantaqe ye Haŝt Tehran
Tehran
County 3 7001134000000000000♠13.4 km² 378,725 7004282631000000000♠28,263.1/km²

District 9 منطقه ۹ – Mantaqe ye Noh Tehran
Tehran
County 3 7001196000000000000♠19.6 km² 170,000 7003867350000000000♠8,673.5/km²

District 10 منطقه ۱۰ – Mantaqe ye Dah Tehran
Tehran
County 3 7000820009999999999♠8.2 km² 320,000 7004390244000000000♠39,024.4/km²

District 11 منطقه ۱۱ – Mantaqe ye Yāzdah Tehran
Tehran
County 4 7001126000000000000♠12.6 km² 280,000 7004222222000000000♠22,222.2/km²

District 12 منطقه ۱۲ – Mantaqe ye Davāzdah Tehran
Tehran
County 6 7001169009999900000♠16.9 km² 365,000 7004215976000000000♠21,597.6/km²

District 13 منطقه ۱۳ – Mantaqe ye Sizdah Tehran
Tehran
County 4 7001128000000000000♠12.8 km² 275,727 7004215412000000000♠21,541.2/km²

District 14 منطقه ۱۴ – Mantaqe ye Ĉahārdah Tehran
Tehran
County 6 7001243000000000000♠24.3 km² 483,432 7004198943000000000♠19,894.3/km²

District 15 منطقه ۱۵ – Mantaqe ye Pānzdah Tehran
Tehran
County 6 7001354000000000000♠35.4 km² 694,678 7004196237000000000♠19,623.7/km²

District 16 منطقه ۱۶ – Mantaqe ye Ŝānzdah Tehran
Tehran
County 6 7001181000000000000♠18.1 km² 332,000 7004183425000000000♠18,342.5/km²

District 17 منطقه ۱۷ – Mantaqe ye Hefdah Tehran
Tehran
County 3 7000820009999999999♠8.2 km² 256,022 7004312222000000000♠31,222.2/km²

District 18 منطقه ۱۸ – Mantaqe ye Heĵdah Tehran
Tehran
County 5 7001375000000000000♠37.5 km² 317,110 7003845670000000000♠8,456.7/km²

District 19 منطقه ۱۹ – Mantaqe ye Nuzdah Tehran
Tehran
County 3 7001203000000000000♠20.3 km² 249,786 7004123049000000000♠12,304.9/km²

District 20 منطقه ۲۰ – Mantaqe ye Bist Ray County 5 7001230000000000000♠23.0 km² 378,445 7004164540999900000♠16,454.1/km²

District 21 منطقه ۲۱ – Mantaqe ye Bist-o-Yek Tehran
Tehran
County 3 7001516000000000000♠51.6 km² 157,939 7003306080000000000♠3,060.8/km²

District 22 منطقه ۲۲ – Mantaqe ye Bist-o-Dow Tehran
Tehran
County 4 7001540000000000000♠54.0 km² 138,970 7003257350000000000♠2,573.5/km²

Tehran
Tehran
and Tochal
Tochal
in the winter of 2006

Ekhtiarie, northern Tehran

Hormozan Street, Qarb Town

Bucharest Street in Tehran's Abbas Abad

Valiasr Street, near Saei Park, in central Tehran

Northern Tehran
Tehran
is the wealthiest part of the city,[26] consisting of various districts such as Zaferanie, Jordan, Elahie, Pasdaran, Kamranie, Ajodanie, Farmanie, Darrous, Qeytarie, and Qarb Town.[27][28] While the center of the city houses government ministries and headquarters, commercial centers are more located towards further north. Climate[edit]

Urban sustainability analysis of the metropolitan area of Tehran, using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme

Tehran
Tehran
features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk) with continental climate characteristics and a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
precipitation pattern. Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz mountains to its north and the country's central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in spring and autumn, hot and dry in summer, and cold and wet in winter.

Mellat Park
Mellat Park
in autumn

Because the city is large with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran. For instance, the 17.3 km (10.7 mi) Valiasr Street
Valiasr Street
runs from Tehran's railway station at 1,117 m (3,665 ft) elevation above sea level in the south of the city to Tajrish Square
Tajrish Square
at 1712.6 m (5612.3 ft) elevation above sea level in the north.[29] However, the elevation can even rise up to 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at the end of Velenjak
Velenjak
in northern Tehran. Summer is long, hot, and dry with little rain, but relative humidity is generally low, making the heat tolerable. Average high temperatures are between 32 and 37 °C (90 and 99 °F), and it can drop to 14 °C in the mountainous north of the city at night. Most of the light annual precipitation occurs from late autumn to mid-spring, but no one month is particularly wet. The hottest month is July, with a mean minimum temperature of 26 °C (79 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 34 °C (93 °F), and the coldest is January, with a mean minimum temperature of −5 °C (23 °F) and a mean maximum temperature of 1 °C (34 °F).[30] The weather of Tehran
Tehran
can sometimes be unpredictably harsh. The record high temperature is 43 °C (109 °F) and the record low is −20 °C (−4 °F). On January 5 and 6, 2008, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures covered the city in a thick layer of snow and ice, forcing the Council of Ministers to officially declare a state of emergency and close down the capital on January 6 and 7.[31] Tehran
Tehran
has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation since the beginning of the 21st century. This is most likely because of the afforestation projects, which also include expanding parks and lakes. The northern parts of Tehran
Tehran
are still more lush than the southern parts.

