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Khwarezm
Khwarezm
/kwəˈrɛzəm/ or Chorasmia /kəˈræzmiə/ (Persian: خوارزم‎, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau. It was the center of the Iranian[1] Khwarezmian civilization and a series of kingdoms such as the Persian Empire, whose capitals were (among others) Kath, Gurganj
Gurganj
(the modern Köneürgenç) and – from the 16th century on – Khiva. Today Khwarezm
Khwarezm
belongs partly to Uzbekistan, partly to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and partly to Turkmenistan.

Contents

1 Names and etymology

1.1 Names 1.2 Etymology

2 Legendary history 3 Early people

3.1 Khwarezmian language and culture

4 Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid
Sassanid
era 5 Afrighids 6 Khwarezmid Empire 7 Modern age 8 In Persian literature 9 Notable people 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Names and etymology[edit] Names[edit] Khwarezm
Khwarezm
has been known also as Chorasmia, Khwarezmia, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Khorezm, Khoresm, Khorasam, Kharazm, Harezm, Horezm, and Chorezm.[2] In Avestan
Avestan
the name is Xvairizem; in Old Persian
Old Persian
Huwarazmish; in Modern Persian خوارزم Xvārazm; in Arabic خوارزم Xuwārizm; in Old Chinese
Old Chinese
*qʰaljɯʔmriɡ (呼似密); in modern Chinese Huālázǐmó (花剌子模 / Xiao'erjing: خٗوَلاذِموْ); in Tajik Хоразм, Xorazm, خارَزم; in Kazakh Хорезм (Xorezm), حورەزم; in Uzbek Xorazm, Хоразм, خورەزم; in Turkmen Horezm, Хорезм, خوْرِزم; in Turkish Harezm; in Greek language
Greek language
Χορασμία (Chorasmía) and Χορασίμα (Chorasíma) by Herodotus. Etymology[edit] The Arab
Arab
geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi in his Muʿǧam al-buldan wrote that the name was a Persian compound of khwar (خوار), and razm (رزم), referring to the abundance of cooked fish as a main diet of the peoples of this area.[3] C.E. Bosworth, however, believes the Persian name to be made up of xor (خور "the sun") and zam (زم "earth, land"), designating "the land from which the sun rises",[4] although a similar etymology is also given for Khurasan. Another view is that the Iranian compound stands for "lowland" from kh(w)ar "low" and zam "land.".[2] Khwarezm
Khwarezm
is indeed the lowest region in Central Asia
Central Asia
(except for the Caspian Sea to the far west), located on the delta of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
on the southern shores of the Aral Sea. Various forms of khwar/khar/khor/hor are commonly used also in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
to stand for tidal flats, marshland, or tidal bays (e.g., Khor Musa, Khor Abdallah, Hor al-Azim, Hor al-Himar, etc.) The name also appears in Achaemenid
Achaemenid
inscriptions as Huvarazmish, which is declared to be part of the Persian Empire. Some of the early scholars believed Khwarezm
Khwarezm
to be what ancient Avestic texts refer to as Airyanem Vaejah (Ariyaneh Waeje; later Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Iran vij).[5] These sources claim that Old Urgench, which was the capital of ancient Khwarezm
Khwarezm
for many years, was actually Ourva, the eighth land of Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
mentioned in the Pahlavi text of Vendidad.[6] However, Michael Witzel, a researcher in early Indo-European history, believes that Airyanem Vaejah was located in what is now Afghanistan, the northern areas of which were a part of ancient Khwarezm
Khwarezm
and Greater Khorasan.[7] Others, however, disagree. University of Hawaii
University of Hawaii
historian Elton L. Daniel believes Khwarezm
Khwarezm
to be the "most likely locale" corresponding to the original home of the Avestan
Avestan
people, and Dehkhoda
Dehkhoda
calls Khwarezm
Khwarezm
"the cradle of the Aryan tribe" (مهد قوم آریا).[8] Legendary history[edit] Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
(973–1048), a native speaker of Chorasmian (an Iranian language),[9][10][11] says that the land belonging to the mythical king Afrasiab
Afrasiab
was first colonised 980 years before Alexander the Great (thus c. 1292 B.C., well before the Seleucid
Seleucid
era) when the hero of the Iranian epic Siyavash
Siyavash
came to Khwarezm; his son Kay Khusraw
Kay Khusraw
came to the throne 92 years later, in 1200 B.C. Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
starts giving names only with the Afrighid
Afrighid
line of Khwarazmshahs, having placed the ascension of Afrighids
Afrighids
in 616 of the Seleucid
Seleucid
era, i.e. in 305 A.D. Early people[edit] Like Soghdiana, Khwarezm
Khwarezm
was an expansion of the BMAC
BMAC
culture during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
which later fused with Indo-Iranians during their migrations around 1000 BC. Early Iron Age states arose from this cultural exchange. List of successive cultures in Khwarezm
Khwarezm
region 3000–500 BC:[12]

