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Al-Biruni
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/Persian: ابوریحان بیرونی‎ Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī;[4][5] New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī[6]) (4 September 973[7][8] – 9 December 1048[7]), known as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني‎) in English,[9] was an Iranian[10][11][12][13] scholar and polymath from Khwarezm
Khwarezm
— a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist.[12] He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings
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Medicine
Medicine
Medicine
is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.[1] Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture
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Comparative Sociology
Comparative sociology
Comparative sociology
involves comparison of the social processes between nation states, or across different types of society (for example capitalist and socialist). There are two main approaches to comparative sociology: some seek similarity across different countries and cultures whereas others seek variance. For example, structural Marxists have attempted to use comparative methods to discover the general processes that underlie apparently different social orderings in different societies
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Physics
Physics
Physics
(from Ancient Greek: φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), translit. physikḗ (epistḗmē), lit. 'knowledge of nature', from φύσις phýsis "nature"[1][2][3]) is the natural science that studies matter[4] and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.[5] Physics
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Geology
Geology
Geology
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse"[1][2]) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars
Mars
or the Moon). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure
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Astronomy
Astronomy
Astronomy
(from Greek: ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets; the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation. More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole.[1] Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Islamic Theology
Sunni
Sunni
theological traditionsIlm al-KalamAsh'ari1 Maturidi Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2Shi'a Twelver3PrinciplesTawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah QiyamahPracticesSalah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra


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Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
Omar Khayyam
(Persian pronunciation: [xæjˈjɑːm]; عمر خیّام  (Persian); 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.[3][4]:7 As a mathematician, he is most notable for his work on the classification and solution of cubic equations, where he provided geometric solutions by the intersection of conics.[5][6] As an astronomer, he composed a calendar which proved to be a more accurate computation of time than that proposed five centuries later by Pope Gregory XIII.[7]:659[8] Omar was born in Nishapur, in northeastern Iran. He spent most of his life near the court of the Karakhanid and Seljuq rulers in the period which witnessed the First Crusade. There is a tradition of attributing poetry to Omar Khayyam, written in the form of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt رباعیات‎)
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Astrology
Expand list for reference▼ Astrology► Astrology
Astrology
images► Astrology
Astrology
stubs► Astrologers► Astrological ages► Astrological data collectors► Astrological organizations► Astrological signs► History of astrology►
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Psychology
Psychology
Psychology
is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[1][2] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist
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Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī
Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawarī (815–896 CE, Arabic: أبو حنيفة الدينوري‎) was an Islamic Golden Age polymath, astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian. He was born in the region of Dinawar, in Kermanshah in modern-day western Iran. He studied astronomy, mathematics and mechanics in Isfahan and philology and poetry in Kufa
Kufa
and Basra. He died in Dinawar. His most renowned contribution is Book of Plants, for which he is considered the founder of Arabic botany.[1] There is no consensus regarding his ethnic background among scholars
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Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta
( listen (help·info)) (born c. 598 CE, died c. 668 CE) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He is the author of two early works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta (BSS, "correctly established doctrine of Brahma", dated 628), a theoretical treatise, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka ("edible bite", dated 665), a more practical text. Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta
was the first to give rules to compute with zero. The texts composed by Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta
were composed in elliptical verse in Sanskrit, as was common practice in Indian mathematics
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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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Aristotle
Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[n 1] was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his teachings, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost all forms of knowledge. Little is known for certain about his life. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c
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