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The ''Financial Times'' (''FT'') is a
daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...
printed in
broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format Newspaper formats vary substantially, with different formats more common in different countries. The size of a newspaper format refers to the size of the paper page; the printed area within that ...
and published digitally that focuses on business and economic
current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of culture and politics. * Current affairs (news format): a genre of broadcast journalism *current affairs Politics * An approxi ...
. Based in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
, England, the paper is owned by a Japanese holding company, Nikkei, with core editorial offices across Britain, the United States and continental Europe. In July 2015, Pearson sold the publication to Nikkei for £844 million (
US$ The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...
1.32 billion) after owning it since 1957. In 2019, it reported one million paying subscriptions, three-quarters of which were digital subscriptions. The newspaper has a prominent focus on
financial journalism Business journalism is the part of journalism that tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the business sector, business, Economy, economic and finance, financial activities and changes that take place in societies. Topics widely cover the entire ...
and economic analysis over generalist reporting, drawing both criticism and acclaim. The daily sponsors an annual book award and publishes a " Person of the Year" feature. The paper was founded in 1888 as the ''London Financial Guide'' before rebranding a year later as the ''Financial Times''. It was first circulated around metropolitan London by James Sheridan, who, along with his brother and
Horatio Bottomley Horatio William Bottomley (23 March 1860 – 26 May 1933) was an English financier, journalist, editor, newspaper proprietor, swindler, and Member of Parliament. He is best known for his editorship of the popular magazine ''John Bull (magaz ...
, sought to report on city business opposite the ''
Financial News ''Financial News'' is a financial newspaper and news website published in London. It is a weekly newspaper, published by eFinancial News Limited, covering the financial services sector through news, views and extensive people coverage. ''Fina ...
''. The succeeding half-century competition between the two papers eventually culminated in a
1945 merger
1945 merger
, led by
Brendan Bracken Brendan Rendall Bracken, 1st Viscount Bracken, PC (15 February 1901 – 8 August 1958) was an Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of con ...
, which established it as one of the largest business newspapers in the world. Globalisation from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries facilitated editorial expansion for the ''FT'', with the paper adding opinion columns, special reports,
political cartoon A political cartoon, a type of editorial cartoon, is a cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the ...
s, reader letters, book reviews, technology articles and global politics features. The paper is often characterised by its light-pink (salmon) newsprint. It is supplemented by its lifestyle magazine (''
FT Magazine ''FT Magazine'' is a supplement to the weekend edition of the '' Financial Times'' newspaper. History and profile ''FT Magazine'' was founded in 2003. John Lloyd was the first editor of the magazine. It is published on Saturdays and covers world ev ...
)'', weekend edition ('' FT Weekend'') and a small portfolio of industry publications. The editorial stance of the ''Financial Times'' centres on
economic liberalism Economic liberalism (also known as fiscal conservatism in United States politics) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other form ...
, particularly
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
and
free market In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of pl ...
s. Since its founding it has supported
liberal democracy Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is the combination of a liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a L ...
, favouring classically liberal politics and policies from international governments; its newsroom is independent from its editorial board. Due to its history of economic commentary, the ''FT'' publishes a variety of financial indices, primarily the
FTSE All-Share IndexThe FTSE All-Share Index, originally known as the FTSE Actuaries All Share Index, is a capitalization-weighted index, capitalisation-weighted index, comprising around 600 of more than 2,000 companies traded on the London Stock Exchange (LSE). Since 2 ...
. Since the late 20th century, its typical depth of coverage has linked the paper with a white-collar and educated readership. Because of this tendency, the ''FT'' has traditionally been regarded as a
centre-right Centre-right politics (British English) or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, lean to the Right-wing politics, right of the Left–right politics, political spectrum, but are closer to the Centr ...
liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...
newspaper. The ''Financial Times'' is headquartered in Bracken House at 1, Friday Street, near the city's financial centre, where it maintains its
publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creation and distribution of printed works, such as book A ...
house, corporate centre, and main editorial office.