Climate data for Tehran-Shomal (north of Tehran), Altitude: 1548.2 M from: 1988–2005

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.4 (61.5) 19.0 (66.2) 23.8 (74.8) 33.6 (92.5) 33.6 (92.5) 37.8 (100) 38.1 (100.6) 39.4 (102.9) 40.6 (105.1) 29.2 (84.6) 23.0 (73.4) 19.0 (66.2) 40.6 (105.1)

Average high °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 8.1 (46.6) 12.9 (55.2) 19.8 (67.6) 25.0 (77) 31.2 (88.2) 33.9 (93) 33.5 (92.3) 29.3 (84.7) 22.4 (72.3) 14.3 (57.7) 8.6 (47.5) 20.43 (68.76)

Average low °C (°F) −1.5 (29.3) −0.2 (31.6) 4.0 (39.2) 9.8 (49.6) 14 (57) 19.6 (67.3) 22.6 (72.7) 21.9 (71.4) 17.5 (63.5) 11.6 (52.9) 5.4 (41.7) 1.0 (33.8) 10.48 (50.83)

Record low °C (°F) −11.4 (11.5) −11.0 (12.2) −8.0 (17.6) −1.6 (29.1) 3.0 (37.4) 12.0 (53.6) 15.4 (59.7) 13.5 (56.3) 8.8 (47.8) 2.6 (36.7) −5.2 (22.6) −9.6 (14.7) −11.4 (11.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.1 (2.484) 66.5 (2.618) 83.3 (3.28) 50.1 (1.972) 27.1 (1.067) 4.0 (0.157) 4.2 (0.165) 3.2 (0.126) 3.4 (0.134) 16.5 (0.65) 41.3 (1.626) 66.3 (2.61) 429 (16.889)

Average rainy days 12.3 10.9 12.3 10.0 8.9 3.3 3.4 1.6 1.3 5.8 8.6 10.7 89.1

Average snowy days 8.9 6.6 2.5 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.6 4.9 23.7

Average relative humidity (%) 67 59 53 44 39 30 31 31 33 44 57 66 46.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 137.2 151.1 186.0 219.1 279.8 328.7 336.6 336.8 300.5 246.8 169.4 134.1 2,826.1

Source: [32]

Climate data for Tehran
Tehran
- Elevation: 1168 M

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average Ultraviolet index 3 4 6 8 11 12 12 11 9 6 3 2 7.2

Source: Weather Atlas [33]

In February 2005, heavy snow covered all of the parts of the city. Snow depth was 15 cm (6 in) in the southern part of the city and 100 cm (39 in) in the northern part of city. A newspaper said it had been the worst weather for 34 years. 10,000 bulldozers and 13,000 municipal workers deployed to keep the main roads open.[34][35] On February 3, 2014, Tehran
Tehran
reached a heavy snowfall, specifically in the northern parts of the city, with a height of 2 meters. Within one week successive snowfall, roads were made impassable in some areas along with a temperature variety of −8 °C to −16 °C.[36] On June 3, 2014, a severe thunderstorm with powerful microbursts created a haboob that engulfed the city in sand and dust. Five people were killed and more than 57 injured. This disaster also knocked numerous trees and power lines down. It struck between 5 and 6 pm, plumping temperatures from 33 °C to 19 °C in just an hour. The dramatic temperature drop was accompanied by wind gusts reaching nearly 118 km/h.[37] Environmental issues[edit] See also: Environmental issues in Tehran, Environmental issues in Iran, and List of earthquakes in Iran

Air pollution
Air pollution
in Tehran

A plan to move the capital has been discussed many times in prior years, due mainly to the environmental issues of the region. Tehran
Tehran
is rated as one of the world's most polluted cities, and is also located near two major fault lines. The city suffers from severe air pollution. 80% of the city's pollution is due to cars.[38] The remaining 20% is due to industrial pollution. Other estimates suggest that motorcycles alone account for 30% of air and 50% of noise pollution in Tehran.[39] In 2010, the government announced that "for security and administrative reasons, the plan to move the capital from Tehran
Tehran
has been finalized."[40] There are plans to relocate 163 state firms and several universities from Tehran
Tehran
to avoid damages from a potential earthquake.[40][41] The officials are engaged in a battle to reduce air pollution. It has, for instance, encouraged taxis and buses to convert from petrol engines to engines that run on compressed natural gas. Furthermore, the government has set up a "Traffic Zone" covering the city center during peak traffic hours. Entering and driving inside this zone is only allowed with a special permit. There have also been plans to raise people's awareness about the hazards of the pollution. One method that is currently being employed is the installation of Pollution Indicator Boards all around the city to monitor the current level of particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of Tehran Further information: Ethnicities in Iran

