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In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal. The preprint may be available, often as a non-typeset version available free, before and/or after a paper is published in a journal.

History

Since 1991, preprints have increasingly been distributed electronically on the Internet, rather than as paper copies. This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and Hyper Articles en Ligne- HAL Archives etc. to institutional repositories. The sharing of preprints goes back to at least the 1960s, when the National Institutes of Health circulated biological preprints. After six years the use of these Information Exchange Groups was stopped, partially because journals stopped accepting submissions shared via these channels.[1]

In 2016, several new preprint servers were proposed by Crossref, Centre for Open Science and ASAPbio.[2][3][4]

In January 2017, the Medical Research Council announced that they will now be actively supporting preprints beginning in April 2017.Since 1991, preprints have increasingly been distributed electronically on the Internet, rather than as paper copies. This has given rise to massive preprint databases such as arXiv.org and Hyper Articles en Ligne- HAL Archives etc. to institutional repositories. The sharing of preprints goes back to at least the 1960s, when the National Institutes of Health circulated biological preprints. After six years the use of these Information Exchange Groups was stopped, partially because journals stopped accepting submissions shared via these channels.[1]

In 2016, several new preprint servers were proposed by Crossref, Centre for Open Science and ASAPbio.[2][3][4]

In January 2017, the Medical Research Council announced that they will now be actively supporting preprints beginning in April 2017.[5] Also in January 2017, Wellcome Trust stated that they will now accept preprints in grant applications.[6] In February 2017, a coalition of scientists and biomedical funding bodies including the National Institutes of Health, the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust launched a proposal for a central site for life-sciences preprints.[7][8][9] In February 2017, SciELO announced plans to set up a preprints server – SciELO Preprints.[10] In March 2017, the National Institutes for Health issued a new policy encouraging research preprint submissions.[11][12] In April 2017, Center for Open Science announced that it will be launching six new preprint archives.[13]

At the end of the 2010s, libraries and discovery tools increasingly integrate Unpaywall data, which indexes millions of preprints and other green open access sources and manages to serve over half of the requests by users without the need for subscriptions.[14]

Role

Academic practices

Publication of manuscripts in a peer-reviewed journal often takes weeks, months or even years from the time of initial submission, owing to the time required by editors and reviewers to evaluate and critique manuscripts, and the time required by authors to address critiques. The need to quickly circulate current results within a scholarly community has led researchers to distribute documents known as preprints, which are manuscripts that have yet to undergo peer review. The immediate distribution of preprints allows authors to receive early feedback from their peers, which may be helpful in revising and preparing articles for submission.[15]

Most publishers allow work to be published to preprint servers before submission. A minority of publishers decide on a case-by-case basis or interpret the Ingelfinger Rule to disqualify from submission.[16]

Stages of printing

While a preprint is an article that has not yet undergone peer review, a postprint is an article which has been peer reviewed in preparation for publication in a journal. Both the preprint and postprint may differ from the final published version of an article. Preprints and postprints together are referred to as e-prints or eprints.[17]

The word reprint refers to hard copies of papers that have already been published; reprints can be produced by the journal publisher, but can also be generated from digital versions (for example, from an electronic database of pe

In 2016, several new preprint servers were proposed by Crossref, Centre for Open Science and ASAPbio.[2][3][4]

In January 2017, the Medical Research Council announced that they will now be actively supporting preprints beginning in April 2017.[5] Also in January 2017, Wellcome Trust stated that they will now accept preprints in grant applications.[6] In February 2017, a coalition of scientists and biomedical funding bodies including the National Institutes of Health, the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust launched a proposal for a central site for life-sciences preprints.[7][8][9] In February 2017, SciELO announced plans to set up a preprints server – SciELO Preprints.[10] In March 2017, the National Institutes for Health issued a new policy encouraging research preprint submissions.[11][12] In April 2017, Center for Open Science announced that it will be launching six new preprint archives.[13]

At the end of the 2010s, libraries and discovery tools increasingly integrate Unpaywall data, which indexes millions of preprints and other green open access sources and manages to serve over half of the requests by users without the need for subscriptions.[14]

Publication of manuscripts in a peer-reviewed journal often takes weeks, months or even years from the time of initial submission, owing to the time required by editors and reviewers to evaluate and critique manuscripts, and the time required by authors to address critiques. The need to quickly circulate current results within a scholarly community has led researchers to distribute documents known as preprints, which are manuscripts that have yet to undergo peer review. The immediate distribution of preprints allows authors to receive early feedback from their peers, which may be helpful in revising and preparing articles for submission.[15]

Most publishers allow work to be published to preprint servers before submission. A minority of publishers decide on a case-by-case basis or interpret the Ingelfinger Rule to disqualify from submission.[16]

Stages of printing

The e-print archive arXiv (pronounced "archive") is one of the best-known preprint servers. It was created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991 at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the purpose of distributing theoretical high-energy physics preprints.[31] In 2001, arXiv.org moved to Cornell University and now encompasses the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statistics. Within the field of high-energy physics, the posting of preprints on arXiv is so common that many peer-reviewed journals allow submission of papers from arXiv directly, using the arXiv e-print number.