History

The ''FT'' was launched as the ''London Financial Guide'' on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the ''Financial Times'' on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, and the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal. The readership was the financial community of the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
, its only rival being the more daring and slightly older (founded in 1884) ''Financial News''. On 2 January 1893 the ''FT'' began printing on light pink paper to distinguish it from the similarly named ''Financial News'': at the time it was also cheaper to print on unbleached paper (several other more general newspapers, such as ''
The Sporting Times ''The Sporting Times'' (founded 1865, ceased publication 1932) was a weekly British newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in ...
'', had the same policy), but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially. After 57 years of rivalry the ''Financial Times'' and the ''Financial News'' were merged in 1945 by
Brendan Bracken Brendan Rendall Bracken, 1st Viscount Bracken, PC (15 February 1901 – 8 August 1958) was an Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of con ...
to form a single six-page newspaper. The ''Financial Times'' brought a higher circulation while the ''Financial News'' provided much of the editorial talent. The ''Lex'' column was also introduced from ''Financial News''. Gordon Newton, a Cambridge graduate, took over as Editor in 1949, and immediately introduced a policy (then most unusual in
Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar, London, Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which ...

Fleet Street
) of direct recruitment of new university graduates, mainly from Oxbridge, as its trainee journalists. Many of them proceeded to have distinguished careers elsewhere in journalism and British public life, and became the mainstay of the paper's own editorial strengths until the 1990s. The first such 'direct recruit' was (the future leading British economist) Andrew Shonfield; the second was (later Sir) William Rees-Mogg who went on, via ''
The Sunday Times ''The Sunday Times'' is a British newspaper whose circulation makes it the largest in the quality press Quality press is a category of British newspapers in national circulation distinguished by their seriousness. The category used to be call ...
'', to edit ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' in 1967 following its acquisition by Roy Thomson. Other FT Oxbridge recruits included the future
Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and the chief executive officer of HM Treasury, Her Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Grea ...
Nigel Lawson Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may ...
. The FT's distinctive recruitment policy for Fleet Street journalists was never popular with the
National Union of Journalists The National Union of Journalists (NUJ) is a trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varie ...
and ceased in 1966 following the recruitment of Richard Lambert from Oxford, himself a future Editor of the FT. Meanwhile, Pearson had bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in size, readership and breadth of coverage. It established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the
world economy The world economy or the global economy is the economy of all humans of the world, referring to the global economic system which includes all economic activities which are conducted both within and between nations, including production (economics ...
towards
globalisation Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...
. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the ''FT'' began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first ''FT'' (Continental Europe edition) was printed outside the UK, in Frankfurt; printing in the U.S. began in July 1985. Since then, with increased international coverage, the ''FT'' has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U.S., Asia and the Middle East. The European edition is distributed in continental Europe and Africa. It is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe, reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
and European corporate affairs. In 1994 ''FT'' launched a luxury lifestyle magazine, ''How To Spend It''. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine. On 13 May 1995 the ''Financial Times'' group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, which was supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage. The second-generation site was launched in spring 1996. The site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. ''FT'' introduced subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news sites successfully funded by individual subscription. In 1997 the ''FT'' launched a U.S. edition, printed in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Dallas, Atlanta, Orlando and Washington, D.C., although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the ''FT'' became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK. In 2000 the ''Financial Times'' started publishing a German-language edition, ''
Financial Times Deutschland The ''Financial Times Deutschland'' was a German-language financial newspaper based in Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST ...
'', with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg. Its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was originally a joint venture with a German publishing firm,
Gruner + JahrGruner may refer to: People * Dov Gruner (1912–1947), Jewish Zionist leader * Eduard Gruner, Swiss engineer * Elioth Gruner (1882–1939), Australian painter * Gottlieb Sigmund Gruner (1717–1778), Swiss cartographer and geologist * Klau ...
. In January 2008 the ''FT'' sold its 50% stake to its German partner. ''FT Deutschland'' never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years. It closed on 7 December 2012. The ''Financial Times'' launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. ''FT fund management'' (FTfm) was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title. Since 2005 the ''FT'' has sponsored the annual ''Financial Times'' and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award. On 23 April 2007 the ''FT'' unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times". In 2007 the ''FT'' pioneered a
metered paywall A paywall is a method of restricting access to content (media), content, especially news, via a purchase or a paid subscription business model, subscription. Beginning in the mid-2010s, newspapers started implementing paywalls on their websites a ...
, which let visitors to its website read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay. Four years later the ''FT'' launched its
HTML5 HTML5 is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable from the text, meaning when ...

HTML5
mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 12% of subscriptions and 19% of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the ''FT'' drew almost half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising. The ''FT'' has been available on
Bloomberg Terminal The Bloomberg Terminal is a computer software system provided by the financial data vendor Bloomberg L.P. that enables professionals in the financial service sector and other industries to access Bloomberg Professional Services through which use ...