Population of Tehran

Tehran
Tehran
in 1985 and 2009

The city of Tehran
Tehran
had a population of approximately 7.8 million in 2006.[42] With its cosmopolitan atmosphere, Tehran
Tehran
is home to diverse ethnic and linguistic groups from all over the country. The present-day dominant language of Tehran
Tehran
is the Tehrani variety of the Persian language, and the majority of people in Tehran
Tehran
identify themselves as Persians.[10][9] However, before, the native language of the Tehran–Ray region was not Persian, which is linguistically Southwest Iranian and originates in Fars, but a now extinct Northwestern Iranian language.[43] Iranian Azeris form the second-largest ethnic group of the city, comprising about 25%[44] to 1/3[45][46] of the total population, while ethnic Mazanderanis are the third-largest, comprising about 16% of the total population.[47] Tehran's other ethnic communities include Kurds, Armenians, Georgians, Bakhtyaris, Talysh, Baloch, Assyrians, Arabs, Jews, and Circassians. According to a 2010 census conducted by the Sociology Department of the University of Tehran, in many districts of Tehran
Tehran
across various socio-economic classes in proportion to population sizes of each district and socio-economic class, 63% of the people were born in Tehran, 98% knew Persian, 75% identified themselves as ethnic Persian, and 13% had some degree of proficiency in a European language.[9] Tehran
Tehran
saw a drastic change in its ethno-social composition in the early 1980s. After the political, social, and economic consequences of the 1979 Revolution
1979 Revolution
and the years that followed, a number of Iranian citizens, mostly Tehranis, left Iran. The majority of Iranian emigrations have left for the United States, France, Germany, Sweden, and Canada. With the start of the Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
(1980–1988), a second wave of inhabitants fled the city, especially during the Iraqi air offensives on the capital. With most major powers backing Iraq
Iraq
at the time, economic isolation gave yet more reason for many inhabitants to leave the city (and the country). Having left all they had and having struggled to adapt to a new country and build a life, most of them never came back when the war was over. During the war, Tehran
Tehran
also received a great number of migrants from the west and the southwest of the country bordering Iraq. The unstable situation and the war in neighboring Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iraq prompted a rush of refugees into the country who arrived in their millions, with Tehran
Tehran
being a magnet for many seeking work, who subsequently helped the city to recover from war wounds, working for far less pay than local construction workers. Many of these refugees are being repatriated with the assistance of the UNHCR, but there are still sizable groups of Afghan and Iraqi refugees in Tehran
Tehran
who are reluctant to leave, being pessimistic about the situation in their own countries. Afghan refugees are mostly Dari-speaking Tajik and Hazara, speaking a variety of Persian, and Iraqi refugees are mainly Mesopotamian Arabic-speakers who are often of Iranian heritage. Religion[edit] See also: List of religious centers in Tehran
List of religious centers in Tehran
and Religion in Iran The majority of Tehranis are officially Twelver Shia
Twelver Shia
Muslims, which has also been the state religion since the 16th-century Safavid conversion. Other religious communities in the city include followers of the Sunni and Mystic branches of Islam, various Christian denominations, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and the Bahá'í Faith. There are many religious centers scattered around the city, from old to newly-built centers, including mosques, churches, synagogues, and Zoroastrian fire temples. The city also has a very small third-generation Indian Sikh
Sikh
community that has a local gurdwara that was visited by the Indian Prime Minister in 2012.[48]

Tehran's Shah Mosque

Tehran's Greek Orthodox Church of Virgin Mary

Saint Mary Armenian Apostolic Church, Tehran

Tehran's Yusef Abad
Yusef Abad
Synagogue

Adrian Fire Temple, Tehran

Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Iran, Industry of Iran, and Communications in Iran

Central Bank of Iran

Tehran
Tehran
is the economic center of Iran.[49] About 30% of Iran's public-sector workforce and 45% of its large industrial firms are located in the city, and almost half of these workers are employed by the government.[50] Most of the remainder of workers are factory workers, shopkeepers, laborers, and transport workers. Few foreign companies operate in Tehran, due to the government's complex international relations. But prior to the 1979 Revolution, many foreign companies were active in Iran.[51] Tehran's present-day modern industries include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, weaponry, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. The oil refining companies of Pars Oil, Speedy, and Behran are based in Tehran. Tehran
Tehran
relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the World Federation of Exchanges (WFE) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro-Asian Stock Exchanges, has been one of the world's best performing stock exchanges in recent years.[52] Shopping[edit] See also: List of shopping malls in Iran Tehran
Tehran
has a wide range of shopping centers, and is home to over 60 modern shopping malls.[53] The city has a number of commercial districts, including those located at Valiasr, Davudie, and Zaferanie. The largest old bazaars of Tehran
Tehran
are the Grand Bazaar
Bazaar
and the Bazaar of Tajrish. Most of the international branded stores and upper-class shops are located in the northern and western parts of the city. Tehran's retail business is growing with several newly-built malls and shopping centers.[53]

Hyperstar, Tehran's subsidiary of French retailer Carrefour

Tirazhe Mall in western Tehran

Tandis Mall in Tajrish

Tehran's Old Grand Bazaar

Palladium Mall

Tourism[edit] See also: Tourism in Iran Tehran, as one of the main tourist destinations in Iran, has a wealth of cultural attractions. It is home to royal complexes of Golestan, Saadabad and Niavaran, which were built under the reign of the country's last two monarchies. There are several historic, artistic and scientific museums in Tehran, including the National Museum, the Malek Museum, the Cinema Museum at Ferdows Garden, the Abgineh Museum, Museum of the Qasr Prison, the Carpet Museum, the Reverse Glass Painting Museum (vitray art), and the Safir Office Machines Museum. There is also the Museum of Contemporary Art, which hosts works of famous artists such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, and Andy Warhol. The Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, one of the largest jewel collections in the world, are also on display at Tehran's National Jewelry Museum. A number of cultural and trade exhibitions take place in Tehran, which are mainly operated by the country's International Exhibitions Company. Tehran's annual International Book Fair is known to the international publishing world as one of the most important publishing events in Asia.[54]

Milad Tower

Tabiat Bridge

Golestan Palace

Niavaran
Niavaran
Complex

Sa'dabad Complex

Masoudie, Baharestan.

