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Textile is an
umbrella term In linguistics, semantics, general semantics, and ontology components, ontologies, hyponymy () is a wikt:Wiktionary:Semantic relations, semantic relation between a hyponym denoting a subset, subtype and a hypernym or hyperonym (sometimes called ...
that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers,
yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, used in sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ropemaking, and the production of Textile, textiles. Thread (yarn), Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or sew ...
s, filaments, threads, different
fabric Textile is an Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term that includes various Fiber, fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, Staple (textiles)#Filament fiber, filaments, Thread (yarn), threads, different #Fabric, fabric types, etc. At f ...
types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to
woven fabric Woven fabric is any textile formed by weaving. Woven fabrics are often created on a loom, and made of many threads woven on a Warp (weaving), warp and a weft. Technically, a woven fabric is any fabric made by interlacing two or more threads at rig ...
s. However,
weaving Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarn, yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a textile, fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braid, braiding or plaiting. ...
is not the only manufacturing method, and many other methods were later developed to form textile structures based on their intended use.
Knitting Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile, or knitted fabric, fabric. It is used to create many types of garments. Knitting may be done Hand knitting, by hand or Knitting machine, by machine. Knitting creates Stit ...
and non-woven are other popular types of fabric manufacturing. In the contemporary world, textiles satisfy the
material Material is a matter, substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an Physical object, object. Materials can be pure or impure, living or non-living matter. Materials can be classified on the basis of their physical property, physical an ...
needs for versatile applications, from simple daily
clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the human body, body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has included garments made from animal skin and other thin sheets of materials ...
to bulletproof jackets,
spacesuit A space suit or spacesuit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, Vacuum (outer space), vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of l ...
s, and doctor's gowns. Textiles are divided into two groups: Domestic purposes onsumer textilesand
technical textile A technical textile is a textile product manufactured for non-aesthetic purposes, where Performance (textiles), function is the primary criterion. Technical textiles include textiles for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g., implants) ...
s. In consumer textiles,
aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics, is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aesthetics). It examines aesthetic values, ...
and
comfort Comfort (or being comfortable'')'' is a sense of physical or psychological pleasure, ease, often characterized as a lack of suffering, hardship. Persons who are lacking in comfort are uncomfortable, or experiencing discomfort. A degree of psy ...
are the most important factors, but in technical textiles, functional properties are the priority.
Geotextile Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in two basic forms: woven (re ...
s, industrial textiles,
medical textiles Medical textiles are various Fiber, fiber-based materials intended for medical purposes. Medical textile is a sector of technical textiles that focuses on fiber-based products used in health care applications such as Preventive healthcare, prevent ...
, and many other areas are examples of technical textiles, whereas
clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the human body, body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has included garments made from animal skin and other thin sheets of materials ...
and furnishings are examples of consumer textiles. Each component of a textile product, including fiber, yarn, fabric, processing, and finishing, affects the final product. Components may vary among various textile products as they are selected based on their fitness for purpose. Fiber is the smallest component of a fabric; fibers are typically spun into yarn, and yarns are used to manufacture fabrics. Fiber has a hair-like appearance and a higher length-to-width ratio. The sources of fibers may be natural, synthetic, or both. The techniques of
felt Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool or animal fur, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic fiber, acrylic or acrylonit ...
ing and bonding directly transform fibers into fabric. In other cases, yarns are manipulated with different fabric manufacturing systems to produce various fabric constructions. The fibers are twisted or laid out to make a long, continuous strand of yarn. Yarns are then used to make different kinds of fabric by weaving, knitting,
crochet Crochet (; ) is a process of creating textiles by using a crochet hook to interlock loops of yarn, thread (yarn), thread, or strands of other materials. The name is derived from the French term ''crochet'', meaning 'hook'. Hooks can be made from ...
ing, knotting,
tatting Tatting is a technique for handcrafting a particularly durable lace from a series of knots and loop (knot), loops. Tatting can be used to make lace edging as well as doilies, collar (clothing), collars, accessories such as earrings and necklaces, ...
, or
braid A braid (also referred to as a plait) is a complex structure or pattern formed by interlacing two or more strands of flexible material such as textile yarns, wire, or hair. The simplest and most common version is a flat, solid, three-strande ...
ing. After manufacturing, textile materials are processed and finished to add value, such as aesthetics, physical characteristics, and increased usefulness. The manufacturing of textiles is the oldest industrial
art Art is a diverse range of human activity, and resulting product, that involves creative or imaginative talent expressive of technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of wha ...
.
Dyeing Dyeing is the application of dyes or pigments on textile materials such as fibers, yarns, and fabrics with the goal of achieving color with desired color fastness. Dyeing is normally done in a special Solution (chemistry), solution containing ...
,
printing Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and Printmaking, images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabo ...
, and
embroidery Embroidery is the craft of decorating Textile, fabric or other materials using a sewing needle, needle to apply yarn, thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, emb ...
are all different decorative arts applied to textile materials.


Etymology


Textile

The word 'textile' comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area (then known as Latium) around present-day Rome, but through ...
adjective , meaning 'woven', which itself stems from , the past participle of the verb , 'to weave'. Originally applied to
woven fabric Woven fabric is any textile formed by weaving. Woven fabrics are often created on a loom, and made of many threads woven on a Warp (weaving), warp and a weft. Technically, a woven fabric is any fabric made by interlacing two or more threads at rig ...
s, the term "textiles" is now used to encompass a diverse range of materials, including fibers,
yarns Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, used in sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ropemaking, and the production of Textile, textiles. Thread (yarn), Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or sew ...
, and
fabrics Textile is an Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term that includes various Fiber, fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, Staple (textiles)#Filament fiber, filaments, Thread (yarn), threads, different #Fabric, fabric types, etc. At f ...
, as well as other related items.


Fabric

A "fabric" is defined as any thin, flexible material made from yarn, directly from fibers, polymeric film, foam, or any combination of these techniques. Fabric has a broader application than cloth. Fabric is synonymous with cloth, material, goods, or piece goods. The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, with roots in the
Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo ...
. Stemming most recently from the
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition during which: * the French language became clearly distinguished from t ...
, or "building," and earlier from the Latin ('workshop; an art, trade; a skillful production, structure, fabric'), the noun stems from the Latin " artisan who works in hard materials', which itself is derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''dhabh-'', meaning 'to fit together'.