Bloomberg Terminal
since 2010 and on the Wisers platform since 2013. From 2015, instead of the metered paywall on the website, visitors were given unlimited free access for one month, after which they needed to subscribe. Pearson sold the Financial Times Group to
Nikkei, Inc. Nikkei, Inc. is a Japanese holding company with newspaper businesses as its core. Its first publication was in 1876 with the publication of ''The Chugai Bukka Shimpo (Domestic and Foreign Prices News)''. In 1946, the company name was changed to '' ...
for £844 million (
US$ The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...
1.32 billion) in July 2015. In 2016, the ''Financial Times'' acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, video, digital, social and events. In 2018, the ''Financial Times'' acquired a controlling stake in
Longitude Longitude (, ) is a geographic coordinate A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a coordinate system associated with position (geometry), positions on Earth (geographic position). A GCS can give positions: *as Geodetic coordinates, ...
, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base. This investment built on the ''Financial Times'' recent growth in several business areas, including branded content via the acquisition of Alpha Grid, and conferences and events through ''Financial Times Live'' and extends the ''FT'' traditional commercial offering into a wider set of integrated services. In 2020, reporter Mark Di Stefano resigned from the ''Financial Times'' after hacking into
Zoom Zoom may refer to: Technology Computing * Zoom (software), videoconferencing application * Page zooming, the ability to magnify or shrink a portion of a page on a computer display * Zooming user interface, a graphical interface allowing for ima ...
calls at other media organisations including ''
The Independent ''The Independent'' is a British online newspaper An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the electronic publishing, online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online ver ...
'' and the ''
Evening Standard The ''Evening Standard'', formerly ''The Standard'' (1827–1904), also known as the ''London Evening Standard'', is a local free daily newspaper Free newspapers are distributed Gratis versus libre, free of charge, often in central place ...
''. In 2020, the retraction of an opinion piece by a reporter for the ''Financial Times'' generated a controversy about the editorial independence of the paper from outside political pressure. The controversy followed the withdrawal by the newspaper's editor of an opinion piece by ''FT'' Brussels correspondent Mehreen Khan that was critical of French President
Emmanuel Macron Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (; born 21 December 1977) is a French politician who has been serving as the president of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la R ...
's policy towards Muslim minorities in France. The piece was withdrawn from the ''FT'' website on the same day as its publication. President Macron subsequently published a letter in the ''FT'' directly responding to the arguments of the original opinion piece, even if it the original opinion piece was no longer available on the website of the newspaper. The editor of the ''FT'' who took the decision to withdraw the initial article, acknowledged having been contacted by the Élysée regarding the article and defended her decision on the basis purely of several factual errors in the original piece by Mehreen Khan.


Wirecard exposé

In January 2019, the ''FT'' began a series of investigative articles detailing fraud suspicions at German payments group
Wirecard Wirecard AG is an insolvent German payment processor A payment processor is some sort of transactor for financial calculations, technically an invertible currency exchange (often a third party) appointed by a merchant to handle transactions fro ...
. When the Wirecard share price plunged, German news media speculated that
market manipulation Market manipulation is a type of market abuse where there is a deliberate attempt to interfere with the free and fair operation of the market; the most blatant of cases involve creating false or misleading appearances with respect to the price of, ...
was behind this attack on a German corporate, focusing on the lead author of the ''FT'' series, Dan McCrum. The Public prosecutor's office in
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
subsequently launched an investigation. After the formal complaint of an investor, Wirecard and the German
Federal Financial Supervisory Authority The Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (german: Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht) better known by its abbreviation BaFin is the financial regulatory authority for Germany ...
(BaFin), the responsible state's attorney announced investigations into several ''FT'' journalists. On 22 June 2020 and after 18 months of investigations and an external audit, Wirecard announced that €1.9 billion worth of cash reported in its accounts "may not exist". The company subsequently filed for
insolvency In accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to comp ...
. BaFin itself became subject of a
European Securities and Markets Authority The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) is a European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have ...
investigation for its response to the scandal.


Audience

According to the Global Capital Markets Survey, which measures readership habits amongst most senior financial decision makers in the world's largest financial institutions, the ''Financial Times'' is considered the most important business read, reaching 36% of the sample population, 11% more than ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'' (''WSJ''), its main rival. ''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'', which was once 50% owned by ''FT'', reaches 32%. ''FT'' ''
The Banker ''The Banker'' is a British English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventuall ...
'' also proved vital reading, reaching 24%. In addition ''FT'' was regarded as the most credible publication in reporting financial and economic issues among the Worldwide Professional Investment Community audience. ''The Economist'' was also rated the third most credible title by most influential professional investors, while the ''WSJ'' was second.