Keltiminar Culture c. 3000 BC Suyargan Culture c 2000 BC Tazabag’yab Culture c. 1500 BC Amirabad Culture c 1000 BC Saka
Saka
c. 500 BC

During the final Saka
Saka
phase, there were about 400 settlements in Khwarezm.[13] Ruled by the native Afrighid
Afrighid
Dynasty. It was at this point that Khwarezm
Khwarezm
entered the historical record with the Achamenid expansion.[citation needed] Khwarezmian language and culture[edit]

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An East Iranian language, known as Khwarezmian language, was spoken in Khwarezm
Khwarezm
proper (i.e., the lower Amu Darya
Amu Darya
region) until soon after the Mongol invasion, when it was replaced by Turkic languages.[14][15][16][17] It was closely related to Sogdian. Other than the astronomical terms used by the native Iranian Chorasmian speaker Al-Biruni,[11] our other sources of Khwarezmian include Zamakhshari's Arabic-Persian–Khwarezmian dictionary and several legal texts that use Khwarezmian terms to explain certain legal concepts. In the very early part of its history, the inhabitants of the area were from Iranian[18][19] stock and they spoke an Eastern Iranian language called Khwarezmian. The famous scientist Al-Biruni, a Khwarezm
Khwarezm
native, in his Athar ul-Baqiyah,[20] specifically verifies the Iranian origins of Khwarezmians when he wrote (in Arabic):

أهل خوارزم [...] کانوا غصناً من دوحة الفرس ("The people of the Khwarezm
Khwarezm
were a branch from Persian tree.")

The area of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
was under Afrighid
Afrighid
and then Samanid
Samanid
control until the 10th century before it was conquered by the Ghaznavids. The Iranian Chorasmian language and culture felt the pressure of Turkic infiltration from northern Khwarezm
Khwarezm
southwards, leading to the disappearance of the original Iranian character[11] of the province and its complete Turkicisation today, but Khwarezmian speech[11] probably lasted in upper Khwarezm, the region round Hazarasp, till the end of the 8th/14th century.[11] The Iranian Chorasmian language survived for several centuries after Islam
Islam
until the Turkification of the region, and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Al-Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum.[11] Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid
Sassanid
era[edit] Main article: Chorasmia (satrapy) Sometime before the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
king Cyrus the Great's death in 530 BC, he had conquered Khwarezm. While he was dying, he appointed his son Smerdis/Bardiya as the governor of the region, along with Bactriana, Carmania, and the other eastern provinces of the empire.[21] And the Persian poet Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
mentions Persian cities like Afrasiab
Afrasiab
and Chach in abundance in his epic Shahnama. When the king of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
offered friendship to Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 328 BC, Alexander's Greek and Roman biographers imagined the nomad king of a desert waste, but 20th-century Russian archeologists revealed the region as a stable and centralized kingdom, a land of agriculture to the east of the Aral Sea, surrounded by the nomads of Central Asia, protected by its army of mailed horsemen, in the most powerful kingdom northwest of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
(the Oxus
Oxus
River of antiquity). The king's emissary offered to lead Alexander's armies against his own enemies, west over the Caspian towards the Black Sea (e.g. Kingdom of Iberia and Colchis). Alexander politely refused. Although largely independent during the Seleucid, Bactrian and Arsacid dynasties, it is known that Khwarezm
Khwarezm
and neighboring Bactriana
Bactriana
were part of the Sassanid
Sassanid
empire during the time of Bahram II. Yaqut al-Hamawi verifies that Khwarezm
Khwarezm
was a regional capital of the Sassanid
Sassanid
empire. When speaking of the pre-Islamic "khosrau of Khwarezm" (خسرو خوارزم), the Islamic "amir of Khwarezm" (امیر خوارزم), or even the Khwarezmid Empire, sources such as Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
and Ibn Khordadbeh and others clearly refer to Khwarezm as being part of the Iranian (Persian) empire.[22] The fact that Pahlavi script
Pahlavi script
which was used by the Persian bureaucracy alongside Old Persian, passed into use in Khwarezmia where it served as the first local alphabet about the AD 2nd century, as well as evidence that Khwarezm-Shahs such as ʿAlā al-Dīn Tekish (1172–1200) issued all their orders (both administrative and public) in Persian language,[23] corroborates Al-Biruni's claims. It was also a vassal kingdom during periods of Kushans, Hephthalites and Gokturks
Gokturks
power before the coming of the Arabs. Afrighids[edit] Main article: Afrighids