Cloth

Cloth is a kind of fabric that consists of a fine, flexible network of yarns. While the term "cloth" is synonymous with fabric, not all fabrics can be defined as cloth. The word 'cloth' derives from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabita ...
, meaning "a cloth, woven, or felted material to wrap around one's body', from the
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic languages, Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic eventually developed from ...
, similar to the
Old Frisian Old Frisian was a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries along the North Sea coast, roughly between the mouths of the Rhine and Weser rivers. The Frisian settlers on the coast of South Jutland ...
, the
Middle Dutch Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic languages, West Germanic dialects whose ancestor was Old Dutch. It was spoken and written between 1150 and 1500. Until the advent of Modern Dutch after 1500 or c. 155 ...
, the
Middle High German Middle High German (MHG; german: Mittelhochdeutsch (Mhd.)) is the term for the form of German language, German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German and into Early New Hi ...
and the German , all meaning 'garment'.


History

Textiles themselves are too fragile to survive across millennia; the tools used for spinning and
weaving Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarn, yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a textile, fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braid, braiding or plaiting. ...
make up most prehistoric evidence for textile work. The earliest tool for spinning was the spindle to which a whorl was eventually added. The weight of the whorl improved the thickness and twist of spun thread. Later the
spinning wheel A spinning wheel is a device for hand spinning, spinning thread or yarn from fibres. It was fundamental to the cotton textile industry prior to the Industrial Revolution. It laid the foundations for later machinery such as the spinning jenny ...
was invented. Historians are unsure where; some say China and others India. The precursor of today's textiles includes leaves, barks, fur pelts, and felted cloths. The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of
warp Warp, warped or warping may refer to: Arts and entertainment Books and comics * WaRP Graphics, an alternative comics publisher * Warp (First Comics), ''Warp'' (First Comics), comic book series published by First Comics based on the play ''Warp!'' ...
ikat ''Ikat'' (in Languages of Indonesia, Indonesian languages means "bind") is a dyeing technique originating from Indonesia used to pattern textiles that employs resist dyeing on the yarns prior to dyeing and weaving the fabric. In ''ikat'', the ...
in Southeast
Asia Asia (, ) is one of the world's most notable geographical regions, which is either considered a continent in its own right or a subcontinent of Eurasia, which shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with Africa Africa is ...
, is displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asian people of the northwest
Romblon Romblon ( , ), officially the Province of Romblon, is an archipelagic Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa Regions of the Philippines, region. Its main islands include Tablas Island, Tablas, the large ...
. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and perhaps much earlier, were probably made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the elements. At some point, people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000
BCE Common Era (CE) and Before the Common Era (BCE) are year notations for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most parts of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a modificatio ...
suggests that textile-like materials were made as early as the Paleolithic era.Supporting Online Material
The speed and scale of textile production have been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary secto ...
techniques.


Textile industry

The
textile industry The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn, textile, cloth and clothing. The raw material may be Natural material, natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. Industry p ...
grew out of art and craft and was kept going by
guild A guild ( ) is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradesmen belonging to a professional association. They sometimes ...
s. In the 18th and 19th centuries, during the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, that occurred during the period from around 1760 to about 1820–1840. This transition included going fr ...
, it became increasingly mechanized. In 1765, when a machine for spinning wool or cotton called the
spinning jenny The spinning jenny is a multi-Spindle (textiles), spindle spinning wheel, spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, industrialization of textile manufacturing during the ea ...
was invented in the United Kingdom, textile production became the first economic activity to be industrialised. In the 20th century,
science Science is a systematic endeavor that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Science may be as old as the human species, and some of the earli ...
and
technology Technology is the application of knowledge to reach practical goals in a specifiable and Reproducibility, reproducible way. The word ''technology'' may also mean the product of such an endeavor. The use of technology is widely prevalent in me ...
were driving forces.


Naming

Most textiles were called by their generic names, their place of origin, or were put into groups based loosely on manufacturing techniques, characteristics, and on their designs.
Nylon Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers composed of polyamides (polymer, repeating units linked by amide links).The polyamides may be aliphatic or Aromaticity, semi-aromatic. Nylon is a silk-like thermoplastic, genera ...
,
Olefin In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the science, scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms th ...
, Acrylic are all generic names for some synthetic fibers.


Related terms

The related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades (such as
tailor A tailor is a person who makes or alters clothing, particularly in men's clothing. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the term to the thirteenth century. History Although clothing construction goes back to prehistory, there is evidence of ...
ing and
dressmaking A dressmaker, also known as a seamstress, is a person who makes custom clothing for women, such as dresses, blouses, and gown, evening gowns. Dressmakers were historically known as mantua (clothing), mantua-makers, and are also known as a mod ...
) as synonyms for ''textile''. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibers, including
carpet A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of Pile (textile), pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool, but since the 20th century synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon, or ...
ing and
geotextile Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in two basic forms: woven (re ...
s, which may not necessarily be used in the production of further goods, such as
clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the human body, body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has included garments made from animal skin and other thin sheets of materials ...
and
upholstery Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially chair, seats, with padding, Spring (device), springs, webbing, and textile, fabric or leather covers. The word also refers to the materials used to upholster something. ''Upholstery'' c ...
. A ''fabric'' is a material made through
weaving Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarn, yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a textile, fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braid, braiding or plaiting. ...
,
knitting Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile, or knitted fabric, fabric. It is used to create many types of garments. Knitting may be done Hand knitting, by hand or Knitting machine, by machine. Knitting creates Stit ...
, spreading, felting, stitching, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further products, such as clothing and upholstery, thus requiring a further step of the production. ''Cloth'' may also be used synonymously with ''fabric'', but often specifically refers to a piece of fabric that has been processed or cut. * Greige goods: Textiles that are raw and unfinished are referred to as
greige goods Greige goods (Gray goods, Grey goods, Corah or ) are loom state woven fabrics, or unprocessed knitted fabrics. Greige goods undergo many subsequent processes, for instance, dyeing, Textile printing, printing, and Finishing (textiles), finishing, ...
. After manufacturing, the materials are processed and finished. * Piece goods: Piece goods were textile materials sold in cut pieces as specified by the buyer. Piece goods were either cut from a fabric roll or made to a specific length, also known as yard goods.