Content

The ''FT'' is split into two sections. The first section covers domestic and international news, editorial commentary on politics and economics from ''FT'' journalists such as
Martin Wolf Martin Harry Wolf (born 16 March 1946 in London) is a British journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the p ...
,
Gillian Tett Gillian Tett (born 10 July 1967) is a British author and journalist at the '' Financial Times'', where she is a markets and finance columnist and U.S. managing editor. She has written about the financial instruments that were part of the cause of ...
and Edward Luce, and opinion pieces from globally renowned leaders, policymakers, academics and commentators. The second section consists of financial data and news about companies and markets. Despite being generally regarded as primarily a financial newspaper, it does also contain TV listings, weather and other more informal articles. About 110 of its 475 journalists are outside the United Kingdom.


The ''Lex'' column

The ''Lex'' column is a daily feature on the back page of the first section. It features analyses and opinions covering global economics and finance. The ''FT'' calls ''Lex'' its agenda-setting column. The column first appeared on Monday, 1 October 1945. The name may originally have stood for ''Lex Mercatoria'', a Latin expression meaning literally "merchant law". It was conceived by Hargreaves Parkinson for the ''Financial News'' in the 1930s and moved to the ''Financial Times'' when the two merged. ''Lex'' boasts some distinguished alumni who have gone on to make careers in business and government—including
Nigel Lawson Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may ...
(former Conservative
Chancellor of the Exchequer The chancellor of the Exchequer, often abbreviated to the chancellor, is a senior minister of the Crown within the Government of the United Kingdom, and the chief executive officer of HM Treasury, Her Majesty's Treasury. As one of the four Grea ...
),
Richard Lambert Sir Richard Peter Lambert (born 23 September 1944) is a British journalist and business executive. He served as Director-General of the CBI, Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the g ...
( CBI director and former member of the
Bank of England The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694 to act as the Kingdom of England, English Government's banker, and still one of the bankers for t ...

Bank of England
's monetary policy committee), Martin Taylor (former chief executive of
Barclays Barclays plc () is a British multinational Investment banking, investment bank and financial services company, headquartered in London, England. Apart from investment banking, Barclays is organised into four core businesses: Retail banking, pe ...

Barclays
), John Makinson (chairman and chief executive of
Penguin Penguins (order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and t ...

Penguin
), John Gardiner (former chairman of
Tesco Tesco plc () is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

Tesco
),
David Freud David Anthony Freud, Baron Freud, Privy Council, PC (born 24 June 1950) is a British politician, life peer and former investment banker who served as Minister for Work and Pensions (United Kingdom), Minister for Welfare Reform from 2010 to 2016. B ...
(former
UBS UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational and company founded and based in . Co-headquartered in the cities of and , it maintains a presence in all major financial centres as the and the in the world. UBS client services are known for their ...

UBS
banker and Labour adviser, now a Conservative peer), John Kingman (former head of UKFI and a banker at Rothschild's), George Graham ( RBS banker),
Andrew Balls Andrew Balls is Pimco PIMCO (Pacific Investment Management Company, LLC) is a global investment management firm focusing on active fixed income management. PIMCO manages investments in a number of asset classes such as fixed income, equities, com ...
(head of European portfolio management at
PIMCO PIMCO (Pacific Investment Management Company, LLC) is an American investment management Investment management is the professional asset management Asset management refers to a systematic approach to the governance and realization of value f ...
) and
Jo Johnson Joseph Edmund Johnson, Baron Johnson of Marylebone, (born 23 December 1971) is a British politician who was Minister of State for Universities, Science, Research and Innovation from July to September 2019, as well as previously from 2015 to 2 ...
(former Conservative Member of Parliament for Orpington).


''FT Weekend''

The ''FT'' publishes a Saturday edition of the newspaper called the ''Financial Times Weekend''. It consists of international economic and political news, ''Companies & Markets'', ''Life & Arts'', ''House & Home'' and ''
FT Magazine ''FT Magazine'' is a supplement to the weekend edition of the '' Financial Times'' newspaper. History and profile ''FT Magazine'' was founded in 2003. John Lloyd was the first editor of the magazine. It is published on Saturdays and covers world ev ...
''.