Silver bowl from Khwarezm
Khwarezm
depicting a four-armed goddess seated on a lion, dated 658 AD, British Museum.[24]

The Afrighids
Afrighids
(آفریغیان-آل آفریغ) were a native Chorasmian (i.g. Iranian) [9][25][26] dynasty which ruled over the kingdom of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
(according to Al-Biruni) from 305 until 995 A.D. Sometimes it was under Sassanid
Sassanid
control. In 712 Khwarezm
Khwarezm
was conquered by the Arab
Arab
Umayyads. It thus came vaguely under Muslim suzerainty, but it was not until the end of the 8th century or the beginning of the 9th century that an Afrighid
Afrighid
Shah was first converted to Islam
Islam
appearing with the popular convert’s name of ʿAbdallah (slave of God). In the course of the 10th century, when some geographers such as Istakhri
Istakhri
in his Al-Masalik wa-l-mamalik mention Khwarezm
Khwarezm
as part of Khorasan and Transoxiania, the local family of the Ma'munids
Ma'munids
who were based in Gurganj, on the left bank of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
grew in economic and political importance due to trade caravans. In 995, they violently overthrew the Afrighids
Afrighids
of Kath and themselves assumed the traditional title of Khwarazm-Shah. Briefly, the area was under Samanid
Samanid
suzerainty, before it passed to Mahmud of Ghazna in 1017. From then on, Turco-Mongolian invasions and long rule by Turco-Mongol dynasties supplanted the Iranian character of the region[26] although the title of Khwarezm- Shah
Shah
was maintained well up to the 13th century.[26] Khwarezmid Empire[edit] Main article: Khwarezmid Empire

Political map of Asia, Europe and Africa around 1200 AD showing the Khwarezmid Empire
Khwarezmid Empire
in dark green

The Khwarezmid Empire
Khwarezmid Empire
was founded in the 12th century. It became a vassal of the Kara-Khitan Khanate
Kara-Khitan Khanate
after Yelü Dashi
Yelü Dashi
won the Battle of Qatwan (1141) against a Seljuk army commanded by Sanjar.[27] Kara-Khitan suzerainty weakened later. The Khwarezmid Empire
Khwarezmid Empire
ruled over all of Persia in the early 13th century under Shah
Shah
ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muhammad II (1200–1220). From 1218 to 1220, Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia
Central Asia
including the Kara-Khitan Khanate, thus ending the Khwarezmid Empire. Sultan Muhammad died after retreating from the Mongols near the Caspian Sea, while his son Jalal ad-Din, after being defeated by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
at the Battle of Indus, sought refuge with the Delhi Sultanate, and was later assassinated after various attempts to defeat the Mongols and the Seljuks. Modern age[edit]

Khwarezm
Khwarezm
(Karasm), on a 1734 French map. The Khanate on the map surrounds the Aral Sea
Aral Sea
(depicted as much smaller than it actually was in those days) and includes much of the today's Kazakhstan's and Turkmenistan's Caspian coast

