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ACM Computing Classification System
The ACM Computing
Computing
Classification System (CCS) is a subject classification system for computing devised by the Association for Computing
Computing
Machinery (ACM). The system is comparable to the Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) in scope, aims, and structure, being used by the various ACM journals to organise subjects by area.Contents1 History 2 Structure 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The system has gone through seven revisions, the first version being published in 1964, and revised versions appearing in 1982, 1983, 1987, 1991, 1998, and the now current version in 2012. Structure[edit] The ACM Computing
Computing
Classification System, version 2012, has a revolutionary change in some areas, for example, in "Software" that now is called "Software and its engineering" which has three main subjects:Software organization and properties
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Open-source Software
Open-source
Open-source
software (OSS) is a type of computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.[1] Open-source
Open-source
software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration.[2] The term is often written without a hyphen as "open source software".[3][4][5] Open-source
Open-source
software development, or collaborative development from multiple independent sources, generates an increasingly more diverse scope of design perspective than any one company is capable of developing and sustaining long term
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Association For Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing
Computing
Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, and is the world's largest[1] scientific and educational computing society. It is a not-for-profit professional membership group.[2] Its membership is more than 100,000 as of 2011. Its headquarters are in New York City. The ACM is an umbrella organization for academic and scholarly interests in computer science
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Programming Language Theory
Programming language
Programming language
theory (PLT) is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting mathematics, software engineering, linguistics and even cognitive science
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Programming Tool
A programming tool or software development tool is a computer program that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers to relatively simple programs, that can be combined together to accomplish a task, much as one might use multiple hand tools to fix a physical object. The most basic tools are a source code editor and a compiler or interpreter, which are used ubiquitously and continuously. Other tools are used more or less depending on the language, development methodology, and individual engineer, and are often used for a discrete task, like a debugger or profiler. Tools may be discrete programs, executed separately – often from the command line – or may be parts of a single large program, called an integrated development environment (IDE)
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Programming Language
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output. Programming languages generally consist of instructions for a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that implement specific algorithms. The earliest known programmable machine that preceded the invention of the digital computer was the automatic flute player described in the 9th century by the brothers Musa in Baghdad, during the Islamic Golden Age.[1] From the early 1800s, "programs" were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms, music boxes and player pianos.[2] Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, and many more still are being created every year
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Compiler Construction
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language). Compilers
Compilers
are a type of translator that support digital devices, primarily computers. The name compiler is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language, object code, or machine code) to create an executable program.[1] However, there are many different types of compilers. If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is a cross-compiler. A bootstrap compiler is written in the language that it intends to compile. A program that translates from a low-level language to a higher level one is a decompiler
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Modeling Language
A modeling language is any artificial language that can be used to express information or knowledge or systems in a structure that is defined by a consistent set of rules
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Software Framework
In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional user-written code, thus providing application-specific software. A software framework provides a standard way to build and deploy applications. A software framework is a universal, reusable software environment that provides particular functionality as part of a larger software platform to facilitate development of software applications, products and solutions
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Integrated Development Environment
An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of a source code editor, build automation tools, and a debugger. Most modern IDEs have intelligent code completion. Some IDEs, such as NetBeans
NetBeans
and Eclipse, contain a compiler, interpreter, or both; others, such as SharpDevelop and Lazarus, do not. The boundary between an integrated development environment and other parts of the broader software development environment is not well-defined. Sometimes a version control system, or various tools to simplify the construction of a graphical user interface (GUI), are integrated
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Software Configuration Management
In software engineering, software configuration management (SCM or S/W CM)[1] is the task of tracking and controlling changes in the software, part of the larger cross-disciplinary field of configuration management.[2] SCM practices include revision control and the establishment of baselines. If something goes wrong, SCM can determine what was changed and who changed it. If a configuration is working well, SCM can determine how to replicate it across many hosts. The acronym "SCM" is also expanded as source configuration management process and software change and configuration management.[3] However, "configuration" is generally understood to cover changes typically made by a system administrator.Contents1 Purposes 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksPurposes[edit]This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available
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Library (computing)
In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs, often for software development. These may include configuration data, documentation, help data, message templates, pre-written code and subroutines, classes, values or type specifications. In IBM's OS/360 and its successors they are referred to as partitioned data sets. A library is also a collection of implementations of behavior, written in terms of a language, that has a well-defined interface by which the behavior is invoked. For instance, people who want to write a higher level program can use a library to make system calls instead of implementing those system calls over and over again. In addition, the behavior is provided for reuse by multiple independent programs. A program invokes the library-provided behavior via a mechanism of the language
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Software Repository
A software repository, colloquially known as a "repo" for short, is a storage location from which software packages may be retrieved and installed on a computer.Contents1 Overview 2 Package management system vs. package development process 3 Selected repositories 4 Repository managers 5 See also 6 ReferencesOverview[edit] Many software publishers and other organizations maintain servers on the Internet
Internet
for this purpose, either free of charge or for a subscription fee. Repositories may be solely for particular programs, such as CPAN
CPAN
for the Perl
Perl
programming language, or for an entire operating system. Operators of such repositories typically provide a package management system, tools intended to search for, install and otherwise manipulate software packages from the repositories
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Software Development Process
In software engineering, a software development process is the process of dividing software development work into distinct phases to improve design, product management, and project management. It is also known as a software development life cycle. The methodology may include the pre-definition of specific deliverables and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application.[1] Most modern development processes can be vaguely described as agile. Other methodologies include waterfall, prototyping, iterative and incremental development, spiral development, rapid application development, and extreme programming. Some people consider a life-cycle "model" a more general term for a category of methodologies and a software development "process" a more specific term to refer to a specific process chosen by a specific organization. For example, there are many specific software development processes that fit the spiral life-cycle model
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Printed Circuit Board
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate. Components are generally soldered onto the PCB to both electrically connect and mechanically fasten them to it. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products. They are also used in some electrical products, such as passive switch boxes. Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction, both once popular but now rarely used. PCBs require additional design effort to lay out the circuit, but manufacturing and assembly can be automated. Specialized CAD software is available to do much of the work of layout. Mass-producing circuits with PCBs is cheaper and faster than with other wiring methods, as components are mounted and wired in one operation
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Software Construction
Software
Software
construction is a software engineering discipline. It is the detailed creation of working meaningful software through a combination of coding, verification, unit testing, integration testing, and debugging
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