Types

Textiles are various materials made from fibers and yarns. The term "textile" was originally only used to refer to woven fabrics, but today it covers a broad range of subjects. Textiles are classified at various levels, such as according to fiber origin (natural or synthetic), structure (woven, knitted, nonwoven), finish, etc. However, there are primarily two types of textiles:


Consumer textiles

Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for
clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the human body, body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has included garments made from animal skin and other thin sheets of materials ...
and for
containers A container is any receptacle or enclosure for holding a product used in storage, packaging, and transportation, including shipping. Things kept inside of a container are protected on several sides by being inside of its structure. The term ...
such as bags and
basket A basket is a container that is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers and can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane. While most baskets are made from plant materials, other materials such as horsehai ...
s. In the household, textiles are used in
carpet A carpet is a textile floor covering typically consisting of an upper layer of Pile (textile), pile attached to a backing. The pile was traditionally made from wool, but since the 20th century synthetic fibers such as polypropylene, nylon, or ...
ing, upholstered
furnishings ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes most of the arts making objects for the interiors of buildings, and interior design, but not usual ...
, window shades,
towel A towel is a piece of absorption (chemistry), absorbent cloth or paper used for drying or wiping a surface. Towels draw moisture through direct contact. In households, several types of towels are used, such as hand towels, bath towels, and kitche ...
s, coverings for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in
art Art is a diverse range of human activity, and resulting product, that involves creative or imaginative talent expressive of technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of wha ...
. Textiles are used in many traditional hand crafts such as
sewing Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitch (textile arts), stitches made with a sewing needle and yarn, thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the textile arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. Before the invention of spi ...
,
quilting Quilting is the term given to the process of joining a minimum of three layers of textile, fabric together either through stitching manually using a Sewing needle, needle and yarn, thread, or mechanically with a sewing machine or specialise ...
, and
embroidery Embroidery is the craft of decorating Textile, fabric or other materials using a sewing needle, needle to apply yarn, thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, emb ...
.


Technical textiles

Textiles produced for industrial purposes, and designed and chosen for technical characteristics beyond their appearance, are commonly referred to as '' technical textiles.'' Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (such as implants),
geotextile Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in two basic forms: woven (re ...
(reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (such as clothing resistant to heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and
bullet A bullet is a kinetic projectile, a component of firearm ammunition that is Shooting, shot from a gun barrel. Bullets are made of a variety of materials, such as copper, lead, steel, polymer, rubber and even wax. Bullets are made in various shap ...
proof vests). In the workplace, textiles can be used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include
flag A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colours. It is used as a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an ide ...
s,
backpack A backpack—also called knapsack, schoolbag, rucksack, rucksac, pack, sackpack, booksack, bookbag or backsack—is, in its simplest frameless form, a fabric sack carried on one's back and secured with two straps that go over the shoulders ...
s,
tent A tent () is a Shelter (building), shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or a supporting rope. While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents are usual ...
s, nets, cleaning rags,
transportation Transport (in British English British English (BrE, en-GB, or BE) is, according to Oxford Dictionaries, " English as used in Great Britain, as distinct from that used elsewhere". More narrowly, it can refer specifically to the Engli ...
devices such as
balloon A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, and Atmosphere of Earth, air. For special tasks, balloons can be filled with smoke, liquid water, granular media (e.g. sand, flour ...
s, kites,
sail A sail is a tensile structure—which is made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, Windsurfing, windsurfers, ice boats, and even land sailing, sail-powered l ...
s, and
parachute A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating Drag (physics), drag or, in a ram-air parachute, aerodynamic Lift (force), lift. A major application is to support people, for recreation or as a sa ...
s; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in
composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material which is produced from two or more constituent materials. These constituent materials have notably dissimilar chemical or ...
s such as
fibreglass Fiberglass ( American English) or fibreglass ( Commonwealth English) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be randomly arranged, flattened into a sheet called a chopped strand mat, or woven into glass ...
and industrial
geotextile Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in two basic forms: woven (re ...
s. Due to the often highly technical and legal requirements of these products, these textiles are typically tested in order to ensure they meet stringent performance requirements. Other forms of technical textiles may be produced to experiment with their scientific qualities and to explore the possible benefits they may have in the future. Threads coated with
zinc oxide Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the Chemical formula, formula . It is a white powder that is insoluble in water. ZnO is used as an additive in numerous materials and products including cosmetics, food supplements, rubbers, plastics, ceram ...
nanowire A nanowire is a nanostructure in the form of a wire with the diameter of the order of a nanometre (10−9 metres). More generally, nanowires can be defined as structures that have a thickness or diameter constrained to tens of nanometers or less ...
s, when woven into fabric, have been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems", using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements to generate energy.


Significance

Textiles are all around us. The textile is a component of basic needs like food and shelter. Textiles are everywhere in our lives, from bath towels to space suits. Textiles help humans by comforting, protecting, and extending their lives. Textiles meet our clothing needs, keeping us warm in the winter and cool in the summer. There are several applications for textiles, such as medical textiles, intelligent textiles, and automotive textiles. All of them contribute to the well-being of humans.


Serviceability in textiles

The term "serviceability" refers to a textile product's ability to meet the needs of consumers. The emphasis is on knowing the target market and matching the needs of the target market to the product's serviceability. Serviceability in textiles or Performance is the ability of textile materials to withstand various conditions, environments, and hazards. Aesthetics, durability, comfort and safety, appearance retention, care, environmental impact, and cost are the serviceability concepts employed in structuring the material.


Components

Fibers, yarns, fabric construction, and finishes and designing f garmentsare the various components of a textile product. The selection of components varies with the intended use. Henceforth, the fibers, yarns, and fabric manufacturing systems are selected with consideration of the required performance.


Use and applications


Other uses

Textiles, textile production, and clothing were necessities of life in prehistory, intertwined with the social, economic, and religious systems. Other than clothing, textile crafts produced utilitarian, symbolic, and opulent items. Archaeological artifacts from the Stone Age and the Iron Age in Central Europe are used to examine prehistoric clothing and its role in forming individual and group identities.