In some branches of physics, the arXiv database may serve as a focal point for the many criticisms made of the peer review process and peer-reviewed journals. In his column in peer-reviewed journals. In his column in Physics Today, April 1992, David Mermin described Ginsparg's creation as potentially "string theory's greatest contribution to science". About 8,000 preprints per month are uploaded to arXiv as of 2016.[32]

An engineering preprint server, engrXiv, was launched in 2016 by the Center for Open Science and administrated by the University of Wisconsin–Stout.[33] Whilst under development, it used a temporary email deposit system.[34] As of April 2017, the official home for engrXiv went live after the web interface was launched in December 2016.[35]

The server viXra was established in 2009 for authors who are excluded from arXiv and other repositories owing to submission filtering.[36]

The ability to distribute manuscripts as preprints has had a great impact on computer science, particularly in the way that scientific research is disseminated in that field (see CiteSeer). The open access movement has tended to focus on distributed institutional collections of research, global harvesting, and aggregation through search engines and gateways such as OAIster, rather than a global discipline base such as arXiv. E-prints can now refer to any electronic form of a scholarly or scientific publication, including journal articles, conference papers, research theses or dissertations, because these usually are found in multidisciplinary collections, called open access repositories, or eprints archives [37]. TechRxiv, engrXiv and HAL are also a pre-print repositories that accept computer science papers.

Biological and chemical sciences

In May 2017, In May 2017, PaleorXiv launched as a preprint server for paleontology[55][56] and published its first submissions in August 2017.[57]

Sport

Under construction

Under construction in April 2017 is SportRxiv, a preprint archiving service for the sport, exercise, and rehabilitation sciences which was launched in August 2017 with support from Open Science Framework.[58][59][60][61][62][63]

Law

The

The service LawArXiv 'Legal Scholarship in the Open' was announced in May 2017.[64][65][66][67]

Theses and dissertations

JMIR Preprints is a preprint server that evolved from JMIR Publications' experiments in open peer-review. It contains primarily submitted manuscripts which are currently under open peer-review.[69]

MedArXiv is a preprint service for the medicine and health sciences which is under development with support from Open Science Framework. It was announced in September 2017 by Harlan Krumholz at American Medical Asso

MedArXiv is a preprint service for the medicine and health sciences which is under development with support from Open Science Framework. It was announced in September 2017 by Harlan Krumholz at American Medical Association's Eighth International Congress on Peer Review and Scientific Publication.[70][71][72]

Two preprint servers in the field of geoscience were confirmed in September 2017.[73] One option is the Earth and Space Science Open Archive (ESSOAr) run by The American Geophysical Union (AGU) with support from Wiley.[74] Moreover, Earth scientists who have published in the many journals of the European Geosciences Union have already become accustomed to such openness and are posting their work prior to peer-review as a discussion on the Copernicus platform.[75]

In addition, EarthArXiv run by a group of scientists[76][77] powered by the Center for Open Science launched in October 2017.EarthArXiv run by a group of scientists[76][77] powered by the Center for Open Science launched in October 2017.[78] Post launch, some further resources here.[79][80] On October 1, 2020, EarthArXiv moved its hosting to the California Digital Library, and the Janeway preprint platform.[81]

MarXiv is a free research repository for ocean-conservation and marine-climate science. Initial funding was provided by the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. It was due to launch in November 2017 via the Center for Open Science Preprints framework.[82][83][84]

Electrochemistry

ECSasXiv is a p

ECSasXiv is a preprint research repository for electrochemistry, solid state science and technology. It will be run by The Electrochemistry Society and built and hosted by Open Science Framework.[85]

Philosophy

PhilArchive, an archive linked to PhilPapers, is an archive for philosophy in general, while PhilSci-Archive is a research repository for philosophy of science in particular.[86]

Education

EdArXiv, a preprint server for education research was announced on August 19, 2019. It is to be hosted by the Open Science Framework.[87

Education

EdArXiv, a preprint server for education research was announced on August 19, 2019. It is to be hosted by the Open Science Framework.[87]

A pan-African preprint repository, AfricArxiv was launched in June, 2018 (see AfricArXiv).[88]

Arabic

ArabiXiv (Arabic Science Archive الأرشيف العربي العلمي) is a preprint server that hosts manuscripts (preprints and postprints) in many scientific disciplines mainly in Arabic but other languages are also

ArabiXiv (Arabic Science Archive الأرشيف العربي العلمي) is a preprint server that hosts manuscripts (preprints and postprints) in many scientific disciplines mainly in Arabic but other languages are also considered. It has been built in January 2018, in partnership with the Center for Open Science.[89]

China

Operated by National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ChinaXiv launched in 2016.

China

Operated by National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ChinaXiv launched in 2016.

FrenXiv will be a preprint server that will host manuscripts in many scientific disciplines in French. It has also been built in partnership with the Center for Open Science.[90]

India

IndiaRxiv, an open access preprint server for Indian scholars and scholarship launched on 14th August 2019 by the Open Access India community in partnership with Centre for Open Science.[91]

Indonesia<

INArxiv is a preprint server for interdisciplinary research in Indonesia which uses the Center for Open Science to host materials.[92] INArxiv was launched in August 2017.[93]

Latin America, Iberian Peninsula, South Africa

Russian preprint server, Preprints.ru was launched in September 2019 by Russian preprint server, Preprints.ru was launched in September 2019 by NEICON

See also