HistoryThe earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia (country), Georgia ( BC), Iran (Name of Iran, Persia) ( BC), and Sicily ( BC). Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient ancient Greece and wine, Greece, Thrace#Thracians and wine, Thrace and Ancient Rome and wine, Rome. Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its Alcohol intoxication, intoxicating effects. The earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia (country), Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was relatively later, likely having taken place in the Caucasus, Southern Caucasus (which encompasses Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan), or the West Asian region between Eastern Anatolia Region, Eastern Turkey, and northern Iran. The earliest evidence of a rice and grape mixed based fermented drink was found in ancient China ( BC),
EtymologyThe English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germanic ''*winam'', an early borrowing from the Latin ''vinum'', Georgian language, Georgian ''ღვინო'', "wine" or "(grape) vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European stem *''win-o-'' (cf. hy, գինի, ''wikt:գինի, gini''; Ancient Greek: ''oinos''; Aeolic Greek: ''woinos''; Hittite language, Hittite: ''wiyana''; Lycian language, Lycian: ''oino''). The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek ''me-tu-wo ne-wo'' (*), meaning "in (the month)" or "(festival) of the new wine", and ''wo-no-wa-ti-si'', meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B also includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine, i.e. . The ultimate Indo-European origin of the word is the subject of some continued debate. Some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in Indo-European languages (e.g. Armenian ''wikt:գինի, gini'', Latin ''vinum'', Ancient Greek οἶνος, Russian language, Russian вино ), Kartvelian languages, Kartvelian (e.g. Georgian language, Georgian wikt:ღვინო, ღვინო ), and Semitic languages, Semitic (''*wayn''; Hebrew יין ), pointing to the possibility of a common origin of the word denoting "wine" in these language families. The Georgian word goes back to Proto-Kartvelian *''ɣwino''-, which is either a borrowing from Proto-Indo-EuropeanThe Sound of Indo-European: Phonetics, Phonemics, and Morphophonemics
StylesWines made in the styles listed below can be vinified in many ways, ranging from Sweetness of wine, dry to sweet:
Red wineThe red-wine production process involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin. Red wine is made from dark-colored grape varieties. The actual Wine color, color of the wine can range from violet, typical of young wines, through red for mature wines, to brown for older red wines. The juice from most purple grapes is actually greenish-white; the red color comes from anthocyan pigments (also called anthocyanins) present in the skin of the grape; exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which actually have red flesh and produce red juice.
White wineFermentation of the non-colored Juice vesicles, grape pulp produces white wine. The grapes from which white wine is produced are typically green or yellow. Some varieties are well-known, such as the Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Sauvignon, and Riesling. Other white wines are blended from multiple varieties; Tokay (grape), Tokay, Sherry, and Sauternes (wine), Sauternes are examples of these. Dark-skinned grapes may be used to produce white wine if the wine-maker is careful not to let the skin stain the wort during the separation of the pulp-juice. Pinot noir, for example, is commonly used to produce champagne. Dry (non-sweet) white wine is the most common, derived from the complete fermentation of the wort. Sweet wines are produced when the fermentation is interrupted before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol. Sparkling wines, which are mostly white wines, are produced by not allowing from the fermentation to escape during fermentation, which takes place in the bottle rather than in the barrel.
Rosé wineA rosé wine incorporates some of the wine color, color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make with the Maceration (wine), skin contact method. The pink color can range from a pale orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the varietals used and wine-making techniques. There are three primary ways to produce rosé wine: skin contact (allowing dark grape skins to stain the wort), saignée (removing juice from the must early in fermentation and continuing fermentation of the juice separately), and Blending (alcohol production), blending (uncommon and discouraged in most wine growing regions). Rosé wines can be made still, Semi-sparkling wines, semi-sparkling, or sparkling wine, sparkling, with a wide range of sweetness (wine), sweetness levels from dryness (taste), dry Provençal (wine), Provençal rosé to sweet White Zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines are made from a wide variety of grapes all over the world.J. Robinson (ed) ''"The Oxford Companion to Wine"'' Third Edition pg 593 Oxford University Press 2006 O. Clarke ''Oz Clarke's Encyclopedia of Wine'' pgs 15, 225, 320, 360 Time Warner Books, London 2003
Fruit wineFruit wine, Wines from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced, and combined with the word "wine" (for example, Apfelwein, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine or country wine (similar to French language, French term ''vin de pays''). Other than the grape variety (botany), varieties traditionally used for wine-making, most fruits naturally lack either sufficient fermentable sugars, proper amount of acidity, yeast amounts needed to promote or maintain fermentation, or a combination of these three Materials. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types, and why specific types of fruit wines have generally been confined to the regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for other reasons.