National Museum of Iran

Museum of Contemporary Art

Carpet Museum of Iran

Museum of the Qasr Prison

Abgineh Museum

Infrastructure[edit] Transport[edit] See also: Transport in Iran Highways and streets[edit] See also: List of Expressways in Tehran The metropolis of Tehran
Tehran
is equipped with a large network of highways and interchanges.[55]

Valiasr Street

Hemmat Expressway

Modarres Expressway

Kordestan Expressway
Kordestan Expressway
interchange with Resalat and Hakim expressways

A number of streets in Tehran
Tehran
are named after international figures, including:

Henri Corbin
Henri Corbin
Street, central Tehran Simon Bolivar Boulevard, northwestern Tehran Edward Browne Street, near the University of Tehran Gandhi Street, northern Tehran Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway, western Tehran Iqbal Lahori Street, eastern Tehran Patrice Lumumba
Patrice Lumumba
Street, western Tehran Nelson Mandela Boulevard, northern Tehran Bobby Sands Street, western side of the British Embassy

Cars[edit] See also: Automotive industry in Iran According to the head of Tehran
Tehran
Municipality's Environment and Sustainable Development Office, Tehran
Tehran
was designed to have a capacity of about 300,000 cars, but currently more than five million cars are on the roads.[56] The automation industry has recently developed, but international sanctions influence the production processes periodically.[57] According to local media, Tehran
Tehran
has more than 200,000 taxis plying the roads daily,[58] with several types of taxi available in the city. Airport taxis have a higher cost per kilometer as opposed to regular green and yellow taxis in the city.

Traffic light in Tehran

Traffic in Modares Expressway

Tehran's hybrid taxi

Tehran's former Mayor, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, driving a taxi

Buses[edit] See also: Trolleybuses in Tehran
Trolleybuses in Tehran
and Tehran
Tehran
Bus Rapid Transit

Tehran's bus rapid transit at the Azadi Terminal

Buses have served the city since the 1920s. Tehran's transport system includes conventional buses, trolleybuses, and bus rapid transit (BRT). The city's four major bus stations include the South Terminal, the East Terminal, the West Terminal, and the northcentral Beyhaghi Terminal. The trolleybus system was opened in 1992, using a fleet of 65 articulated trolleybuses built by Czechia's Škoda.[59] This was the first trolleybus system in Iran.[59] In 2005, trolleybuses were operating on five routes, all starting at Imam Hossein Square.[60] Two routes running northeastwards operate almost entirely in a segregated busway located in the middle of the wide carriageway along Damavand Street, stopping only at purpose-built stops located about every 500 metres along the routes, effectively making these routes trolleybus-BRT (but they are not called such). The other three trolleybus routes run south and operate in mixed-traffic. Both route sections are served by limited-stop services and local (making all stops) services.[60] A 3.2-kilometer extension from Shoosh Square to Rah Ahan Square was opened in March 2010.[61] Tehran's bus rapid transit (BRT) was officially inaugurated in 2008. It has three lines with 60 stations in different areas of the city. As of 2011[update], the BRT system had a network of 100 kilometres (62 miles), transporting 1.8 million passengers on a daily basis. The city has also developed a bicycle sharing system that includes 12 hubs in one of Tehran's districts.[62] Railway and subway[edit] See also: Iranian Railways and Tehran
Tehran
Metro Tehran
Tehran
has a central railway station that connects services round the clock to various cities in the country, along with a Tehran–Europe train line also running. The feasibility study and conceptual planning of the construction of Tehran's subway system were started in the 1970s. The first two of the eight projected metro lines were opened in 2001.

Tehran's railway station

Inside one of Tehran's subway stations

Stairway of Tehran's Khomeini metro station

Interior of one of Tehran's subway trains

Karaj
Karaj
Metro Station

Airport[edit] See also: Airlines of Iran Tehran
Tehran
is served by the international airports of Mehrabad and Khomeini. Mehrabad Airport, an old airport in western Tehran
Tehran
that doubles as a military base, is mainly used for domestic and charter flights. Khomeini Airport, located 50 kilometres (31 miles) south of the city, handles the main international flights.