Source of knowledge

Artifacts unearthed in various
archaeological excavation In archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the scientific study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, sites, an ...
s informs us about the remains of past human life and their activities. Dyed flax fibers discovered in the Republic of Georgia indicate that textile-like materials were developed during the Paleolithic period. Radiocarbon dates the microscopic fibers to 36,000 years ago, when modern humans migrated from Africa. Several textile remnants, such as the Inca Empire's textile arts remnants, which embody the Incas' aesthetics and social ideals, serve as a means for disseminating information about numerous civilizations, customs, and cultures. There are textile museums that display history related to many aspects of textiles. The Textile Museum raises public awareness and appreciation of the artistic merits and cultural significance of the world's textiles on a local, national, and international scale. Textile Museum in Washington, D.C., was established in 1925.


Narrative art

The Bayeux Tapestry is a rare example of secular
Romanesque art Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately 1000 AD to the rise of the Gothic Art, Gothic style in the 12th century, or later depending on region. The preceding period is known as the Pre-Romanesque period. The term was invented by 1 ...
. The art work depicts the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
of England in 1066.


Decorative art

Textiles are also used for
decorative art ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design and manufacture of objects that are both beautiful and functional. It includes most of the arts making objects for the interiors of buildings, and interior design, but not usual ...
. Pipili appliqué work, Appliqué work of pipili is decorative art of
Odisha Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa ( the official name until 2011), is an Indian state located in Eastern India. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state has the third largest population of Sc ...
, a state in
eastern India East India is a List of regions of India, region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal and also the union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The region roughly corresponds to the histo ...
, used for
umbrella An umbrella or parasol is a folding canopy (building), canopy supported by wooden or metal ribs that is usually mounted on a wooden, metal, or plastic pole. It is designed to protect a person against rain or sunburn, sunlight. The term ''umbr ...
s, wall hangings, lamp sheds, and bags. To make a range of decorative products, colored clothes are sewn in the shapes of animals, birds, flowers, and magnificent walls on a base cloth.


Architextiles

Architextiles, a combination of the words architecture and textile, are textile-based assemblages. Awnings are a basic type of architectural textile. Mughal Shahi Lal Dera Tent, which was a movable palace, is an example of the architextiles of the Mughal period.


Currency

Textiles had been used as currency as well. In Africa, textiles were used as currency in addition to being used for clothing, headwear, swaddling, tents, sails, bags, sacks, carpets, rugs, curtains, etc.Along the east–west axis in sub-Saharan Africa, cloth strip, which was typically produced in the savannah, was used as a form of currency.


Votive offering

Textiles were among the objects offered to the gods otive offering in ancient Greece for
religious Religion is usually defined as a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, sacred site, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecie ...
purposes.


Fiber

The smallest component of a fabric is fiber; fibers are typically spun into yarn, and yarns are used to make fabrics. Fibers are very thin and hair-like structures. The sources of fibers may be natural, synthetic, or both.


Global consumption

Global fiber production per person has increased from 8.4 kilograms in 1975 to 14.3 kilograms in 2021. After a modest drop due to
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identif ...
in 2020, global fiber output rebounded to 113 million tons in 2021. Global fiber output roughly doubled from 58 million tons in 2000 to 113 million tons in 2021 and is anticipated to reach 149 million tons in 2030. The demand for synthetic fibers is increasing rapidly. This has numerous causes. Reasons include its low price, the demand-supply imbalance of cotton, and its ynthetic fibers'versatility in design and application. Synthetic fibers accounts for 70% of global fiber use, mainly polyester. By 2030, the synthetic fiber market will reach 98.21 billion US dollars. From 2022 to 2030, the market is anticipated to increase by 5.1% per year.


Fiber Sources

* Natural fibers are obtained from plants, animals and minerals. Since prehistoric times, textiles have been made from natural fibers. Natural fibers are further categorized as cellulosic, protein, and mineral. * Synthetic or manmade fibers are manufactured with
chemical synthesis As a topic of chemistry, chemical synthesis (or combination) is the artificial execution of chemical reactions to obtain one or several product (chemistry), products. This occurs by physics, physical and chemical manipulations usually involving o ...
. * Semi-synthetic: A subset of synthetic or manmade fibers is semi-synthetic fiber. Rayon is a classified as a semi-synthetic fiber, made with natural polymers. Monomers are the building blocks of polymers. Polymers in fibers are of two types: additive or condensation. Natural fibers, such as cotton and wool, have a condensation polymer type, whereas synthetic fibers can have either an additive or a condensation polymer type. For example,
acrylic fiber Acrylic fibers are synthetic fibers made from a polymer (polyacrylonitrile) with an average molecular weight of ~100,000, about 1900 monomer units. For a fiber to be called "acrylic" in the US, the polymer must contain at least 85% acrylonitri ...
and
olefin fiber Olefin fiber is a synthetic fiber made from a polyolefin, such as polypropylene or polyethylene. It is used in wallpaper, carpeting, ropes, and vehicle interiors. Olefin's advantages are its strength, colorfastness and comfort, its resistance t ...
s have additive polymers, and
nylon Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers composed of polyamides (polymer, repeating units linked by amide links).The polyamides may be aliphatic or Aromaticity, semi-aromatic. Nylon is a silk-like thermoplastic, genera ...
and
polyester Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain. As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include natural ...
are condensation polymers.


Types


Fiber properties

Fiber properties influence textile characteristics such as aesthetics, durability, comfort, and cost. Fineness is one of the important characteristics of the fibers. They have a greater length-to-width ratio 00 times the diameter Fibers need to be strong, cohesive, and flexible. The usefulness of fibers are characterized on the basis of certain parameters such as strength, flexibility, and length to diameter ratio, and spinnability. Natural fibers are relatively short staple.html"_;"title="Staple_(textiles).html"_;"title="nowiki/>Staple_(textiles)">staple">Staple_(textiles).html"_;"title="nowiki/>Staple_(textiles)">staplein_length._Synthetic_fibers_are_produced_in_longer_lengths_called_filaments._Silk_is_the_only_natural_fiber_that_is_a_filament._The_classification_of_fibers_is_based_on_their_origin,_derivation,_and_generic_types. Certain_properties_of_synthetic_fibers,_such_as_their_diameter,_Cross_section_(fiber).html" "title="Staple_(textiles)">staple.html" ;"title="Staple_(textiles).html" ;"title="nowiki/>Staple (textiles)">staple">Staple_(textiles).html" ;"title="nowiki/>Staple (textiles)">staplein length. Synthetic fibers are produced in longer lengths called filaments. Silk is the only natural fiber that is a filament. The classification of fibers is based on their origin, derivation, and generic types. Certain properties of synthetic fibers, such as their diameter, Cross section (fiber)">cross section Cross section may refer to: * Cross section (geometry) **Multiview orthographic projection#Section, Cross-sectional views in architecture & engineering 3D *Cross section (geology) * Cross section (electronics) * Radar cross section, measure of det ...
, and color, can be altered during production. Cotton: Cotton has a long history of use in the clothing due to its favorable properties. This fiber is soft, moisture-absorbent, breathable, and is renowned for its long durability.