Mead (honey wine)Mead, also called honey wine, is created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops. As long as the primary substance fermented is honey, the drink is considered mead. Mead was produced in ancient history throughout Europe, Africa and Asia, and was known in Europe before grape wine.
Starch-based "wine" and wine-based productsOther drinks called "wine", such as barley wine and (e.g. sake, huangjiu and Cheongju (beverage), cheongju), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than traditional wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term "wine" refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Some UK supermarkets have been criticized for selling "wine based" drinks, which only contain 75% wine, but which are still marketed as wine. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine requires that a "wine-based drink" must contain a minimum of 75% wine, but producers do not have to divulge the nature of the remaining 25%.
Grape varietiesWine is usually made from one or more Variety (biology), varieties of the European species ''Vitis vinifera'', such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75% to 85%), the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a "blended" wine. Blended wines are not necessarily inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of wine-making. Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from Hybrid (grapes), hybrids, created by the genetic crossing (vine), genetic crossing of two species. ''Vitis labrusca, V. labrusca'' (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), ''Vitis aestivalis, V. aestivalis'', ''Vitis rupestris, V. rupestris'', ''Vitis rotundifolia, V. rotundifolia'' and ''Vitis riparia, V. riparia'' are native North American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, and only occasionally made into wine. Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European ''Vitis vinifera'' vines that have been grafted onto North American species' rootstock, a common practice due to their resistance to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (excluding some of the driest in the south) were devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina and the Canary Islands — the only places not yet exposed to the insect. In the context of wine production, '' terroir'' is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures. The range of possible combinations of these factors can result in great differences among wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma (wine), aroma and taste influences of their unique ''terroir''. However, flavor differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation, and spinning cones. About 700 grapes go into one bottle of wine, approximately 2.6 pounds.
ClassificationRegulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region (e.g. Bordeaux wine, Bordeaux, Rioja (wine), Rioja and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e.g. Pinot noir and Merlot). Market recognition of particular regions has recently been leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized non-European locales include Napa Valley AVA, Napa Valley, Santa Clara Valley, Sonoma Valley AVA, Sonoma Valley, Anderson Valley, and Mendocino County in California; Willamette Valley (wine), Willamette Valley and Rogue Valley AVA, Rogue Valley in Oregon (wine), Oregon; Columbia Valley (wine), Columbia Valley in Washington (wine), Washington; Barossa Valley (wine), Barossa Valley in South Australia (wine), South Australia; Hunter Valley (wine), Hunter Valley in New South Wales (wine), New South Wales; Luján de Cuyo in Argentina (wine), Argentina; Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil; Hawke's Bay Region, Hawke's Bay and Marlborough Region, Marlborough in New Zealand (wine), New Zealand; Central Valley in Chile (wine), Chile; and in Canadian wine, Canada, the Okanagan Valley (wine), Okanagan Valley of British Columbia wine, British Columbia, and the Niagara Peninsula and Essex County, Ontario, Essex County regions of Ontario wine, Ontario are the three largest producers. Some blended wine names are marketing terms whose use is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. For example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, but may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association.
European classificationsFrance has various appellation systems based on the concept of ''terroir'', with classifications ranging from ''Vin de Table'' ("table wine") at the bottom, through ''Vin de Pays'' and ''Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure'' (AOVDQS), up to ''Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée'' (AOC) or similar, depending on the region. Portugal has developed a system resembling that of France and, in fact, pioneered this concept in 1756 with a royal charter creating the Demarcated Douro Region and regulating the production and trade of wine. Germany created a similar scheme in 2002, although it has not yet achieved the authority of the other countries' classification systems. Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications based on a dual system of region of origin and product quality.
