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Icmje Recommendations
The ICMJE recommendations (full title, "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals") are a set of guidelines produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for standardising the ethics, preparation and formatting of manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals for publication. Compliance with the ICMJE recommendations is required by most leading biomedical journals. As of 9 January 2020, 5570 journals worldwide claim to follow the ICMJE recommendations.International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Journals that have Requested Inclusion on the List of Publications that follow the ICMJE's Uniform Requirements For Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals [homepage on the Internet]. Philadelphia: ICMJE; c2005 [updated 27 May 2006; cited 30 May 2006]. Available fromhttp://www.icmje.org/journals.html/ref> The recommendations were first issued in 1979 under the title "Uniform Requirements for Manu ...
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Ethics
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ... that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas A mental representation (or cognitive representation), in philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the bo ...s of right and wrong behavior Behavior (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Cur ...".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, along with ...
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Ugeskrift For Læger (Danish Medical Journal)
''Ugeskrift for Læger'' (English: ''Weekly Journal for Physicians'') is a Danish medical journal published every Monday. It is written in Danish, and publishes original research, news, debate, job ads, etc. The journal was established in 1839 and has been available online since 1999. External links

* (in Danish) Publications established in 1839 Weekly journals General medical journals Danish-language journals {{med-journal-stub ...
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Scientific Misconduct
Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly method, scholarly conduct and ethics, ethical behavior in the publication of professional science, scientific research. A ''The Lancet, Lancet'' review on ''Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries'' provides the following sample definitions, reproduced in The COPE report 1999: * Danish definition: "Intention or gross negligence leading to fabrication of the scientific message or a false credit or emphasis given to a scientist" * Swedish definition: "Intention[al] distortion of the research process by fabrication of data, text, hypothesis, or methods from another researcher's manuscript form or publication; or distortion of the research process in other ways." The consequences of scientific misconduct can be damaging for perpetrators and journal audience and for any individual who exposes it. In addition there are public health implications attached to the promotion of medical or other i ...
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IMRAD
In scientific writing, IMRAD or IMRaD () (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) is a common organizational structure (a document format). IMRaD is the most prominent norm for the structure of a scientific journal article of the original research type. Overview Original research articles are typically structured in this basic order *Introduction – Why was the study undertaken? What was the research question, the tested hypothesis or the purpose of the research? *Methods – When, where, and how was the study done? What materials were used or who was included in the study groups (patients, etc.)? *Results – What answer was found to the research question; what did the study find? Was the tested hypothesis true? *Discussion – What might the answer imply and why does it matter? How does it fit in with what other researchers have found? What are the perspectives for future research? The plot and the flow of the story of IMRaD is style writing are explained by a 'wine gla ...
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EASE Guidelines For Authors And Translators Of Scientific Articles
''EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English'' (often shortened to ''EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators'' or ''EASE Guidelines'') were first published by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) in 2010.Ufnalska S. 2010Multilingual EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators. PDF (0.01 MB) ''Learned Publishing'' 23(4): 331–332. Updated versions are periodically released at the EASE Guidelines page of the EASE website. ''EASE Guidelines'' summarize the most important editorial recommendations, aiming to make international scientific communication more efficient and to aid in preventing scientific misconduct. They also support the global initiative Healthcare Information For All by 2015 by advising authors to make abstract (summary), abstracts of their papers highly informative, reliable, and easily understandable. The document has been translated into many languages (Arabic language, Arabic, Bengali language, Bang ...
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Conflicts Of Interest In Academic Publishing
Conflicts of interest (COIs) often arise in academic publishing. Such conflicts may cause wrongdoing and make it more likely. Ethical standards in academic publishing exist to avoid and deal with conflicts of interest, and the field continues to develop new standards. Standards vary between journals and are unevenly applied. According to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, "[a]uthors have a responsibility to evaluate the integrity, history, practices and reputation of the journals to which they submit manuscripts". Conflicts of interest increase the likelihood of biases arising; they can harm the quality of research and the public good (even if disclosed). Conflicts of interest can involve research sponsors, authors, journals, journal staff, publishers, and peer reviewers. Avoidance, disclosure, and tracking The avoidance of conflicts of interest and the changing of the structure of institutions to make them easier to avoid are frequently advocated for. Some ...
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Grey Literature
Grey literature (or gray literature) is materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ... or academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal articles, books or thesis' form. The part of academic written output that is not formally ... and distribution channels. Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlement in northeastern Morocco *Annuals (band), ...
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Reports
A report is a document that presents information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to c ... in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. Although summaries of reports may be delivered orally, complete reports are almost always in the form of written documents. Usage In modern business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ... scenario, reports play a major role in the progress of business. Reports are the backbone to the thinking process of the establishment and they are responsible, to a great extent, in evolving an efficient or inefficient work e ...
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GLISC
The Grey Literature International Steering Committee (GLISC) was established in 2006 after the 7th International Conference on Grey Literature (GL7) held in Nancy (France) on 5–6 December 2005. During this conference, the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) (Rome, Italy) presented guidelines for the production of scientific and technical reports documents included in the wider category of grey literature (GL) defined at the International Conferences on Grey Literature held in Luxembourg (1997) and in New York (2004) – as “information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishing i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body”. The Italian initiative for the adoption of uniform requirements for the production of reports was discussed during a Round Table on Quality Assessment by a small group of GL producers, librarians and information professionals who a ...
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ICMJE
The ICMJE recommendations (full title, "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals") are a set of guidelines produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors for standardising the ethics, preparation and formatting of manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals for publication. Compliance with the ICMJE recommendations is required by most leading biomedical journals. As of 9 January 2020, 5570 journals worldwide claim to follow the ICMJE recommendations.International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Journals that have Requested Inclusion on the List of Publications that follow the ICMJE's Uniform Requirements For Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals [homepage on the Internet]. Philadelphia: ICMJE; c2005 [updated 27 May 2006; cited 30 May 2006]. Available fromhttp://www.icmje.org/journals.html/ref> The recommendations were first issued in 1979 under the title "Uniform Requirements for Manu ...
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Bracket
A bracket is either of two tall fore- or back-facing punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, whether read silently or aloud. An ... marks commonly used to isolate a segment of text or data from its surroundings. Typically deployed in symmetric pairs, an individual bracket may be identified as a ''left'' or ''right'' bracket or, alternatively, an ''opening paired bracket'' or ''closing paired bracket'', respectively, depending on the directionality of the context. Specific forms of the mark include rounded brackets (also called ''parentheses''), square brackets, curly brackets (also called ''braces''), and angle brackets (also called ''chevrons''), as well as various less common pairs of symbols. As well as signifying the overall class of punctuation, the word ''bracket'' is commonly used to ...
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Arabic Numerals
Arabic numerals are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The term often implies a decimal The decimal numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is t ... number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ... written using these digits (in particular when contrasted with ''Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the . Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the . Modern style uses seven symbols, each with a . ...
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