''How to Spend It''

''How to Spend It'' (''HTSI'') is a weekly magazine published with ''FT Weekend''. Founded and launched by Julia Carrick with Lucia van der Post as founding editor, its articles concern
luxury good In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant ...
s such as
yacht A yacht is a sailing or power vessel used for pleasure, cruising, or racing. There is no standard definition, so the term applies to such vessels that have a cabin with amenities that accommodate overnight use. To be termed a , as opposed to a ...

yacht
s,
mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word ''mansio'' "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb ''manere'' "to dwell". The English word ''manse'' originally defined a property la ...

mansion
s,
apartment An apartment (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United S ...

apartment
s, horlogerie,
haute couture ''Haute couture'' (; ; French language, French for 'high sewing', 'high dressmaking') refers to the creation of exclusive custom-fitted high-end fashion design that is constructed by hand from start to finish. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth c ...
and
automobiles A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicle ...
, as well as fashion and columns by individuals in the arts, gardening, food, and hotel and travel industries. ''How to Spend It'' started in 1967 as a one-page consumer goods feature in the newspaper, which was edited by Sheila Black, a former actor and ''FT'' first female journalist. To celebrate its 15th anniversary, ''FT'' launched the online version of this publication on 3 October 2009. Some media commentators were taken aback by the online launch of a website supporting
conspicuous consumption In sociology and in economics, the term conspicuous consumption describes and explains the consumer A consumer is a person or a group who intends to order, orders, or uses purchased goods, products, or services Service may refer to: Activitie ...
during the financial
austerity Austerity is a set of political-economic policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both. There are three primary types of austerity measures: higher taxes to fund spending, ...

austerity
of the
late-2000s recession The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline (recession In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (e ...
. The magazine has been derided in rival publishers' blogs, as "repellent" in the ''Telegraph'' and "a latter-day '' Ab Fab'' manual" in the ''Guardian''. A 'well-thumbed' copy of the supplement was found when rebel forces broke into
Colonel Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Lin ...
's Tripoli compound during the
2011 Libyan Civil War The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and ...

2011 Libyan Civil War
. In September 2021 Arabic version of ''HTSI'' was launched by
Othman Al Omeir Othman Al Omeir (born 1950) (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in collaboration with Geoffrey Kha ...
, founder of ''
Elaph Elaph ( ar, إيلاف, meaning "Solidarity" in Arabic) is the first daily Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East ...
'' online newspaper. ''HTSI Arabic'' is published in London.


Editorial stance

The ''FT'' advocates
free markets In economics Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the beh ...
and is in favour of
globalisation Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...
. During the 1980s, it supported
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher (; 13 October 19258 April 2013), was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either ...

Margaret Thatcher
and
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
's
monetarist Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics Monetary economics is the branch of economics that studies the different competing theories of money: it provides a framework for analyzing money and considers its functions (such as medium ...
policies. It has supported the UK
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
in the past, including at the general election in 1992 when
Neil Kinnock Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock (born 28 March 1942) is a Welsh politician. As a member of the Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – ...
was Labour leader. The ''FT'' editorials tend to be
pro-European Pro-Europeanism, sometimes called European Unionism, is a political position that favours European integration and membership of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European ...
. The ''FT'' was firmly opposed to the
Iraq War The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the Second Gulf War or the Third Gulf War by those who consider the Iran–Iraq War the first Gulf War. The war was also called the Second Iraq War referring to the Gulf War as the first Iraq war. The p ...
. In the
2010 United Kingdom general election The 2010 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 6 May 2010, with 45,597,461 registered voters entitled to vote to elect members to the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower hou ...
, the ''FT'' was receptive to the Liberal Democrats' positions on civil liberties and political reform, and praised the then
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
leader
Gordon Brown James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Gordon Brown
for his response to the global
financial crisis of 2007–2008 The financial crisis of 2007–2008, or global financial crisis (GFC), was a severe worldwide economic crisis An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and ...
, but on balance it backed the
Conservatives Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional values or practices of the culture Culture () is an umbrella term w ...

Conservatives
, while questioning their tendency to
Euroscepticism Euroscepticism, also spelled as Euroskepticism or EU-scepticism, means criticism of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a ...
. In the
2015 United Kingdom general election The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer t ...
, the ''FT'' called for the continuation of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition that had governed for the previous five years. In the
2017 United Kingdom general election The 2017 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday, 8 June 2017, two years after the previous general election in 2015. The governing Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party ...
, a ''Financial Times'' editorial reluctantly backed Conservative
Theresa May Theresa Mary, Lady May (; ' Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician who served as and from 2016 to 2019. May served as from 2010 to 2016 in the and has been the (MP) for in since . Ideologically, she identifies herself as ...

Theresa May
over Labour
Jeremy Corbyn Jeremy Bernard Corbyn (; born 26 May 1949) is a British politician who served as Leader of the Labour PartyThe title Leader of the Labour Party may refer to: *Leader of the Labour Party (Ireland) *Leader of the Labour Party (Netherlands) *Lea ...