Beyond EuropeNew World wines—those made outside the traditional wine regions of Europe—are usually classified by grape rather than by ''terroir'' or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality. According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, wine in Canada is an alcoholic drink that is produced by the complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, grape must, products derived solely from fresh grapes, or any combination of them. There are many materials added during the course of the manufacture, such as yeast, concentrated grape juice, dextrose, fructose, glucose or glucose solids, invert sugar, sugar, or aqueous solutions. Calcium sulphate in such quantity that the content of soluble sulphates in the finished wine shall not exceed 0.2 percent weight by volume calculated as potassium sulphate. Calcium carbonate in such quantity that the content of tartaric acid in the finished wine shall not be less than 0.15 percent weight by volume. Also, sulphurous acid, including salts thereof, in such quantity that its content in the finished wine shall not exceed 70 parts per million in the free state, or 350 parts per million in the combined state, calculated as sulphur dioxide. Caramel, amylase and pectinase at a maximum level of use consistent with good manufacturing practice. Brandy, fruit spirit or alcohol derived from the alcoholic fermentation of a food source distilled to not less than 94 percent alcohol by volume. Prior to final filtration may be treated with a strongly acid cation exchange resin in the sodium ion form, or a weakly basic anion exchange resin in the hydroxyl ion form.
VintagesIn the United States, for a wine to be vintage-dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA; e.g., Sonoma Valley), 95% of its volume must be from grapes harvested in that year.Title 27 of the United States Code, Code of Federal Regulations]
TastingWine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanter, Decanting (the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing) is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines. During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration. Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all. When tasting wine, individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules (e.g. esters and terpenes) that grape juice and wine can contain. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine-making. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine—chocolate, vanilla, or coffee—are those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself. Horizontal tasting, Vertical and horizontal tasting involves a range of vintages within the same grape and vineyard, or the latter in which there is one vintage from multiple vineyards. "Banana" flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as "medicinal" or "Band-Aid" (4-Ethylphenol, 4-ethylphenol), "spicy" or "smoky" (4-ethylguaiacol), and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). Some varieties can also exhibit a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts as a result of limestone's presence in the vineyard's soil. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air. Vaporization of these compounds can be accelerated by twirling the wine glass or serving at room temperature. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon AOC, Chinon and Beaujolais. The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate by wine enthusiasts and sommeliers, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines. White wine should foster a sense of coolness, achieved by serving at "cellar temperature" (). Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees. Red wines are generally perceived best when served ''chambré'' ("at room temperature"). However, this does not mean the temperature of the dining room—often around —but rather the coolest room in the house and, therefore, always slightly cooler than the dining room itself. Pinot noir should be brought to the table for serving at and will reach its full bouquet at . Cabernet Sauvignon, zinfandel, and Rhone varieties should be served at and allowed to warm on the table to for best aroma.
CollectingOutstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of United States dollar, dollars per bottle, though the broader term "fine wine" covers those typically retailing in excess of US$30–50. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods: those for which demand increases rather than decreases as their prices rise. Particular selections such as "Verticals", which span multiple vintages of a specific grape and vineyard, may be highly valued. The most notable was a Château d'Yquem#Since 1968, Château d'Yquem 135-year vertical containing every vintage from 1860 to 2003 sold for $1.5 million. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux wine, Bordeaux and Burgundy wine, Burgundy; cult wines from Europe and elsewhere; and Port wine, vintage port. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: # A proven track record of holding well over time # A drinking-window plateau (i.e., the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long # A consensus among experts as to the quality of the wines # Rigorous production methods at every stage, including grape selection and appropriate barrel aging Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector. Such wine fraudsters often profit by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from well-known wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision.
ConsumptionWine-consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year, according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization. The methodology includes persons 15 years of age or older. About 40% of individuals above the legal drinking age consider themselves "wine drinkers", which is higher than all other alcoholic beverages combined (34%) and those who do not drink at all (26%).