Parked airliners at the Mehrabad Airport

Entrance of the Khomeini Airport

Inside the Khomeini Airport

Undergoing maintenance at the Mehrabad Airport

Airbus A350 demonstration at the Mehrabad Airport

Parks and green spaces[edit] See also: List of Tehran
Tehran
metropolis parks

Jamshidie Park, Niavaran

There are over 2,100 parks within the metropolis of Tehran,[63] with one of the oldest being Jamshidie Park, which was first established as a private garden for Qajar prince Jamshid Davallu, and was then dedicated to the last empress of Iran, Farah Pahlavi. The total green space within Tehran
Tehran
stretches over 12,600 hectares, covering over 20 percent of the city's area. The Parks and Green Spaces Organization of Tehran
Tehran
was established in 1960, and is responsible for the protection of the urban nature present in the city.[64] Tehran's Birds Garden is the largest bird park of Iran. There is also a zoo located on the Tehran– Karaj
Karaj
Expressway, housing over 290 species within an area of about five hectares.[65] There are four parks in Tehran
Tehran
established exclusively for women, totaling about 80 hectares in area,[63] in which the female mandatory dress codes are not required. Education[edit] See also: Education in Iran, List of colleges and universities in Tehran, and Science in Iran

Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center (HORCSCT)

Tehran
Tehran
is the largest and the most important educational center of Iran. There are a total of nearly 50 major colleges and universities in Greater Tehran.

The University of Tehran
University of Tehran
is the oldest modern university of Iran.

Since the establishment of Dar ol Fonun by the order of Amir Kabir
Amir Kabir
in the mid-19th century, Tehran
Tehran
has amassed a large number of institutions of higher education. Some of these institutions have played crucial roles in the unfolding of Iranian political events. Samuel M. Jordan, whom Jordan
Jordan
Avenue in Tehran
Tehran
was named after, was one of the founding pioneers of the American College of Tehran, which was one of the first modern high schools in the Middle East. Among major educational institutions located in Tehran, Sharif University of Technology, University of Tehran, and Tehran
Tehran
University of Medical Sciences are the most prestigious. Other major universities located in Tehran
Tehran
include Tehran
Tehran
University of Art, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
( Tehran
Tehran
Polytechnic), K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Shahid Beheshti University (Melli University), Kharazmi University, Iran
Iran
University of Science and Technology, Iran
Iran
University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, International Institute of Earthquake
Earthquake
Engineering and Seismology, Iran's Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Shahed University, and Tarbiat Modarres University. Tehran
Tehran
is also home to Iran's largest military academy, and several religious schools and seminaries. Culture[edit] Architecture[edit] See also: Architecture of Tehran The oldest surviving architectural monuments of Tehran
Tehran
are from the Qajar and Pahlavi eras. Although, considering the area of Greater Tehran, monuments dating back to the Seljuk era remain as well; notably the Toqrol Tower in Ray. There are also remains of Rashkan Castle, dating back to the ancient Parthian Empire, of which some artifacts are housed at the National Museum;[66] and the Bahram fire temple, which remains since the Sassanian Empire. Tehran
Tehran
only had a small population until the late 18th century, but began to take a more considerable role in Iranian society after it was chosen as the capital city. Despite the regular occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and after, some historic buildings have remained from that era.[67] Tehran
Tehran
is Iran's primate city, and is considered to have the most modernized infrastructure in the country. However, the gentrification of old neighborhoods and the demolition of buildings of cultural significance has caused concerns.[68]

Hasanabad Square

A view of the building of the City Theater of Tehran

The Courthouse of Tehran

Police House, the National Garden

Cossack House, the National Garden

Qeytarie in February 2010

Previously a low-rise city due to seismic activity in the region, modern high rise developments in Tehran
Tehran
have been built in recent decades in order to service its growing population. There have been no major quakes in Tehran
Tehran
since 1830.[69] Tehran's International Tower is the tallest residential building in Iran. It is a 54-story building located in the northern district of Yusef Abad. The Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty, has long been the most famous symbol of Tehran. Originally constructed in commemoration of the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, it combines elements of the architecture of the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras with post-classical Iranian architecture. The Milad Tower, which is the sixth tallest tower[70] and the 24th-tallest freestanding structure in the world,[71] is the city's other famous landmark tower. Leila Araghian's Tabiat Bridge, the largest pedestrian overpass in Tehran, was completed in 2014 and is also considered a landmark.[8] Theater[edit]

The Roudaki Hall, Tehran

Under the reign of the Qajars, Tehran
Tehran
was home to the royal theater of Tekye Dowlat, located to the southeast of the Golestan Palace, in which traditional and religious performances were observed. It was eventually destroyed and replaced with a bank building in 1947, following the reforms under the reign of Reza Shah. Before the 1979 Revolution, the Iranian national stage had become the most famous performing scene for known international artists and troupes in the Middle East,[72] with the Roudaki Hall
Roudaki Hall
of Tehran constructed to function as the national stage for opera and ballet. The hall was inaugurated in October 1967, named after prominent Persian poet Rudaki. It is home to the Tehran
Tehran
Symphony Orchestra, the Tehran
Tehran
Opera Orchestra, and the Iranian National Ballet Company. The City Theater of Tehran, one of Iran's biggest theater complexes which contains several performance halls, was opened in 1972. It was built at the initiative and presidency of empress Farah Pahlavi, and was designed by architect Ali Sardar Afkhami, constructed within five years. The annual events of Fajr Theater Festival and Tehran
Tehran
Puppet Theater Festival take place in Tehran. Cinema[edit]

Ferdows Garden
Ferdows Garden
houses Iran's Cinema Museum.