Jeremy Corbyn
, while warning about her stance on immigration and the Eurosceptic elements in her party. The modern ''FT'' is a product of a merger of two smaller newspapers in
1945 It marked the end of World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany. It is also the only year in which nuclear weapons have been used in combat. Events Below, the events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix. January * January – WWII: The ...
; since that time, the paper had backed the
Conservatives Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in relation to the traditional values or practices of the culture Culture () is an umbrella term w ...

Conservatives
fairly consistently, but Labour's tacking to the centre, combined with the Conservatives embracement of Euroscepticism, led the ''FT'' to reverse course and back Labour from
1992 1992 was designated as: * International Space YearThe International Space Year (ISY) was 1992, the year of the quincentenary of Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, C ...
until
2010 2010 was designated as: *International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) was a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its importance, taking place internationally in 2010. Coinciding with the dat ...
, when the ''FT'' returned to the Conservative party. Euroscepticism further drove a wedge between the ''FT'' and the Conservatives in
2019 2019 was designated as International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six pr ...
, when the paper refused to make an endorsement, appalled at Labour's socialist economic policies (for wanting to "reverse, not revise, the Thatcherite revolution of the 1980s") and the Conservatives commitment to a
hard Brexit In the wake of the referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of ...
.


United States politics

In the
2008 United States presidential election The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial United States presidential election, presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic Party (United States), Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the ...
, the ''Financial Times'' endorsed
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
. While it raised concerns over hints of
protectionism Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations. Proponents argue that protectionist policies sh ...
, it praised his ability to "engage the country's attention", his calls for a bipartisan politics, and his plans for " comprehensive health-care reform". The ''FT'' favoured Obama again in the
2012 United States presidential election The 2012 United States presidential election was the 57th quadrennial presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or mu ...
. The ''FT'' endorsed Democratic candidate
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state The United States secretary of state is an of ...

Hillary Clinton
in the run-up for the
2016 United States presidential election The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or mul ...
and
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
in the 2020 United States presidential election.