Culinary usesWine is a popular and important drink that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional stews to the most sophisticated and complex haute cuisines. Wine is often served with dinner. Sweet dessert wines may be served with the dessert course. In fine restaurants in Western countries, wine typically accompanies dinner. At a restaurant, patrons are helped to make good food-wine pairings by the restaurant's sommelier or wine waiter. Individuals dining at home may use wine guides to help make food–wine pairings. Wine is also drunk without the accompaniment of a meal in wine bars or with a selection of cheeses (at a wine and cheese party). Wines are also used as a theme for organizing various events such as festivals around the world; the city of Kuopio in North Savonia, Finland is known for its annual Kuopio Wine Festivals (''Kuopion viinijuhlat''). Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a drink, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stock (food), stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich Basic taste#Savouriness, savory or sweet dishes. Wine sauce is an example of a culinary sauce that uses wine as a primary ingredient. Natural wines may exhibit a broad range of alcohol content, from below 9% to above 16% Alcohol by volume, ABV, with most wines being in the 12.5–14.5% range. Fortified wines (usually with brandy) may contain 20% alcohol or more.
Ancient religionsThe use of wine in ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies was common. Libations often included wine, and the Dionysian Mysteries, religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state.
JudaismWine is an integral part of halakha, Jewish laws and traditions. The ''Kiddush'' is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine. In the Tabernacle (Judaism), Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception that contributes to the Christian beliefs of the blood libel. "It has been one of history's cruel ironies that the blood libel—accusations against Jews using the blood of murdered gentile children for the making of wine and matzot—became the false pretext for numerous pogroms. And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are Halacha, halachically exempted from using red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them."
ChristianityIn Christianity, wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper (Gospel of Luke 22:19) describing Jesus sharing bread and wine with his disciples and commanding them to "do this in remembrance of me." Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among Christian denomination, denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament, many Protestants also allow (or require) pasteurization, pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodism, Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree. There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary drink, with Catholics and some mainline Protestants allowing wine drinking in moderation, and some conservative Protestant groups opposing consumption of alcohol altogether. The earliest viticulture tradition in the Southwestern United States starts with sacramental wine, beginning in the 1600s, with Christian friars and monks producing New Mexico wine.
IslamAlcoholic drinks, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Sharia, Islamic law. In many Muslim countries, possession or consumption of alcoholic drinks carry legal penalties. Iran had previously had Viticulture in Iran, a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Iranian Revolution, Islamic Revolution in 1979. In Greater Persia, ''Persian wine, mey'' (Persian wine) was a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years, long before the advent of Islam. Some Alevi sects – one of the two main branches of Islam in Turkey (the other being Sunni Islam) – use wine in their religious services. Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape (or its byproducts) and the date is allowed in "very small quantities" (loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication) under the Sunni Hanafi ''madhab'', for specific purposes (such as medicines), where the goal is not intoxication. However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden.
Short-term effectsWine contains ethyl alcohol, the intoxicating chemical in beer and distilled spirits. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of wine depend on the amount of it consumed, the span of time over which consumption takes place, the amount of alcohol in the wine, and the amount of food eaten, among other factors. Drinking enough to reach a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03%-0.12% typically causes an overall improvement in mood, increased self-confidence and sociability, decreased anxiety, Alcohol flush reaction, flushing of the face, and impairment of judgment and fine motor coordination. A BAC of 0.09% to 0.25% causes lethargy, sedation, balance problems and blurred vision. A BAC from 0.18% to 0.30% causes profound confusion, impaired speech (e.g. slurred speech), staggering, dizziness and vomiting. A BAC from 0.25% to 0.40% causes stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia, vomiting, and death may occur due to respiratory depression and pulmonary aspiration, inhalation of vomit during unconsciousness. A BAC from 0.35% to 0.80% causes coma, life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning. The operation of vehicles or machinery while drunk increases the risk of accident, and many countries have laws against drinking and driving. Wines can trigger positive emotions in a short period of time, such as feelings of relaxation and comfort. The context and quality of wine can affect the mood and emotions, too.