Blends (blended textiles)

Fabric or
yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, used in sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, ropemaking, and the production of Textile, textiles. Thread (yarn), Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or sew ...
produced with a combination of two or more types of different Fibre, fibers, or yarns to obtain desired traits. Blending is possible at various stages of textile manufacturing. Final composition is liable for the properties of the resultant product. Natural and
synthetic fiber Synthetic fibers or synthetic fibres (in British English; American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, see spelling differences) are fibers made by humans through chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that are directly d ...
s are blended to overcome disadvantage of single fiber properties and to achieve better performance characteristics and aesthetic effects such as devoré, heather effect, cross dyeing and stripes pattern etc.
Clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the human body, body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has included garments made from animal skin and other thin sheets of materials ...
woven from a blend of
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy Staple (textiles), staple fiber that grows in a wikt:boll, boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose ...
and
polyester Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain. As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include natural ...
can be more durable and easier to maintain than material woven solely from cotton. Other than sharing functional properties, blending makes the products more economical. Union or Union fabrics is the 19th century term for blended fabrics. While it is no longer in use. ''Mixture'' or ''mixed cloth'' is another term used for blended cloths when different types of yarns are used in warp and weft sides. Blended textiles are not new. * Mashru was a 16th-century fabric, is one of the earliest forms of "mixed cloth", a material composed of silk and cotton. * Siamoise was a 17th-century cotton and linen material.


Composition

Fiber composition the fiber blend composition of mixtures of the fibers, is an important criterion to analyze the behavior, properties such as functional aspects, and commercial classification of the merchandise. The most common blend is cotton and polyester. Regular blended fabric is 65% polyester and 35% cotton. It is called a ''reverse blend'' if the ratio of cotton predominates—the percentage of the fibers changes with the price and required properties. Blending adds value to the textiles; it helps in reducing the cost (artificial fibers are less expensive than natural fibers) and adding advantage in properties of the final product. For instance, a small amount of spandex adds stretch to the fabrics. Wool can add warmth.


Uses of different fibers


Natural fibers


Plant

*
Grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous Family (biology), family of monocotyledonous flowering plants commonly known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species culti ...
, rush,
hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of ''Cannabis sativa'' cultivars grown specifically for industrial or medicinal use. It can be used to make a wide range of products. Along with bamboo, hemp is among the fastest growing plants o ...
, and
sisal Sisal (, ) (''Agave sisalana'') is a species of flowering plant native to southern Mexico, but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. It yields a stiff fiber, fibre used in making rope and various other products. The term si ...
are all used in making
rope A rope is a group of yarns, Plying, plies, fibres, or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than simi ...
. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibers from the plant are used.
Coir Coir (), also called coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the outer husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats, brushes, and mattresses. Coir is the fibrous material found between the hard, internal shell ...
(
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, ...
fiber) is used in making
twine Twine is a strong Thread (yarn), thread, light String (cord), string or cord composed of two or more thinner strands twisted, and then twisted together (Plying, plied). The strands are plied in the opposite direction to that of their twist, whic ...
, and also in floormats, doormats,
brush A brush is a common tool with bristles, wire or other filaments. It generally consists of a handle or block to which filaments are affixed in either a parallel or perpendicular orientation, depending on the way the brush is to be gripped durin ...
es,
mattress A mattress is a large, usually rectangular pad for supporting a Lying (position), lying person. It is designed to be used as a bed, or on a bed frame as part of a bed. Mattresses may consist of a Quilting, quilted or similarly fastened case, usu ...
es, floor tiles, and sacking. *
Straw Straw is an agricultural byproduct consisting of the dry wikt:stalk, stalks of cereal plants after the grain and chaff have been removed. It makes up about half of the yield of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat. It has ...
and
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial plant, perennial flowering plants making up the subfamily (biology), subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. The origin ...
are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is kapok. *Fibers from
pulpwood Pulpwood is timber with the principal use of making wood pulp for paper production. Applications * Trees raised specifically for pulp production account for 15% of world pulp production, old growth forests 9% and second- and third- and more gener ...
trees, cotton,
rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Zizania (genus), Zizania'' and ''Porteresia'', bo ...
, hemp, and nettle are used in making
paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine mesh leaving the fibre e ...
. *
Cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy Staple (textiles), staple fiber that grows in a wikt:boll, boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose ...
,
flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant, ''Linum usitatissimum'', in the family Linaceae. It is cultivated as a food and fiber crop in regions of the world with temperate climates. Textiles made from flax are known in W ...
,
jute Jute is a long, soft, shiny bast fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from flowering plants in the genus ''Corchorus'', which is in the mallow family Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is ''Corchorus olit ...
,
hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of ''Cannabis sativa'' cultivars grown specifically for industrial or medicinal use. It can be used to make a wide range of products. Along with bamboo, hemp is among the fastest growing plants o ...
, modal,
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit – botanically a berry (botany), berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus ''Musa (genus), Musa''. In some countries, Cooking banana, bananas used for ...
,
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perennial plant, perennial flowering plants making up the subfamily (biology), subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family. The origin ...
, lotus,
eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a genus of over seven hundred species of Flowering plant, flowering trees, shrubs or Mallee (habit), mallees in the Myrtaceae, myrtle Family (biology), family, Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the Tribe (biology) ...
,
mulberry ''Morus'', a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, consists of diverse species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions. Generally, the genus has 64 identif ...
, and
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, Perennial plant, perennial grass (in the genus ''Saccharum'', tribe Andropogoneae) that is used for sugar Sugar industry, production. The plants are 2–6 m (6–20 ft) tall with ...
are all used in clothing. Piña (
pineapple The pineapple (''Ananas comosus'') is a tropical plant with an edible fruit; it is the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae. The pineapple is indigenous to South America, where it has been cultivated for many centurie ...
fiber) and
ramie Ramie (pronounced: , ; from Malay language, Malay ) is a flowering plant in the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern Asia. It is a Herbaceous plant, herbaceous perennial plant, perennial growing to tall;
are also fibers used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fibers such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fiber and fabric very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fiber has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibers like hemp or flax. *The inner bark of the lacebark tree is a fine netting that has been used to make clothing and accessories as well as utilitarian articles such as rope. *
Acetate An acetate is a salt (chemistry), salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with a base (e.g. Alkali metal, alkaline, Alkaline earth metal, earthy, Transition metal, metallic, nonmetallic or radical Radical (chemistry), base). "Acetate" als ...
is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as
silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...
s,
velvet file:Bitcoin cufflinks (cropped).JPG, Weave details visible on a purple-colored velvet fabric Velvet is a type of woven tufted textile, fabric in which the cut yarn, threads are evenly distributed, with a short pile (textile), pile, giving it ...
s, and
taffeta Taffeta (archaically spelled taffety or taffata) is a crisp, smooth, plain woven fabric made from silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is ...
s. *
Seaweed Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to thousands of species of Macroscopic scale, macroscopic, Multicellular organism, multicellular, ocean, marine algae. The term includes some types of ''Rhodophyta'' (red), ''Brown algae, Phaeophyta'' (brown) and ...
is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fiber known as
alginate Alginic acid, also called algin, is a naturally occurring, edible polysaccharide found in brown algae. It is hydrophilic and forms a viscous natural gum, gum when hydrated. With metals such as sodium and calcium, its salts are known as alginates ...
is produced and is used as a holding fiber; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area. *
Rayon Rayon is a semi-synthetic fiber, made from natural sources of regenerated cellulose fiber, cellulose, such as wood and related agricultural products. It has the same molecular structure as cellulose. It is also called viscose. Many types and gr ...
is a manufactured fabric derived from plant pulp. Different types of rayon can imitate feel and texture of silk, cotton, wool, or linen. Fibers from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibers. Hemp Fiber is yellowish-brown fiber made from the hemp plant. The fiber characteristics are coarser, harsher, strong and lightweight. Hemp fiber is used primary to make twine, rope and cordage.