Ownership and related publications

On 23 July 2015,
Nikkei, Inc. Nikkei, Inc. is a Japanese holding company with newspaper businesses as its core. Its first publication was in 1876 with the publication of ''The Chugai Bukka Shimpo (Domestic and Foreign Prices News)''. In 1946, the company name was changed to '' ...
agreed to buy the Financial Times Group, a division of Pearson PLC since 1957, for £844m (US$1.32 billion) and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015. Until August 2015 the FT group had a 50% shareholding in ''
The Economist ''The Economist'' is an international weekly newspaper A weekly newspaper is a general-news or current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of cult ...
'', which was sold to the
Agnelli family The Agnelli family () is an Italian multi-industry business dynasty founded by Giovanni Agnelli Giovanni Agnelli (13 August 1866 – 16 December 1945) was an Italian businessman, who founded Fiat car manufacturing in 1899. Early life The son o ...
for £469 million. Related publications include the ''Financial Times'', FT.com, FT Search Inc., the publishing imprint FT Press and numerous joint ventures. In November 2013 it agreed to sell
Mergermarket Acuris is a financial news and data firm known for its products fixed income Fixed income refers to any type of investment under which the borrower or issuer is obliged to make payments of a fixed amount on a fixed schedule. For example, the bor ...
, an online intelligence reporting business, to the London private equity investor BC Partners. In addition, the FT Group has a unit called FT Specialist, which is a provider of specialist information on retail, personal and institutional finance segments. It publishes ''
The Banker ''The Banker'' is a British English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventuall ...
'', ''
Money Management Money management is the process of expense tracking, investing, budgeting, banking and evaluating taxes of one's money which is also called investment management Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities ...
'' and ''Financial Adviser'' (a publication targeted at professional advisers), ''fDi Intelligence'' and ''Professional Wealth Management'' (PWM). The Financial Times Group announced the beta launch of newssift, part of FT Search, in March 2009. Newssift.com is a next-generation search tool for business professionals that indexes millions of articles from thousands of global business news sources, not just the FT. The Financial Times Group acquired Money Media (an
online news An online newspaper (or electronic news or electronic news publication) is the online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or ...
and commentary site for the industry) and Exec-Appointments (an online recruitment specialist site for the executive jobs market). The FT Group once had a 13.85% stake in Business Standard Ltd of India, the publisher of the ''
Business Standard ''Business Standard'' is an Indian English language, English-language daily edition newspaper published by Business Standard, also available in Hindi. Founded in 1975, the newspaper does extensive coverage on the Economy of India, Indian econom ...
''. It sold this stake in April 2008 and has entered into an agreement with
Network 18 Network18 Media & Investments Limited, (formerly SGA Finance and Management Service and Network18 Fincap Limited) commonly referred to as the Network18 Group and sometimes as the Network18–Eenadu Group, is an Indian media conglomerate owned b ...
to launch the ''Financial Times'' in India, though it is speculated that they may find it difficult to do so, as the brand 'Financial Times' in India is owned by
The Times Group Bennett, Coleman and Company Limited, (abbreviated as B.C.C.L. and Trade name, d/b/a The Times Group), is an Indian media conglomerate headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. The company remains a Family business, family-owned business with Sah ...
, the publisher of ''
The Times of India ''The Times of India'' (also known by its abbreviation 'TOI') is an Indian English-language daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is of ...
'' and ''
The Economic Times ''The Economic Times'' is an Indian English-language business-focused daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black in ...
''. The group also publishes
America's Intelligence Wire The America's Intelligence Wire is a daily general newswire service. The news service is owned and published by Financial Times, Financial Times, Ltd, which also operates companion newswire Europe Intelligence Wire. See also * Business and Company ...
, a daily general
newswire A news agency is an organization that gathers news News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different Media (communication), media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic co ...
service. The ''Financial Times Financial Publishing division (formerly FT Business) provides print and online content for retail, personal and institutional finance audiences. Examples of publications and services include: ''
Investors Chronicle The ''Investors Chronicle'' is a weekly magazine in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain a ...
'', a personal finance magazine and website; "FT Money", a weekly personal finance supplement in "FT Weekend"; ''FT Wealth'', a magazine for the global high-net-worth community and FTfm, a weekly review of the global fund management industry, ''
Money Management Money management is the process of expense tracking, investing, budgeting, banking and evaluating taxes of one's money which is also called investment management Investment management is the professional asset management of various securities ...
'' and ''Financial Adviser'' (a publication targeted at professional advisers). The institutional segment includes: ''
The Banker ''The Banker'' is a British English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventuall ...
'', ''
This Is Africa ''This Is Africa'' is an English-language bi-monthly business publication owned by ''The Financial Times'' Ltd and edited in London. It examines African business and politics in a global context and seeks to make sense of the relationships that Afri ...
'', '' fDi'' ''Intelligence'' and ''Professional Wealth Management'' (PWM). Money-Media, a separate arm of Financial Publishing, delivers a range of digital information services for fund management professionals around the globe, including: Ignites, Ignites Europe, Ignites Asia, FundFire and BoardIQ. Financial Publishing includes publications ('' Pensions Expert'' and ''Deutsche Pensions & Investmentnachrichten'') and events (''Investment Expert'') for the European pensions industry. The group also publishes MandateWire, a financial information company that provides sales and market intelligence for investment professionals in North America, Europe and Asia. FT Knowledge is an associated company which offers educational products and services. FT Knowledge has offered the "Introducing the City" course (which is a series of Wednesday night lectures and seminars, as well as weekend events) during each autumn and spring since 2000. FT Predict is a prediction market contest hosted by the ''Financial Times'' that allows users to buy and sell contracts based on future financial, political and news-driven events by spending fictional Financial Times Dollars (FT$). Based on the assumptions displayed in James Surowiecki's ''The Wisdom of Crowds'', this contest allows people to use prediction markets to observe future occurrences while competing for weekly and monthly prizes. The ''Financial Times'' also ran a business-related game called "In the Pink" (a phrase meaning "in good health", also a reference to the colour of the newspaper and to the phrase "in the red" meaning to be making a loss). Each player was put in the virtual role of Chief Executive and the goal was to have the highest Profit (accounting), profit when the game closes. The winner of the game (the player who makes the highest profit) was to receive a real monetary prize of £10,000. The game ran from 1 May to 28 June 2006.