The first movie theater of Tehran
Tehran
was established by Mirza Ebrahim Khan in 1904.[73] Until the early 1930s, there were 15 theaters in Tehran Province
Tehran Province
and 11 in other provinces.[74] In present-day Tehran, most of the movie theaters are located downtown. The complexes of Mellat Gallery and Cineplex, Azadi Cinema, and Cinema Farhang
Cinema Farhang
are among the most popular cinema complexes in Tehran. Several film festivals are held in Tehran, including Fajr Film Festival, Children and Youth Film Festival, House of Cinema Festival, Mobile Film and Photo Festival, Nahal Festival, Roshd Film Festival, Tehran
Tehran
Animation Festival, Tehran
Tehran
Short Film Festival, and Urban Film Festival. Sports[edit] See also: Sport in Iran Football and volleyball are the city's most popular sports, while wrestling, basketball, and futsal are also major parts of the city's sporting culture.

Dizin, Iran's largest ski resort, is located near Tehran.

12 ski resorts operate in Iran, the most famous being Tochal, Dizin, and Shemshak, all within one to three hours from the city of Tehran. Tochal's resort is the world's fifth highest ski resort at over 3,730 meters (12,240 feet) above sea level at its highest point. It is also the world's nearest ski resort to a capital city. The resort was opened in 1976, shortly before the 1979 Revolution. It is equipped with a 8-kilometre-long (5 mi) gondola lift that covers a huge vertical distance.[75] There are two parallel chair ski lifts in Tochal
Tochal
that reach 3,900 meters (12,800 feet) high near Tochal's peak (at 4,000 m/13,000 ft), rising higher than the gondola's 7th station, which is higher than any of the European ski resorts. From the Tochal
Tochal
peak, one has a spectacular view of the Alborz
Alborz
range, including the 5,610-metre-high (18,406 ft) Mount Damavand, a dormant volcano.

The Azadi Stadium
Azadi Stadium
is the largest football stadium in West Asia.

Tehran
Tehran
is the site of the national stadium of Azadi, the biggest stadium by capacity in West Asia, where many of the top matches of Iran's Premier League are held. The stadium is a part of the Azadi Sport Complex, which was originally built to host the 7th Asian Games in September 1974. This was the first time the Asian Games
Asian Games
were hosted in West Asia. Tehran
Tehran
played host to 3,010 athletes from 25 countries/NOCs, which was at the time the highest number of participants since the inception of the Games.[76] That followed hosting the 6th AFC Asian Cup in June 1976, and then the first West Asian Games
Asian Games
in November 1997. The success of the games led to the creation of the West Asian Games Federation (WAGF), and the intention of hosting the games every two years.[77] The city had also hosted the final of the 1968 AFC Asian Cup. Several FIVB Volleyball World League courses have also been hosted in Tehran. Football clubs[edit] The first football club of Tehran, named Iran
Iran
Club, was founded in 1920 and dissolved within two years in 1923. Today, Tehran's oldest existing football club is Rah Ahan, which was founded in 1937. Persepolis and Esteghlal, which are the city's biggest clubs and two of the biggest clubs in Asia, compete in the Tehran
Tehran
derby. Tehran
Tehran
is also home to the football club of Ararat, a popular Armenian football team based at the Ararat Stadium. The following table lists Tehran's six major football clubs.

Club Sport Founded League

Rah Ahan F.C. Association football 1937 Azadegan League
Azadegan League
(AZL)

Ararat F.C. Association football 1944 Tehran Province
Tehran Province
League

Esteghlal F.C.[78] Association football 1945 Iran
Iran
Pro League (IPL)

Naft F.C. Association football 1950 Iran
Iran
Pro League (IPL)

Persepolis F.C.[79] Association football 1963 Iran
Iran
Pro League (IPL)

Paykan F.C. Association football 1967 Iran
Iran
Pro League (IPL)

Smaller clubs based in Tehran
Tehran
are listed below.

Club Sport League

Baadraan F.C. Association football Azadegan League

Parseh F.C. Association football Azadegan League

Niroo Zamini F.C. Association football 2nd Division

Kaveh F.C. Association football 2nd Division

Moghavemat F.C. Association football 2nd Division

Oghab F.C. Association football 3rd Division

Entezam F.C. Association football 3rd Division

Naftoon F.C. Association football 3rd Division

Food[edit] See also: Iranian cuisine There are many restaurants and cafes in Tehran, both modern and classic, serving both Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. Pizzerias, sandwich bars, and kebab shops make up the majority of food shops in Tehran.[80]

A restaurant in Darband

A pizzeria in Kamyab Street, Tehran

A Japanese restaurant in Tehran

Shemroon Cafe, in Tehran's Iranian Art Museum

Graffiti[edit] Main article: Graffiti in Tehran

A scene from the 2016 documentary film Writing on the City, showing graffiti in Tehran's Sa'adat Abad

Many styles of graffiti are seen in Tehran. Some are mainly political and revolutionary slogans painted by governmental organizations,[81] and some are works of art by ordinary citizens, representing their views on both social and political issues. However, unsanctioned street art is forbidden in Iran,[81] and such works are usually short-lived. During the 2009 Iranian presidential election protests, many graffiti works were created by people supporting the Green Movement. They were removed from the walls by the paramilitary Basij
Basij
forces.[82] In recent years, Tehran
Tehran
Municipality has been using graffiti in order to beautify the city. Several graffiti festivals have also taken place in Tehran, including the one organized by the Tehran
Tehran
University of Art in October 2014.[83]