Animal

Animal textiles are commonly made from
hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from hair follicle, follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles which produce thick ter ...
, fur,
skin Skin is the layer of usually soft, flexible outer tissue covering the body of a vertebrate animal, with three main functions: protection, regulation, and sensation. Other cuticle, animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have diffe ...
or
silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...
(in the case of silkworms). * Wool refers to the hair of the domestic
sheep Sheep or domestic sheep (''Ovis aries'') are domesticated, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Although the term ''sheep'' can apply to other species in the genus ''Ovis'', in everyday usage it almost always refers to domesticated sh ...
or
goat The goat or domestic goat (''Capra hircus'') is a domesticated species of Caprinae, goat-antelope typically kept as livestock. It was domesticated from the wild goat (''C. aegagrus'') of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a membe ...
, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as
lanolin Lanolin (from Latin 'wool', and 'oil'), also called wool yolk, wool wax, or wool grease, is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Lanolin used by humans comes from domestic sheep Domestic sheep#Breeds, breeds that are ...
(sometimes called wool grease), which is waterproof and dirtproof. The lanolin and other contaminants are removed from the raw wool before further processing. Woolen refers to a yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while
worsted Worsted ( or ) is a high-quality type of wool yarn, the fabric made from this yarn, and a yarn weight category. The name derives from Worstead, a village in the England, English county of Norfolk. That village, together with North Walsham and Ayl ...
refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibers which have been combed to be parallel. **Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are ''alpaca wool'', '' vicuña wool'', ''llama wool'', and ''camel hair'', generally used in the production of coats,
jacket A jacket is a garment for the upper body, usually extending below the hips. A jacket typically has sleeves, and fastens in the front or slightly on the side. A jacket is generally lighter, tighter-fitting, and less insulating than a coat (clothi ...
s,
poncho A poncho (; qu, punchu; arn, pontro; "blanket", "woolen fabric") is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm. A rain poncho is made from a watertight material designed to keep the body dry from the rain. Ponchos have been used by the ...
s,
blanket A blanket is a swath of soft cloth Textile is an Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term that includes various Fiber, fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, Staple (textiles)#Filament fiber, filaments, Thread (yarn), threads, ...
s, and other warm coverings. ** '' Cashmere'', the hair of the Indian
cashmere goat A cashmere goat is a type of goat that produces cashmere wool, the goat's fine, soft, downy, winter undercoat, in commercial quality and quantity. This undercoat grows as the day length shortens and is associated with an outer coat of coarse hair ...
, and
mohair Mohair (pronounced ) is a textile, fabric or yarn made from the hair of the Angora goat. (This should not be confused with Angora wool, which is made from the fur of the Angora rabbit.) Both durable and resilient, mohair is notable for its hig ...
, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Used in the production of sweaters and scarfs. ** '' Angora'' refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the
angora rabbit The Angora rabbit ( tr, Ankara tavşanı), which is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, is bred for the long fibers of its coat, known as ''Angora wool'', which are gathered by Sheep shearing, shearing, combing or plucking (hair removal), ...
. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. * Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the Cocoon (silk), cocoon of the Chinese silkworm which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main types of the silk: 'mulberry silk' produced by the Bombyx mori, Bombyx Mori, and 'wild silk' such as Wild silk, Tussah silk (wild silk). Silkworm larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on oak leaves. Around four-fifths of the world's silk production consists of cultivated silk. Silk production consists of pillow covers, dresses, tops, skirts, bed sheets, curtains.


Microbes

Bacterial cellulose can be made from industrial organic and agricultural waste, and used as material for textiles and clothing.


Mineral

* Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets. * Glass fibre is used in the production of ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres. Glass fibres are woven and coated with Teflon to produce beta cloth, a virtually fireproof fabric which replaced nylon in the outer layer of United States space suits since 1968. * Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and jewellery. Hardware cloth (US term only) is a coarse woven mesh of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window screening, but heavier and with a more open weave. Minerals and natural and synthetic fabrics may be combined, as in emery cloth, a layer of Emery (rock), emery abrasive glued to a cloth backing. Also, "sand cloth" is a U.S. term for fine wire mesh with abrasive glued to it, employed like emery cloth or coarse sandpaper.