Long-term effectsThe main active ingredient of wine is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to wine. A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption. A systematic analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease study found that consumption of ethanol increases the risk of cancer and increases the risk of all-cause mortality, and that the level of ethanol consumption that minimizes disease is zero consumption. Some studies have concluded that drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink in women and two in men) is associated with a ''decreased'' risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death. Drinking more than this amount actually increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. Some of these studies lumped former ethanol drinkers and life-long abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, hiding the health benefits of life-long abstention from ethanol. Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking which may result in violence or accidents. About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year. Alcoholism is a broad term for any drinking of ethanol, alcohol that results in problems. It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States. No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver cirrhosis and alcoholism. The American Heart Association "cautions people NOT to start drinking ... if they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation." Population studies exhibit a J curve, J-curve correlation between wine consumption and rates of heart disease: heavy drinkers have an elevated rate, while people who drink small amount (up to 20 g of alcohol per day, approximately of 12.7% ABV wine) have a lower rate than non-drinkers. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic drinks is correlated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes, although the association is stronger for wine. Additionally, some studies have found a greater correlation of health benefits with red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols in wine, polyphenols than white wine, and these could be protective against cardiovascular disease. Although red wine contains the chemical resveratrol and there is tentative evidence it may improve heart health, the evidence is unclear for those at high risk . Grape skins naturally produce resveratrol in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during Fermentation (wine), fermentation. White wine generally contains lower levels of the chemical as it has minimal contact with grape skins during this process.
Forgery and manipulationIncidents of fraud, such as mislabeling the origin or quality of wines, have resulted in regulations on labeling. "Wine scandals" that have received media attention include: * The 1985 Diethylene Glycol Wine Scandal, in which diethylene glycol was used as a sweetener in some Austrian wines. * Wine fraud#Hazardous materials, In 1986, methanol (a toxic type of alcohol) was used to alter certain wines manufactured in Italy. * In 2008, some Italian wines were found to include sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. * In 2010, some Chinese red wines were found to be adulterated, and as a consequence China's Hebei province has shut down nearly 30 wineries.
PackagingMost wines are sold in wine bottle, glass bottles and sealed with cork (material), corks (50% of which come from Portugal). An increasing number of wine producers have been using Alternative wine closure, alternative closures such as Screw cap (wine), screwcaps and synthetic plastic "corks". Although alternative closures are less expensive and prevent cork taint, they have been blamed for such problems as excessive redox, reduction. Some wines are packaged in thick plastic bags within corrugated fiberboard boxes, and are called "box wines", or "cask wine". Tucked inside the package is a tap affixed to the bag in box, or bladder, that is later extended by the consumer for serving the contents. Box wine can stay acceptably fresh for up to a month after opening because the bladder collapses as wine is dispensed, limiting contact with air and, thus, slowing the rate of oxidation. In contrast, bottled wine oxidizes more rapidly after opening because of the increasing ratio of air to wine as the contents are dispensed; it can degrade considerably in a few days. Cans are one of the fastest-growing forms of alternative wine packaging on the market. Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal the benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. The glass used to make bottles is a nontoxic, naturally occurring substance that is completely recyclable, whereas the plastics used for box-wine containers are typically much less environmentally friendly. However, wine-bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act (United States), Clean Air Act violations. A ''New York Times'' editorial suggested that box wine, being lighter in package weight, has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution; however, box-wine plastics, even though possibly recyclable, can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. In addition, while a wine box is recyclable, its plastic bladder most likely is not. Some people are drawn to canned wine due to its portability and recyclable packaging. Some wine is sold in stainless steel kegs and is referred to as wine on tap.
StorageWine cellars, or wine rooms, if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Fine restaurants and some private homes have wine cellars. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate-control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located. Because wine is a natural, perishable food product, all types—including red, white, sparkling, and fortified—can spoil when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is , others . Wine refrigerators offer a smaller alternative to wine cellars and are available in capacities ranging from small, 16-bottle units to furniture-quality pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the proper temperature for drinking. These refrigerators keep the humidity low (usually under 50%), below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Lower humidity levels can dry out corks over time, allowing oxygen to enter the bottle, which reduces the wine's quality through oxidation. While some types of alcohol are sometimes stored in the freezer, such as vodka, it is not possible to safely freeze wine in the bottle, as there is insufficient room for it to expand as it freezes and the bottle will usually crack. Certain shapes of bottle may allow the cork to be pushed out by the ice, but if the bottle is frozen on its side, the wine in the narrower neck will invariably freeze first, preventing this.
ProfessionsThere are a large number of occupations and professions that are part of the wine industry, ranging from the individuals who grow the grapes, prepare the wine, bottle it, sell it, assess it, market it and finally make recommendations to clients and serve the wine.
See also* Outline of wine * Glossary of wine terms
Further reading* * * * * * * * * *