Twin towns and partner cities[edit]

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Tehran
Tehran
is twinned with:

Country City State / Province / Region / Governorate Date

South Korea

Seoul

Seoul
Seoul
National Capital Area 1963[84]

United States

Los Angeles

California 1972[85][86][87]

United Kingdom

London

Greater London 1993

Cuba

Havana

La Habana Province 2001[88][89]

Venezuela

Caracas

Venezuelan Capital District 2001[90]

South Africa

Pretoria

Gauteng 2002[88][dead link][91]

Russia

Moscow

Central Federal District 2004[88][dead link][92]

China

Beijing

Beijing
Beijing
Municipality 2006[88][dead link][93]

Tajikistan

Dushanbe

2006[88][dead link]

Belarus

Minsk

Minsk
Minsk
Region 2006[94][95]

Turkey

Ankara

Central Anatolia 2013[96]

Georgia

Tbilisi

Tbilisi 2015[97]

Hungary

Budapest

Central Hungary 2015[98]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Canton 2016[99]

Tehran
Tehran
has also signed Mutual Cooperation and Understanding with a number of cities, including Baghdad, Kabul, London, Milan, New York City, and Saint Petersburg.[88][dead link] Panoramic views[edit]

A panoramic view of Tehran
Tehran
at night

A panoramic view of Tehran
Tehran
during the day

A panoramic view of Tehran
Tehran
during the day

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal

Iran
Iran
International Exhibitions Company Islamic City Council of Tehran Tehran
Tehran
City Council (1968–1979)

References[edit]

^ Tehran[permanent dead link]. Daft Logic. ^ Tehran, Environment & Geography. Tehran.ir. ^ Urban population: Data for Tehran
Tehran
County. ~97.5% of county population live in Tehran
Tehran
city Metro population: Estimate on base of census data, includes central part of Tehran
Tehran
province and Karaj County
Karaj County
and Fardis
Fardis
from Alborz province ^ See List of metropolitan areas in Asia. ^ "The world's largest cities and urban areas in 2006". City Mayors. Retrieved 2010-09-25.  ^ Erdösy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Walter de Gruyter. p. 165. Possible western place names are the following: Raya-, which is also the ancient name of Median Raga in the Achaemenid inscriptions (Darius, Bisotun 2.13: a land in Media called Raga) and modern Rey south of Tehran  ^ " Tehran
Tehran
(Iran) : Introduction – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-05-21.  ^ a b c "Tabiat Pedestrian Bridge / Diba Tensile Architecture". ArchDaily. November 17, 2014.  ^ a b c "چنددرصد تهرانی‌ها در تهران به دنیا آمده‌اند؟". tabnak.ir (in Persian). November 3, 2010.  ^ a b Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; McDonald, Peter; Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat. (September 30, 2009). "Region of Residence". The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction. Springer. pp. 100–101. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Schuppe, Mareike. (2008). Coping with Growth in Tehran: Strategies of Development Regulation. GRIN Verlag. p. 13. Besides Persian, there are Azari, Armenian, and Jewish communities in Tehran. The vast majority of Tehran's residents are Persian-speaking (98.3%).  ^ Barbaglia, Pamela. (March 29, 2016). "Iranian expats hard to woo as Western firms seek foothold in Iran". Reuters.  ^ Erenhouse, Ryan. (September 22, 2016). " Bangkok
Bangkok
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California
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and New York: Routledge. pp. 242–252. Retrieved 23 August 2013.  ^ "Tehran". Looklex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2013-07-04.  ^ "Iran-Azeris". Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1987. Retrieved 13 August 2013.  ^ "Country Study Guide-Azerbaijanis". STRATEGIC INFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENTS-USA. Retrieved 13 August 2013.  ^ "یک و نیم میلیون مازندرانی پایتخت نشین شدند" (in Persian). IRNA. April 3, 2016.  ^ Lakshman, Nikhil. "Indian Prime Minister in Tehran". Rediff.com. Retrieved 3 September 2012.  ^ " Tehran
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(Iran) : People – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-05-21.  ^ Cordesman, Anthony H. (September 23, 2008). "The US, Israel, the Arab States and a Nuclear Iran. Part One: Iranian Nuclear Programs" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 2010-09-25.  ^ Chaichian, Mohammad (2009). Town and Country in the Middle East: Iran
Iran
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Investment Monthly (February 2011). Retrieved April 30, 2011 ^ a b "Mokhtari: There are over 2,100 parks in Tehran". IRNA. February 15, 2015.  ^ "About Tehran
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(Lonely Planet Country Guide). p. 114. Lonely Planet Publications, 5th Edition, 2008. ISBN 978-1-74104-293-1. ^ Kiann, Nima (2015). The History of Ballet in Iran. Wiesbaden, Germany: Reichert Verlag.  ^ Mehrabi, Massoud. "The history of Iranian cinema". Retrieved 2017-06-09.  ^ "Iranian Cinema: Before the Revolution". offscreen.com. November 1999.  ^ "Lines of Telecabin". tochal.org. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21.  ^ "TEHRAN 1974". Olympic Council of Asia. Archived from the original on 2006-07-11.  ^ Stokkermans, Karel (January 22, 2015). "West Asian Games".  ^ Esteqlal F.C. Official Website. Estqlal F.C. ^ Persepolis F.C.
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Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Tehran External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tehran.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tehran.