Synthetic

In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibers made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one Units of textile measurement#Denier, denier to the sturdiest canvas. Synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing, as well as the manufacture of
geotextile Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. Typically made from polypropylene or polyester, geotextile fabrics come in two basic forms: woven (re ...
s. Synthetic fibers are those that are chemically constructed, therefore are unsustainable. * Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton. * Aramid fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armour. * Acrylic fibre, Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them. *
Nylon Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers composed of polyamides (polymer, repeating units linked by amide links).The polyamides may be aliphatic or Aromaticity, semi-aromatic. Nylon is a silk-like thermoplastic, genera ...
is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker nylon fibres are used in
rope A rope is a group of yarns, Plying, plies, fibres, or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than simi ...
and outdoor clothing. * Spandex (trade name ''Lycra'') is a polyurethane product that can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. It is used to make activewear, Brassiere, bras, and swimsuits. * Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name Tyvek. * Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration. * Lurex (yarn), Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment. * Milk proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or casein fibre cloth was developed during World War I in Germany, and further developed in Italy and America during the 1930s. Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles easily, but has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It is marketed as a biodegradation, biodegradable, renewable resource, renewable synthetic fibre. * Carbon fibre is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as carbon fibre reinforced plastic. The fibres are made from polymer fibres through carbonization.


Production methods

Textile manufacturing has progressed from prehistoric crafts to a fully automated industry. Over the years, there have been continuous improvements in fabric structure and design. Important parameters in fabric selection: The primary consideration in fabric selection is the end use. The fabric needs vary greatly depending on the application. Similar types of fabric may not be suitable for all applications. Units of textile measurement#Grams per square metre (GSM), Fabric weight is an important criteria while producing different fabrics. A carpet requires a fabric with 1300 GSM, but a robe may be made with 160 GSM. Certainly, fabrics for clothes and carpets have distinct weights. Stretchable fabrics have greater movability and are thus more comfortable than fabrics with no stretch or less stretch.


Textile exports

According to the United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database, the global textiles and apparel export market reached $772 billion in 2013.


Changing dynamics of the market

China is the largest exporter of textile goods. The majority of China's exports consist of apparel, apparel accessories, textile yarns, and textile products. The competitive advantages of the China are low prices and abundant labor, lowered commercial obstacles, and a ready supply of raw materials. China, along with the United States and India, is a major producer of cotton. China's apparel market share has declined in recent years due to various reasons and a shift toward high-end, sophisticated products. Additionally, the investors from China made stakes in Myanmar, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Last year, its market share was 36.7%, or $161 billion, a decline of 8% year-over-year. In other words, China lost $14 billion in garment work orders to other countries in a single year. In 2016, Bangladesh's apparel market share was valued at $28 billion, increasing 7.69 percent from the previous year. In 2016 the leading exporters of apparel were; China ($161 billion), Bangladesh ($28 billion), Vietnam ($25 billion), India ($18 billion), Hong Kong ($16 billion), Turkey ($15 billion), and Indonesia ($7 billion).


Finishing

The fabric, when it leaves a loom or knitting machine, is not readily usable. It may be rough, uneven, or have flaws like skewing. Hence, it is necessary to finish the fabric. Finishing techniques enhance the value of the treated fabrics. After manufacturing, textiles undergo a range of finishing procedures, including bleaching, dyeing, printing, as well as mechanical and chemical finishing.


Coloration

Textiles are often dyeing, dyed, with fabrics available in almost every Color of clothing, colour. The dyeing process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing. Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (
embroidery Embroidery is the craft of decorating Textile, fabric or other materials using a sewing needle, needle to apply yarn, thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. In modern days, emb ...
), creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dyeing), drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220 CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white.


Finishes

Textile finishing is the process of converting the loomstate or raw goods into a useful product, which can be done mechanically or chemically. Finishing is a broad term that refers to a variety of physical and chemical techniques and treatments that finish one stage of textile production while also preparing for the next. Textile finishing can include aspects like improving surface feel, aesthetical enhancement, and adding advanced chemical finishes. A finish is any process that transforms Greige goods, unfinished products into finished products. This includes mechanical finishing and chemical applications which alter the composition of treated textiles (fiber, yarn or fabric.) Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free. More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. Textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes, for example, have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals. Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis. , meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong material invented in Germany in the 19th century. It is made by soaking cotton threads in a starch and paraffin wax solution. The threads are then stretched and polished by steel rollers and brushes. The result of the process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely hardwearing.''Industriegeschichte aus dem Bergischen land''
(in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016)
WDR digit project. ''Eisengarnfabrikation in Barmen''.
(Video (16 min) in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016).


Environmental and health impacts

The textile sector is accountable for a substantial number of environmental impacts. However, the discharge of untreated effluents into water bodies is responsible for the majority of environmental harm produced by the textile sector. The textile sector is believed to utilise 79 trillion litres of water per year and to discharge around 20% of all industrial effluent into the environment. Reportedly, Aromatic compound, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds with color-display and polar groups make up most of the dyes used in textile coloration processes. The structure is more complex and stable, making it more difficult to degrade printing and dyeing wastewater. Many kinds of respiratory diseases, skin problems, and allergies may be caused by dyes and pigments discharged into the water. Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction, due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are concerned.


Testing

Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories. It is also possible to have textiles tested according to the Oeko-tex certification standard, which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products.


Laws and regulations

Different countries have certain laws and regulations to protect consumers' interests. The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act is a law that protects consumers in the United States. The act protects producer and consumer interests by implementing labelling (required content disclosure) and advertising requirements on textile products. The Textile Fiber Products Identification Act applies to all textile fiber products besides wool, which is governed by the Wool Product Label Number. The law prohibits misinformation about the fiber content, misbranding, and any unfair advertising practice, as well as requires businesses to operate in a particular manner.