Main article: Khanate of Khiva The region of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
was split between the White Horde and Jagatai Khanate, and its rebuilt capital Gurganj
Gurganj
(modern Kunya Urgench, "Old Gorganj" as against the modern city of Urgench
Urgench
some distance away ) again became one of the largest and most important trading centers in Central Asia. In the mid-14th century Khwarezm
Khwarezm
gained independence from the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
under the Sufid dynasty. However, Timur
Timur
regarded Khwarezm
Khwarezm
as a rival to Samarkand, and over the course of 5 campaigns, he destroyed Urganch completely in 1388. This together with a shift in the course of the Amu-Darya caused the center of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
to shift to Khiva, which became in the 16th century the capital of the Khanate of Khiva, ruled over by the dynasty of the Arabshahids. The rumors of gold on the banks of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
during the reign of Russia's Peter the Great, together with the desire of the Russian Empire to open a trade route to the Indus (modern day Pakistan), prompted an armed trade expedition to the region, led by Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky, which was repelled by Khiva. It was under Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III that serious efforts to annex the region started. One of the main pretexts to Russian military expeditions to Khiva
Khiva
was to free Russian slaves in the khanate and to prevent future slave capture and trade. Early in The Great Game, Russian interests in the region collided with those of the British Empire
British Empire
in the First Anglo-Afghan War
First Anglo-Afghan War
in 1839. The Khanate of Khiva
Khiva
was gradually reduced in size from Russian expansion in Turkestan
Turkestan
(including Khwarezm) and, in 1873, a peace treaty was signed that established Khiva
Khiva
as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate. After the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
seizure of power in the October Revolution, a short-lived Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic (later the Khorezm SSR) was created out of the territory of the old Khanate of Khiva, before in 1924 it was finally incorporated into the Soviet Union, with the former Khanate divided between the new Turkmen SSR, Uzbek SSR
Uzbek SSR
and Karakalpakstan
Karakalpakstan
ASSR (initially part of Kazakh ASSR as Karakalpak Oblast). The larger historical area of Khwarezm
Khwarezm
is further divided. Northern Khwarezm
Khwarezm
became the Uzbek SSR, and in 1925 the western part became the Turkmen SSR. Also, in 1936 northwestern part became Kazakh SSR. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, these became Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
respectively. Many of the ancient Khwarezmian towns are situated currently in Xorazm Province, Uzbekistan. Today, the area that was Khwarezm
Khwarezm
has a mixed population of Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Turkmens, Tajiks, Tatars, and Kazakhs. In Persian literature[edit]

Emir
Emir
Timur
Timur
and his maiden from Khwarezm.

Khwarezm
Khwarezm
and her cities appear in Persian literature
Persian literature
in abundance, in both prose and poetry. Dehkhoda
Dehkhoda
for example defines the name Bukhara itself as "full of knowledge", referring to the fact that in antiquity, Bukhara
Bukhara
was a scientific and scholarship powerhouse. Rumi verifies this when he praises the city as such: Other examples illustrate the eminent status of Khwarezmid and Transoxianian cities in Persian literature
Persian literature
in the past 1500 years:

عالم جانها بر او هست مقرر چنانک The world of hearts is under his power in the same manner that دولت خوارزمشاه داد جهان را قرار The Khwarazmshahs
Khwarazmshahs
have brought peace to the world.

—Khaqani Shirvani

یکی پر طمع پیش خوارزمشاه A greedy one went to Khwarezm-shah شنیدم که شد بامدادی پگاه early one morning, so I have heard

—Saadi

Yaqut al-Hamawi, who visited Khwarezm
Khwarezm
and its capital in 1219, wrote: "I have never seen a city more wealthy and beautiful than Gurganj". The city, however, was destroyed during several invasions, in particular when the Mongol army broke the dams of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
which flooded the city. He reports that for every Mongol soldier, four inhabitants of Gurganj
Gurganj
were killed. Najmeddin Kubra, the great Sufi master, was among the casualties. The Mongol army that devastated Gurganj
Gurganj
was estimated to have been near 80,000 soldiers. The verse below refers to an early previous calamity that fell upon the region:

آخر ای خاک خراسان داد یزدانت نجات Oh land of Khorasan! God has saved you, از بلای غیرت خاک ره گرگانج و کات from the disaster that befell the land of Gurganj
Gurganj
and Kath

—Divan of Anvari

Nevertheless, the beauty and fame of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Samarqand
Samarqand
are well known in Persian literature. The following famous cosmopolitan ode perhaps best provides a notable example of this:

اگر آن ترک شیرازی به دست آرد دل ما را If that Shirazi Turk can win my heart, به خال هندویش بخشم سمرقند و بخارا را I would sell even the jewel cities of Samarqand
Samarqand
and Bukhara
Bukhara
for the Indian mole on her cheek.

