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Adafenoxate
ADAFENOXATE is a compound related to centrophenoxine , that has been found to act as a nootropic in rats. REFERENCES * ^ Petkov VD, Getova D, Mosharrof AH (1987). "A study of nootropic drugs for anti-anxiety action". Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 13 (4): 25–30. PMID 2896427
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Nootropic
NOOTROPICS ( /noʊ.əˈtrɒpɪks/ noh-ə-TROP-iks )—also called SMART DRUGS or COGNITIVE ENHANCERS—are drugs , supplements , or other substances that improve cognitive function , particularly executive functions , memory, creativity, or motivation , in healthy individuals. The use of cognition-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals in the absence of a medical indication is one of the most debated topics among neuroscientists, psychiatrists, and physicians which spans a number of issues, including the ethics and fairness of their use, concerns over adverse effects, and the diversion of prescription drugs for nonmedical uses, among others. Nonetheless, the international sales of cognition-enhancing supplements exceeded US$ 1 billion in 2015 and the global demand for these compounds is still growing rapidly. The word nootropic was coined in 1972 by a Romanian psychologist and chemist, Corneliu E
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book
Book
and the Red Book
Book
, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book
Book
, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the Gold Book
Book
, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry
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Receptor Modulator
A RECEPTOR MODULATOR, or RECEPTOR LIGAND, is a type of drug which binds to and modulates receptors . They are ligands and include receptor agonists and receptor antagonists , as well as receptor partial agonists , inverse agonists , and allosteric modulators
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Receptor Antagonist
A RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to a receptor rather than provoking the response like an agonist . They are sometimes called BLOCKERS; examples include alpha blockers , beta blockers , and calcium channel blockers . In pharmacology , ANTAGONISTS have affinity but no efficacy for their cognate receptors, and binding will disrupt the interaction and inhibit the function of an agonist or inverse agonist at receptors. Antagonists mediate their effects by binding to the active orthosteric (= right place) site or to allosteric (= other place) sites on receptors, or they may interact at unique binding sites not normally involved in the biological regulation of the receptor's activity. Antagonist activity may be reversible or irreversible depending on the longevity of the antagonist–receptor complex, which, in turn, depends on the nature of antagonist–receptor binding
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77-LH-28-1
77-LH-28-1
77-LH-28-1
is a selective agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 1 (M1 ) discovered in 2008. It is an allosteric agonist, exhibiting over 100-fold specificity for M1 over other muscarinic receptor subtypes. 77-LH-28-1
77-LH-28-1
penetrates the brain by crossing the blood brain barrier and is therefore a useful pharmocologic tool with cognition enhancing effects. REFERENCES * ^ C J Langmead; N E Austin; C L Branch; J T Brown; K A Buchanan; C H Davies; I T Forbes; V A H Fry; J J Hagan; H J Herdon; G A Jones; R Jeggo; J N C Kew; A Mazzali; R Melarange; N Patel; J Pardoe; A D Randall; C Roberts; A Roopun; K R Starr; A Teriakidis; M D Wood; M Whittington; Z Wu & J Watson (2008). "Characterization of a CNS penetrant, selective M1 muscarinic receptor agonist, 77-LH-28-1" . Br J Pharmacol. 154 (5): 1104–1115. PMC 2451039  . PMID 18454168 . doi :10.1038/bjp.2008.152
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Receptor Agonist
An AGONIST is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist. CONTENTS * 1 Types of agonists * 2 Activity * 2.1 Potency * 2.2 Therapeutic index * 3 Etymology * 4 See also * 5 References TYPES OF AGONISTSReceptors can be activated by either endogenous (such as hormones and neurotransmitters ) or exogenous (such as drugs ) agonists, resulting in a biological response. A physiological agonist is a substance that creates the same bodily responses but does not bind to the same receptor. An endogenous agonist for a particular receptor is a compound naturally produced by the body that binds to and activates that receptor
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Standard State
In chemistry , the STANDARD STATE of a material (pure substance , mixture or solution ) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use. IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa . Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas , regardless of the temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled at specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F) or, somewhat less commonly, 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F)
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: M(H2O) ≈ 6998180148800000000♠18.01488 g/mol
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily
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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP . PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases
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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider
ChemSpider
is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 63 million molecules from over 280 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S
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Unique Ingredient Identifier
The UNIQUE INGREDIENT IDENTIFIER (UNII) is a non-proprietary, free, unique, unambiguous, non-semantic, alphanumeric identifier linked to a substance's molecular structure or descriptive information by the Substance Registration System (SRS) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). The SRS is used to generate permanent, unique identifiers for substances in regulated products, such as ingredients in drug and biologic products. The SRS uses molecular structure and descriptive information to define a substance and generate the UNII. The primary means for defining a substance is by its molecular structure as represented on a two-dimensional plane. When a molecular structure is not available (e.g., botanicals), the UNII is defined by descriptive information. The procedures and management of the SRS is provided by the SRS Board which includes experts from both FDA and the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC
IUPAC
INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ IN-chee or /ˈɪŋkiː/ ING-kee ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC
IUPAC
is a member. The current software version is 1.05 and was released in January 2017. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License
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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas , which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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