Indices

The ''Financial Times'' collates and publishes a number of Stock market index, financial market indices, which reflect the changing value of their constituent parts. The longest-running of these was the former ''Financial News Index'', started on 1 July 1935 by the ''Financial News''. The ''FT'' published a similar index; this was replaced by the ''Financial News Index''—which was then renamed the ''Financial Times (FT) Index''—on 1 January 1947. The index started as an index of industrial shares, and companies with dominant overseas interests were excluded, such as the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (later BP), British-American Tobacco, Lever Brothers (later Unilever) and Royal Dutch Shell, Shell. The oil and financial sectors were included decades later.''The Stock Market'', John Littlewood. The
FTSE All-Share IndexThe FTSE All-Share Index, originally known as the FTSE Actuaries All Share Index, is a capitalization-weighted index, capitalisation-weighted index, comprising around 600 of more than 2,000 companies traded on the London Stock Exchange (LSE). Since 2 ...
, the first of the FTSE series of indices, was created in 1962, comprising the largest 594 UK companies by market capitalisation. The letters F-T-S-E represented that FTSE was a joint venture between the ''Financial Times'' (F-T) and the London Stock Exchange (S-E). On 13 February 1984 the FTSE 100 was introduced, representing about eighty per cent of the London Stock Exchange's value. In 1995 FTSE Group was made an independent company. The first of several overseas offices was opened in New York City in 1999; Paris followed in early 2000, Hong Kong, Frankfurt and San Francisco in 2001, Madrid in 2002 and Tokyo in 2003. Other well-known FTSE indices include the FTSE 350 Index, the FTSE SmallCap Index, the FTSE AIM UK 50 Index and FTSE AIM 100 Index as well as the FTSE AIM All-Share Index for stocks, and the FTSE UK Gilt Indices for government bonds.


People

In July 2006 the ''FT'' announced a "New Newsroom" project to integrate the newspaper more closely with FT.com. At the same time it announced plans to cut the editorial staff from 525 to 475. In August 2006 it announced that all the required job cuts had been achieved through voluntary layoffs. A number of former ''FT'' journalists have gone on to high-profile jobs in journalism, politics and business. Robert James Thomson, Robert Thomson, previously the paper's US managing editor, was the editor of ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' and is now the publisher of the ''Wall Street Journal''. William Lewis (journalist), Will Lewis, a former New York correspondent and News Editor for the ''FT'', is the current editor of the ''Daily Telegraph''. Dominic Lawson went on to become editor of the ''Sunday Telegraph'' until he was sacked in 2005. Andrew Adonis, a former education correspondent, became an adviser on education to the then British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, and was given a job as an education minister and a seat in the House of Lords after the 2005 election. Ed Balls became chief economic adviser to the Treasury, working closely with
Gordon Brown James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Gordon Brown
, the chancellor of the exchequer (or finance minister), before being elected a Member of Parliament in 2005, and became Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families in July 2007. Bernard Gray, a former defence correspondent and Lex columnist, was chief executive of the publishing company CMP before becoming chief executive of TSL Education, publisher of the ''Times Educational Supplement''. David Jones, at one time the FT Night Editor, then became Head of IT. He was a key figure in the newspaper's transformation from hot metal to electronic composition and then onto full-page pagination in the 1990s. He went on to become Head of Technology for the Trinity Mirror Group. Sir Geoffrey Owen was the editor of the ''Financial Times'' from 1981 to 1990. He joined the Centre for Economic Performance (CEP) at the London School of Economics as Director of Business Policy in 1991 and was appointed Senior Fellow, Institute of Management, in 1997. He continues his work there. During his tenure at the FT he had to deal with rapid technological change and issues related to it, for example repetitive strain injury (RSI), which affected dozens of FT journalists, reporters and staff in the late 1980s.


Editors

:1889: Douglas MacRae :1890: William Ramage Lawson :1892: Sydney Murray :1896: A. E. Murray :1909: C. H. Palmer :1924: D. S. T. Hunter :1937: Archibald Chisholm :1940: Albert George Cole :1945: Hargreaves Parkinson :1949: Gordon Newton, Sir Gordon Newton :1973: Fredy Fisher :1981: Sir Geoffrey Owen :1991:
Richard Lambert Sir Richard Peter Lambert (born 23 September 1944) is a British journalist and business executive. He served as Director-General of the CBI, Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the g ...
:2001: Andrew Gowers :2006: Lionel Barber :2020:


See also

* Business journalism * Financial Times and McKinsey Business Book of the Year Award, ''Financial Times'' Business Book of the Year Award * Financial Times Person of the Year * List of newspapers in the United Kingdom * TNW (website) * Periodical literature


Notes


References


External links

* {{authority control Financial Times, Financial services companies established in 1888 1888 establishments in England 1957 mergers and acquisitions 2015 mergers and acquisitions Business newspapers Business newspapers published in the United Kingdom Centre-right newspapers Centrist newspapers Daily newspapers published in the United Kingdom Economic liberalism Economy of the United Kingdom International newspapers Liberal media in the United Kingdom National newspapers published in the United Kingdom Nikkei Inc. Pearson plc Podcasting companies Publications established in 1888 Websites utilizing paywalls