—Hafiz

Legend has it that Tamerlane
Tamerlane
sent for Hafiz regarding this verse and asked angrily: "Are you he who was so bold as to offer my two great cities Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara
Bukhara
for the mole on thy mistress's cheek?" Hafiz then replied, "Yes, sire, and it is by such acts of generosity that I have brought myself to such a state of destitution that I have now to solicit your bounty." Tamerlane
Tamerlane
is written to have been so pleased at his ready wit that he dismissed the poet with a handsome present. Notable people[edit]

The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara
Bukhara
and Kokand
Kokand
in the time period of 1902-1903.

The following either hail from Khwarezm, or lived and are buried there:

Zoroaster
Zoroaster
(aka Zarathustra), prophet and founder of the religion of Zoroastrianism Al-Biruni, outstanding scholar Ma'mun II, Khwarezm
Khwarezm
Shah
Shah
and founder of an academy Najm al-Din Kubra, Sufi
Sufi
mystic Rashid al-Din Vatvat, panegyrist and epistolographer Fakhr al-Din Razi Ala al-Din Atsiz, Khwarezm
Khwarezm
Shah Ala al-Din Muhammad, Khwarezm
Khwarezm
Shah Jalal ad-Din Menguberdi, Khwarezm
Khwarezm
Shah Abu l-Hasan Sa'eedeh ibn Sa'deh, commentary writer on the writings of Sibawayh. Abaaq al-Khwarazmi Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, mathematician (for whom the term algorithm is named.) Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi, 10th century encyclopedist who wrote Mafatih al-'Ulum (“Key to the Sciences”). Zamakhshari, scholar Qutb al-zaman Muhammad ibn Abu-Tahir Marvazi, philosopher Al-Marwazi, astronomer Mahmud Yalavach, ambassador and governor of Mavaraunnahr (1224–1238) Abu l-Ghazi Bahadur, Khan and historian Ras Tarkhan, a mercenary leader of the Khazars

See also[edit]

Zoroaster Zoroastrianism Khwarezmian language Khorezm People's Soviet Republic Khwarezmian Empire Keraites Uar Eurasian Avars Karakalpakstan Mount Imeon Koi Krylgan Kala

References[edit]