Testing of textiles

Testing occurs at various stages of the textile manufacturing process, from raw material to finished product. The purpose of testing is to evaluate and analyze the regulatory compliance, the product's quality and performance, as well as to measure its specifications. Textile testing encompasses a wide range of methodologies, procedures, equipment, and sophisticated Laboratory, laboratories. Local governments and authorized organization's such as ASTM International, International Organization for Standardization, and American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists establish standards for testing of textiles. Some examples of tests at different stages: For fiber: Fiber identification is a necessary test for determining fiber content and classifying products. The labelling of items with their fiber content percentage is a regulatory requirement. Using Microscope, microscopy, solubility, and burn tests, fibers are distinguished from one another. More fiber relating tests include fiber length, diameter, Cotton maturity, Micronaire. For yarn: Units of textile measurement#Linear density, Yarn count, Units of textile measurement#Denier, Denier, Strength, evenness. For fabric: Dimensional stability (fabric), Dimensional stability, Colour fastness, color fastness, Units of textile measurement#Thread count, thread count, Units of textile measurement#Grams per square metre (GSM), G.S.M, Pill (textile), pilling, Combustibility and flammability, flammability.


Picture gallery

File:Karachi - Pakistan-market.jpg, Textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan File:Simple-textile-magnified.jpg, Magnified view of a plain or tabby weave textile File:P1080828.JPG, Fabric shop in canal town Mukalla, Yemen File:DumbartonOaksTextileEuropa.jpg, Late antique textile, Egyptian, now in the Dumbarton Oaks collection File:Conde nast fortuny.jpg, Mrs. Condé Montrose Nast, Condé Nast wearing a
silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...
Delphos gown, Fortuny tea gown File:Tablecloth romanian 1full view.jpg, Traditional tablecloth, Maramureș, Romania File:Otavalo Artisan Market - Andes Mountains - South America - photograph 001.JPG, Textiles made from Alpaca wool at the Otavalo (city), Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador File:Banton Burial Cloth.JPG, The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp
ikat ''Ikat'' (in Languages of Indonesia, Indonesian languages means "bind") is a dyeing technique originating from Indonesia used to pattern textiles that employs resist dyeing on the yarns prior to dyeing and weaving the fabric. In ''ikat'', the ...
in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest
Romblon Romblon ( , ), officially the Province of Romblon, is an archipelagic Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Philippines located in the Mimaropa Regions of the Philippines, region. Its main islands include Tablas Island, Tablas, the large ...
. File:Double ikat weaving from Sulu, Philippines, East-West Center.JPG, A double
ikat ''Ikat'' (in Languages of Indonesia, Indonesian languages means "bind") is a dyeing technique originating from Indonesia used to pattern textiles that employs resist dyeing on the yarns prior to dyeing and weaving the fabric. In ''ikat'', the ...
weaving made by the Tausug people from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá) File:1963 Zepel advertisement.jpg, Advertisement for Zepel, the trade name used to market Teflon as a fabric treatment File:Plevna-sali 1932.jpg, A weaving shed of the Finlayson (company), Finlayson & Co factory in Tampere, Finland, in 1932 File:Textile machinery at Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd (1293828).jpg, Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales, in the 1940s File:BALLS OF COTTON (ANDHRA -SOUTH INDIA) READY FOR HARVEST.jpg,
Cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy Staple (textiles), staple fiber that grows in a wikt:boll, boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose ...
fiber File:Nylon6 and Nylon 66.png, Nylon File:Cloth 800.jpg, A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy Staple (textiles), staple fiber that grows in a wikt:boll, boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose ...
,
velvet file:Bitcoin cufflinks (cropped).JPG, Weave details visible on a purple-colored velvet fabric Velvet is a type of woven tufted textile, fabric in which the cut yarn, threads are evenly distributed, with a short pile (textile), pile, giving it ...
, Textile printing, printed cotton, Calico (textile), calico,
felt Felt is a textile material that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers together. Felt can be made of natural fibers such as wool or animal fur, or from synthetic fibers such as petroleum-based acrylic fiber, acrylic or acrylonit ...
, satin,
silk Silk is a natural fiber, natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be weaving, woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoon (silk), cocoons. The be ...
, Hessian (Cloth), hessian, polycotton. File:Dan Hadani collection (990044401360205171).jpg, A textile factory in Israel, 1969 File:Tartan Clan Campbell.png, Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland File:Embroidery-flowers-Alfaro-Nunez.jpg, embroidery, Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methodsArt-Gourds.com
Traditional Peruvian embroidery production methods
File:M0354 000727-005 1.jpg, alt=, A modern umbrella fabric has specific requirements for colour fastness to light, water and wet rubbing, and permeability. File:Borduurtechnieken-applique kruis-gelegde draad.jpg, Appliqué cross. The edges are covered and stitches are hidden. It is overlaid with decorative gold thread. File:Chiang Mai, Thailand, Colorful clothing.jpg, Clothing made of textiles, Thailand File:Barong Up Close.jpg, Close-up view of a Barong Tagalog made with piña fiber in the Philippines File:Scene with Fabric Tunnel - Srimangal - Sylhet Division - Bangladesh (12904860703).jpg, A fabric tunnel in Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh File:49-QWSTION-BANANATEX-FABRIC.jpg, A modern Manila hemp made on industrial weaving machines


See also

* Clothing in the ancient world * International Down and Feather Testing Laboratory * List of textile fibres * Technical textile * Textile arts * Textile manufacturing (Textile manufacturing terminology, terminology) * Textile printing * Timeline of clothing and textiles technology


References


Further reading

* Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The history of costume and personal adornment. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987 * Conrad, James L. "'Drive That Branch': Samuel Slater, the Power Loom, and the Writing of America's Textile History." ''Technology and culture ''36.1 (1995): 1-28
online
* Jenkins, David, ed.: ''The Cambridge History of Western Textiles'', Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, * Payne, Blanche; Winakor, Geitel; Farrell-Beck Jane (1992) ''The History of Costume, from the Ancient Mesopotamia to the Twentieth Century'', 2nd Edn, HarperCollins * Piponnier, Françoise, and Perrine Mane; ''Dress in the Middle Ages''; Yale UP; 1997; * * Introduction by Teresa Archuleta-Sagel. 196 pages with 125 black and white as well as colour plates. Fisher is Curator Emirta, Textiles & Costumes of the Museum of International Folk Art. * * Arai, Masanao (Textile Industry Research Institute of Gunma).
From Kitsch to Art Moderne: Popular Textiles for Women in the First Half of Twentieth-Century Japan

Archive
. ''Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings''. Textile Society of America, January 1, 1998. {{Authority control Textiles, Clothing industry