Google Map: Tehran Tehran
Tehran
Municipality website Tehran
Tehran
Geographic Information Center Tehran
Tehran
Traffic Control Center Official Tehran
Tehran
Yellow pages (Ketabe Avval) Tehranimages. A photographic project focusing on neglected pieces of architecture in downtown Tehran, Iran.

Videos

Tehran's detailed development plan PressTV
PressTV
(2012) Tehran
Tehran
today – Part I Part II Part III PressTV
PressTV
(2010) Modernized Iranian architecture
Iranian architecture
in Tehran
Tehran
Press TV
Press TV
(2010) Tehran's hazardous air quality PressTV
PressTV
(2010)

Preceded by Shiraz Capital of Iran
Iran
(Persia) 1795–current Incumbent

Articles Related to Tehran

v t e

Tehran

Buildings Culture Demographics Economy Education Geography Government History

Timeline

Media Museums Neighborhoods Parks People Religion Sports Tourism Transportation

Category Commons Iran
Iran
Portal

 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 35°41′46″N 51°25′23″E / 35.69611°N 51.42306°E / 35.69611; 51.42306

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Tehran
Tehran
Province

Capital

Tehran

Counties and cities

Baharestan County

Nasim Shahr Golestan Salehieh

Damavand County

Damavand Abali Absard Kilan Rudehen

Eslamshahr
Eslamshahr
County

Ahmadabad-e Mostowfi Eslamshahr Chahardangeh

Firuzkuh
Firuzkuh
County

Firuzkuh Arjomand

Malard
Malard
County

Malard Safadasht

Pakdasht
Pakdasht
County

Pakdasht Sharifabad

Pardis
Pardis
County

Pardis Bumehen

Pishva
Pishva
County

Pishva

Qarchak
Qarchak
County

Qarchak

Qods County

Qods

Rey County

Rey* Baqershahr Hasanabad Kahrizak

Robat Karim
Robat Karim
County

Robat Karim Parand Nasirabad

Shahriar County

Shahriar Andisheh Baghestan Ferdowsieh Sabashahr Shahedshahr Vahidieh

Shemiranat County

Shemiran* Fasham Lavasan Tajrish*

Tehran
Tehran
County

Tehran

Varamin
Varamin
County

Varamin Javadabad

Landmarks

Azadi Tower Bahman Cultural Center Tabiat Bridge Carpet Museum of Iran Dizin Ebn-e Babooyeh Golestan Palace Grand Bazaar, Tehran Iranian Crown Jewels Malik National Museum of Iran Milad Tower National Museum of Iran Niavaran
Niavaran
Complex Pearl Palace Sa'dabad Palace Shebeli Tower Shemshak (ski resort) Bibi Shahr Banu Shrine Tangeh Savashi Tehran
Tehran
Museum of Contemporary Art Toopkhaneh Tughrul Tower Reza Abbasi Museum

Populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Tehran
Tehran
Province

^* indicates that this formerly independent city is now absorbed into Tehran.

v t e

Tehran
Tehran
County

Capital

Tehran

Districts

Central

Cities

Tehran

Rural Districts and villages

Siyahrud

Ashtargarden Darazminak Hajarabad Hameh Sin Sanjarian Tellow-e Bala Tellow-e Pain Yurd-e Shad

Aftab

Cities

none

Rural Districts and villages

Aftab

Aftab Hasanabad-e Baqeraf Jafarabad-e Baqeraf Karimabad Nematabad-e Ghar Qaleh Now-e Hajji Musa Rashidabad Salehabad-e Seyyedabad Shahrak-e Resalat

Khalazir

Abbasabad-e Rostamabad Dinarabad Jafarabad-e Jangal Jahanabad Kashanak Khalazir Marjanabad Moradabad Morteza Gerd Palain Rahimabad Shokrabad Valiabad

Kan

Cities

none

Rural Districts and villages

Sulqan

Emamzadeh Aqil Emamzadeh Davud Keshar-e Olya Keshar-e Sofla Kigah Randan Sangan Sinai and Gulf Corner Centre Talun Vardij Varish

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Iran 2016 census

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Tehran

Mashhad 1 Tehran Tehran 8,693,706 11 Rasht Gilan 679,995

Isfahan

Karaj

2 Mashhad Razavi Khorasan 3,001,184 12 Zahedan Sistan and Baluchestan 587,730

3 Isfahan Isfahan 1,961,260 13 Hamadan Hamadan 554,406

4 Karaj Alborz 1,592,492 14 Kerman Kerman 537,718

5 Shiraz Fars 1,565,572 15 Yazd Yazd 529,673

6 Tabriz East Azarbaijan 1,558,693 16 Ardabil Ardabil 529,374

7 Qom Qom 1,201,158 17 Bandar Abbas Hormozgan 526,648

8 Ahwaz Khuzestan 1,184,788 18 Arak Markazi 520,944

9 Kermanshah Kermanshah 946,651 19 Eslamshahr Tehran 448,129

10 Urmia West Azarbaijan 736,224 20 Zanjan Zanjan 430,871

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 124320545 LCCN: n79039626 GND: 405930

.