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Adafenoxate
ADAFENOXATE is a compound related to centrophenoxine , that has been found to act as a nootropic in rats. REFERENCES * ^ Petkov VD, Getova D, Mosharrof AH (1987). "A study of nootropic drugs for anti-anxiety action". Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 13 (4): 25–30. PMID 2896427 . This drug article relating to the nervous system is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This article about an amine is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Adafenoxate
Adafenoxate
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the _Blue Book _ and the _Red Book _, respectively. A third publication, known as the _Green Book _, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the _Gold Book _, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the _White Book_, in association with the IUBMB ), analytical chemistry (the _Orange Book _), macromolecular chemistry (the _Purple Book_) and clinical chemistry (the _Silver Book_)
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Format * 3 Granularity * 4 Search engines * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (June 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_Historically, chemicals have been identified by a wide variety of synonyms. Frequently these are arcane and constructed according to regional naming conventions relating to chemical formulae, structures or origins
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux , and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc. Jmol supports a wide range of chemical file formats , including Protein Data Bank (pdb), Crystallographic Information File (cif), MDL Molfile (mol), and Chemical Markup Language (CML). There is also a JavaScript -only ( HTML5 ) version, _JSmol_, that can be used on computers with no Java. The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, which is no longer under active development
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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 50 million molecules from over 500 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) * Human Metabolome Database * Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry * KEGG * KUMGM * LeadScope * LipidMAPS * Marinlit * MDPI * MICAD * MLSMR * MMDB * MOLI * MTDP * Nanogen * Nature Chemical Biology * NCGC * NIAID * National Institutes of Health (NIH) * NINDS Approved Drug Screening Program * NIST * NIST Chemistry WebBook * NMMLSC * NMRShiftDB * PANACHE * PCMD * PDSP * Peptides * Prous Science Drugs of the Future * QSAR * R in fact, the FAQ even states that only limited downloads are allowed: therefore the right to fork is not guaranteed and the project can't be considered free /open
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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases. As of 28 January 2016: * Compounds, 82.6 million entries (up from 54 million entries in Sept 2014), contains pure and characterized chemical compounds
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Unique Ingredient Identifier
The UNIQUE INGREDIENT IDENTIFIER (UNII) is a non-proprietary, free, unique, unambiguous, non-semantic, alphanumeric identifier linked to a substance's molecular structure or descriptive information by the Substance Registration System (SRS) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The SRS is used to generate permanent, unique identifiers for substances in regulated products, such as ingredients in drug and biologic products. The SRS uses molecular structure and descriptive information to define a substance and generate the UNII. The primary means for defining a substance is by its molecular structure as represented on a two-dimensional plane. When a molecular structure is not available (e.g., botanicals), the UNII is defined by descriptive information. The procedures and management of the SRS is provided by the SRS Board which includes experts from both FDA and the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). EXAMPLES PREFERRED TERM UNII Methadone hydrochloride 229809935B Methadone
Methadone
UC6VBE7V1Z Water
Water
059QF0KO0RREFERENCES * ^ "Substance Registration System – UNII Presentation". _fda.gov_. * ^ "Substance Registration System - Unique Ingredient Identifier (UNII)"
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ _IN-chee_ or /ˈɪŋkiː/ _ING-kee_ ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC is a member. The current version is 1.04 and was released in September 2011. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Format and layers * 3 Examples * 4 InChIKey * 4.1 InChI resolvers * 5 Name * 6 Continuing development * 7 Adoption * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 External links * 10.1 Documentation and presentations * 10.2 Software and services OVERVIEWThe identifiers describe chemical substances in terms of _layers_ of information — the atoms and their bond connectivity, tautomeric information, isotope information, stereochemistry , and electronic charge information
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Terminology * 3 Graph-based definition * 4 Description * 4.1 Atoms * 4.2 Bonds * 4.3 Rings * 4.4 Aromaticity
Aromaticity
* 4.5 Branching * 4.6 Stereochemistry * 4.7 Isotopes * 4.8 Examples * 4.9 Other examples of SMILES * 5 Extensions * 6 Conversion * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links * 10.1 SMILES related software utilities HISTORYThe original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s
