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Al-
Al- (Arabic: ال‎, also transliterated as el- as pronounced in varieties of Arabic) is the definite article in the Arabic
Arabic
language: a particle (ḥarf) whose function is to render the noun on which it is prefixed definite. For example, the word كتاب kitāb "book" can be made definite by prefixing it with al-, resulting in الكتاب al-kitāb "the book". Consequently, al- is typically translated as the in English. Unlike most other particles in Arabic, al- is always prefixed to another word and it never stands alone. Consequently, most dictionaries will not list it as a separate word, and it is almost invariably ignored in collation. Similarly, al- is not a permanent component of the word to which it is prefixed. It is added and removed to toggle between the definiteness and indefiniteness of the word. As a particle, al- does not inflect for gender, plurality or grammatical case
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Final Noun
A noun string is a term for a series of nouns or other words, all of which modify the final noun. For example, in the noun string “U.S. energy consumption” the nouns "U.S." and "energy" modify the final noun "consumption." Noun strings are frequently used in technical writing but appear in other general business contexts as well.Contents1 As a usage problem 2 Fixing problems with noun strings 3 See also 4 External links 5 ReferencesAs a usage problem[edit] Since connecting elements such as prepositions or apostrophes are omitted from noun strings, readers must infer the relationship between the words. If the string is fairly short and the reader is already familiar with the field, he or she will probably be able to interpret a noun string without too much difficulty. When strings become longer than three words, they can make readers labor
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Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
Proto-Semitic
is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages
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Idiom
An idiom (Latin: idiomī, "special property", from Ancient Greek: ἰδίωμα, translit. idíōma, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. Ancient Greek: ἴδιος, translit. ídios, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom's figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning.[1] There are thousands of idioms, occurring frequently in all languages. It is estimated that there are at least twenty-five thousand idiomatic expressions in the English language.[2]Contents1 Derivations 2 Compositionality 3 Mobility 4 Translating idioms 5 Dealing with non-compositionality 6 See also 7 References7.1 Bibliography8 External linksDerivations[edit] Many idiomatic expressions, in their original use, were not figurative but had literal meaning
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Histories (Herodotus)
The Histories (Greek: Ἱστορίαι; Ancient Greek: [his.to.rí.ai̯]; also known as The History[1]) of Herodotus
Herodotus
is now considered the founding work of history in Western literature.[2] Written in 440 BC in the Ionic dialect
Ionic dialect
of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Western Asia, Northern Africa
Northern Africa
and Greece
Greece
at that time.[citation needed] Although not a fully impartial record, it remains one of the West's most important sources regarding these affairs
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Literary Arabic
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature is writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of language or writing itself
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Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary
Coordinates: 52°31′36.9″N 13°23′36.8″E / 52.526917°N 13.393556°E / 52.526917; 13.393556 Berlin
Berlin
Rabbinical Seminary, 25 years anniversary of work, 1898.The Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary
Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary
(officially in German: Rabbinerseminar für das orthodoxe Judenthum in Berlin
Berlin
till 1880, thereafter Rabbiner-Seminar zu Berlin; in Hebrew בית המדרש לרבנים בברלין, Bet ha-midrash le-Rabanim be-Berlin) was founded in Berlin
Berlin
on 22 October 1873 by Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr
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Hyperbole
Hyperbole (ˈ/haɪˈpɜːrbəli/; Ancient Greek: ὑπερβολή, huperbolḗ, from ὑπέρ (hupér, “above”) and βάλλω (bállō, "I throw")) is the use of exaggeration as a rhetorical device or figure of speech. In rhetoric, it is also sometimes known as auxesis (lit. "growth"). In poetry and oratory, it emphasizes, evokes strong feelings, and creates strong impressions. As a figure of speech, it is usually not meant to be taken literally.[1][2]Contents1 Usage 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksUsage[edit] Hyperbole may also be used for instances of such exaggerations for emphasis or effect
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Etymology
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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Nunation
In some Semitic languages, such as Arabic, nunation (Arabic: تَنوِين‎ tanwīn) is the addition of one of three vowel diacritics (Arabic: حَرَكَات‎ ḥarakāt) to a noun or adjective to indicate that the word ends in an alveolar nasal without the addition of the letter nūn. The noun phrase is fully declinable and syntactically unmarked for definiteness.Symbolـٌ‎ـٍ‎ـً‎Transliteration-un-in-anIn Classical and Modern Standard Arabic orthography, there are three nunation diacritics, which indicate the suffixes -un (IPA: /-un/) (nominative case), -in /-in/ (genitive), and -an /an/ (accusative). The sign ـً‎ is most commonly written in combination with ا‎ alif (ـًا‎), ةً‎ (tāʾ marbūṭa تاء مربوطة) or stand-alone ءً‎ (hamza همزة)
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Possession (linguistics)
Possession,[2][3] in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed). Possession may be marked in many ways, such as simple juxtaposition of nouns, possessive case, possessed case, construct state (as in Arabic, and Nêlêmwa),[4] or adpositions (possessive suffixes, possessive adjectives). For example, English uses a possessive clitic ('s), a preposition, of, and adjectives (my, your, his, her, etc.)
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Vocative Case
The vocative case (abbreviated VOC) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address by which the identity of the party spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence. For example, in the sentence "I don't know, John," John is a vocative expression that indicates the party being addressed, as opposed to the sentence "I don't know John" in which "John" is the direct object of the verb "know." Historically, the vocative case was an element of the Indo-European case system and existed in Latin, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Classical Greek
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Relative Pronoun
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies. An example is the English word which in the sentence "This is the house which Jack built." Here the relative pronoun which marks the relative clause "which Jack built", which modifies the noun house in the main sentence. Which has an anaphoric relationship to its antecedent "house" in the main clause. In linking a subordinate clause and a main clause, a relative pronoun functions similarly to a subordinating conjunction. Unlike a conjunction, however, a relative pronoun does not simply mark the subordinate (relative) clause, but also plays the role of a noun within that clause. For example, in the relative clause "which Jack built" given above, the pronoun "which" functions as the object of the verb "built"
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Demonstrative
Demonstratives (abbreviated DEM) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others. They are typically deictic, their meaning depending on a particular frame of its reference. Demonstratives are often used in spatial deixis (using the context of the physical surroundings of the speaker and sometimes the listener), but also in intra-discourse reference - so called "discourse deixis" (including abstract concepts) or anaphora, where the meaning is dependent on something other than the relative physical location of the speaker, for example whether something is currently being said or was said earlier. Demonstrative constructions include demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative determiners, which qualify nouns (as in Put that coat on); and demonstrative pronouns, which stand independently (as in Put that on)
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