^ West 2009, pp. 402–405 ^ a b Encyclopedia Iranica, Chorasmia, Yuri Aleksandrovich Rapoport ^ Yaqut al-Hamawi, Mu'jam al-buldān, Vol2, p395 ^ C. E. Bosworth, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol IV, 1978. p. 1061 ^ Bahram Farahvoshi. Iranovich, Tehran University Press. 1991. p. 8 ^ Musa Javan. Tarikh-i Ijtima'i Iran-i Bastan (The social history of ancient Iran), 1961. p. 24 ^ Michael Witzel. "The Home of the Aryans." (.pdf) ^ Elton L. Daniel, The History of Iran. 2001. ISBN 0-313-30731-8. p.28 ^ a b ” ĀL-E AFRĪḠ” IN Encyclopedia Iranica by C. E. Bosworth ^ L. Massignon, " Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
et la valuer internationale de la science arabe" in Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
Commemoration Volume (Calcutta, 1951), pp. 217–219. excerpt: In a celebrated preface to the Book of Drugs, Biruni
Biruni
says: "It is through the Arabic language
Arabic language
that the sciences have been transmitted by means of translations from all parts of the world. They have been enhanced by the translation into the Arabic language and have as a result insinuated themselves into men's hearts, and the beauty of this language has commingled with these sciences in our veins and arteries. And if it is true that in all nations one likes to adorn oneself by using the language to which one has remained loyal, having become accustomed to using it with friends and companions according to need, I must judge for myself that in my native Chorasmian, science has as much as chance of becoming perpetuated as a camel has of facing Kaaba." ^ a b c d e f Bosworth, C.E. "Ḵh̲ W Ārazm." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. Accessed at 10 November 2007 <http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-4205> ^ MacKenzie, D.N. (1996). "Encyclopædia Iranica". CHORASMIA. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 29 July 2009.  ^ MacKenzie, 1996 ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, "The Chorasmian Language", D.N.Mackenzie Archived 14 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Andrew Dalby, Dictionary of Languages: The definitive reference to more than 400 languages, Columbia University Press, 2004, pg 278 ^ MacKenzie, D. N. "Khwarazmian Language and Literature," in E. Yarshater ed. Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. III, Part 2, Cambridge 1983, pp. 1244–1249 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Iranian languages" (Retrieved on 29 December 2008) ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, "CENTRAL ASIA: The Islamic period up to the mongols", C. Edmund Bosworth: "In early Islamic times Persians tended to identify all the lands to the northeast of Khorasan and lying beyond the Oxus
Oxus
with the region of Turan, which in the Shahnama
Shahnama
of Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
is regarded as the land allotted to Fereydun's son Tur. The denizens of Turan were held to include the Turks, in the first four centuries of Islam
Islam
essentially those nomadizing beyond the Jaxartes, and behind them the Chinese (see Kowalski; Minorsky, "Turan"). Turan thus became both an ethnic and a geographical term, but always containing ambiguities and contradictions, arising from the fact that all through Islamic times the lands immediately beyond the Oxus
Oxus
and along its lower reaches were the homes not of Turks but of Iranian peoples, such as the Sogdians and Khwarezmians." ^ C.E. Bosworth, "The Appearance of the Arabs in Central Asia
Central Asia
under the Umayyads and the establishment of Islam", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting, edited by M. S. Asimov and C. E. Bosworth. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1998. excerpt from page 23: " Central Asia
Central Asia
in the early seventh century, was ethnically, still largely an Iranian land whose people used various Middle Iranian languages. ^ الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية (p. 47) ^ Huart, Clement. Ancient Persia and Iranian Civilization. 1972. ISBN 0-7100-7242-2. p. 46 ^ Nasser Takmil Homayoun. Kharazm: What do I know about Iran?. 2004. ISBN 964-379-023-1. p.35 ^ A. A. Simonov ^ British Museum
British Museum
Collection ^ C.E. Bosworth, “The Ghaznavids” in History of Civilization: Central Asia
Central Asia
in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume IV: The Age of Achievement : A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century : Part One : The Historical Social and Economic Setting/edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1999, 485 pages. (Vol. IV, Pt. I). ISBN 81-208-1595-5. Excerpt from page 101: “The ancient Iranian kingdom of Khwarazm
Khwarazm
had been ruled until 995 by the old established line of Afrighids
Afrighids
of Kath, but control subsequently passed to the new line of Khwarazm
Khwarazm
Shahs, the Ma'munids
Ma'munids
of Gurganj” ^ a b c Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, Columbia University, 1996. ^ Biran, Michel, The empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian history, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 44.

Sources[edit]

Yuri Bregel. "The Sarts in the Khanate of Khiva", Journal of Asian History, Vol. 12, 1978, pp. 121–151 Robin Lane Fox. Alexander the Great, pp. 308ff etc. Shir Muhammad Mirab Munis & Muhammad Reza Mirab Agahi. Firdaws al-Iqbal. History of Khorezm (Leiden: Brill) 1999, trans & ed. Yuri Bregel West, Barbara A. (January 1, 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1438119135. Retrieved March 13, 2015. 

External links[edit]

Jona Lendering, Chorasmia, on the ancient history of Khwarezmia E. Nerazik on Central Asia
Central Asia
in the Early Middle Ages

v t e

Provinces of the Sasanian Empire

Abarshahr Adurbadagan Albania Arbayistan Armenia Asoristan Balasagan Dihistan Egypt* Eran-Khwarrah-Yazdegerd* Garamig Garamig ud Nodardashiragan Gurgan Harev Iberia India Khuzestan Kirman Kushanshahr Khwarazm Lazica Machelonia Makuran Marw Mazun Media Meshan Nodardashiragan Paradan Padishkhwargar Pars Sakastan Sogdia Spahan Turgistan

* indicates short living provinces

Coordinates: 42°11′22.59″N 59°19′34.22″E / 42.1896083°N 59.3261722°E / 42.1

.