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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound , using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and _plus_ (+) and _minus_ (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called _empirical formulas _, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical _proportions_ of atoms of each type. _Molecular formulas_ indicate the simple _numbers_ of each type of atom in a molecule, with no information on structure. For example, the empirical formula for glucose is CH2O (twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon and oxygen), while its molecular formula is C6H12O6 (12 hydrogen atoms, six carbon and oxygen atoms)
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS _M_ is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: _M_(H2O) ≈ 6998180000000000000♠18 g/mol. CONTENTS * 1 Molar masses of elements * 2 Molar masses of compounds * 3 Average molar mass of mixtures * 4 Related quantities * 4.1 Molecular mass * 4.2 DNA
DNA
synthesis usage * 5 Precision and uncertainties * 6 Measurement * 6.1 Vapour density * 6.2 Freezing-point depression
Freezing-point depression
* 6.3 Boiling-point elevation
Boiling-point elevation
* 7 References * 8 External links MOLAR MASSES OF ELEMENTS Main articles: Relative atomic mass
Relative atomic mass
and Standard atomic weight
Standard atomic weight
The molar mass of atoms of an element is given by the Standard atomic weight of the element multiplied by the molar mass constant , _M_ u = 1 × 10−3 kg/mol = 1 g/mol: _M_(H) = 1.007 97(7) × 1 g/mol = 1.007 97(7) g/mol _M_(S) = 32.065(5) × 1 g/mol = 32.065(5) g/mol _M_(Cl) = 35.453(2) × 1 g/mol = 35.453(2) g/mol _M_(Fe) = 55.845(2) × 1 g/mol = 55.845(2) g/mol
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Standard State
In chemistry , the STANDARD STATE of a material (pure substance , mixture or solution ) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use. IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure _p_o = 105 Pa . Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas , regardless of the temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled at specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F) or, somewhat less commonly, 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F). The standard state should not be confused with standard temperature and pressure (STP) for gases, nor with the standard solutions used in analytical chemistry . For a given material or substance, the standard state is the REFERENCE STATE for the material's thermodynamic state properties such as enthalpy , entropy , Gibbs free energy
Gibbs free energy
, and for many other material standards
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Centrophenoxine
MECLOFENOXATE (INN , BAN ) (brand name LUCIDRIL), also known as CENTROPHENOXINE, is a cholinergic nootropic used as a dietary supplement and drug in the treatment of symptoms of senile dementia and Alzheimer\'s disease . It is an ester of dimethylethanolamine (DMAE) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (pCPA). In elderly patients, meclofenoxate has been found clinically to improve memory , have a mentally stimulating effect, and improve general cognition . Meclofenoxate
Meclofenoxate
also increases cellular membrane phospholipids. Although meclofenoxate is generally considered to be a dietary supplement , in some European countries, such as Germany
Germany
, Hungary
Hungary
, and Austria
Austria
, as well as Japan
Japan
, it is a prescription drug . CONTENTS * 1 Side effects * 2 Research * 3 Brand names * 4 See also * 5 References SIDE EFFECTS Meclofenoxate
Meclofenoxate
is considered to be very safe and high in tolerability . However, possible side effects may include, rarely, insomnia , dizziness , restlessness , muscle tremor , depression , nausea , muscle tension , and headache ; these side effects may be due to overdosage and may indicate the need for the dosage to be reduced. RESEARCHMeclofenoxate, as well as DMAE, have been found to increase the lifespans of mice by 30–50%, and thus may be anti-aging drugs /supplements
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Nootropic
NOOTROPICS ( /noʊ.əˈtrɒpɪks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks )—also called SMART DRUGS or COGNITIVE ENHANCERS—are drugs , supplements , or other substances that improve cognitive function , particularly executive functions , memory, creativity, or motivation , in healthy individuals. The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others. Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$ 1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly. The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E. Giurgea , from the Greek words νοῦς (nous), or "mind", and τρέπειν (trepein), meaning to bend or turn. CONTENTS* 1 Availability and prevalence * 1.1 Use by students * 2 Side effects * 3 Drugs
Drugs
* 3.1 Stimulants * 3.2 Racetams * 3.3 Miscellaneous * 4 Dietary supplements * 5 Null findings in systematic reviews * 6 See also * 7 References AVAILABILITY AND PREVALENCEThere are only a few drugs that are known to improve some aspect of cognition
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Pubmed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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Pharmaceutical Drug
A PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG (also referred to as MEDICINE, MEDICATION, or simply as DRUG) is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease . Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy ) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse ) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves). Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis , and biopharmaceuticals , which include recombinant proteins , vaccines , blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG ), gene therapy , monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration , biological system affected, or therapeutic effects . An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines
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