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Sugar is the generic name for
sweet-tasting
sweet-tasting
, soluble
carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are simple sugars soluble in water. Three common ex ...
s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called
monosaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
s, include
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
,
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek language, Greek ''wikt:μόνος, monos'': single, ''sacchar'': sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units (monomers ...

fructose
, and
galactose Galactose (, '' galacto-'' + ''-ose The suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. ...
. Compound sugars, also called
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of ...
s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosaccharides joined by a
glycosidic bond A glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may ...
. Common examples are
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
(glucose + fructose),
lactose Lactose, a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-g ...

lactose
(glucose + galactose), and
maltose} Maltose ( or ), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disacchari ...

maltose
(two molecules of glucose). Table sugar, granulated sugar, and regular sugar refer to
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
, a
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of ...
composed of glucose and fructose. In the body, compound sugars are
hydrolysed Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord for ...
into simple sugars. Longer chains of monosaccharides (>2) are not regarded as sugars, and are called
oligosaccharide An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/; from the Greek ὀλίγος ''olígos'', "a few", and σάκχαρ ''sácchar'', "sugar") is a saccharide is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sug ...
s or
polysaccharide Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant found in . They are long chain carbohydrates composed of units bound together by . This carbohydrate can react with water () using as catalyst, which produces constituent sugars ...
s.
Starch Starch or amylum is a consisting of numerous units joined by s. This is produced by most green s for energy storage. Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in s like , es, (corn), , ...
is a glucose polymer found in plants, and is the most abundant source of energy in human food. Some other chemical substances, such as
glycerol Glycerol (; also called glycerine in British English and glycerin in American English) is a simple polyol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in lipids known ...
and
sugar alcohol Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, e ...
s, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants.
Honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by and some other . Bees produce honey from the y secretions of plants (floral ) or from secretions of other insects (such as ), by , activity, and water evaporation. Honey bees store honey in w ...

Honey
and fruit are abundant natural sources of simple sugars. Sucrose is especially concentrated in
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
and
sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production. In plant breeding, it is known as the Altissima cultivar group of the common beet (''Beta vulgaris''). Together wit ...
, making them ideal for efficient commercial
extract An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material A raw material, also known as a feedstock, unprocessed material, or primary commodity, is a basic material that is used to produce goods In economics Economics () ...

extract
ion to make refined sugar. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s. Maltose may be produced by
malt Malt is germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "". The grain is made to by soaking in water and is then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. Malting grain develops the s (α-amylase, β-amylase) ...
ing grain. Lactose is the only sugar that cannot be extracted from plants. It can only be found in milk, including human breast milk, and in some
dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as ...
s. A cheap source of sugar is
corn syrup Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose Glucose is a simple sugar with the Chemical formula#Molecular formula, molecular formula . Glucose is the m ...

corn syrup
, industrially produced by converting corn
starch Starch or amylum is a consisting of numerous units joined by s. This is produced by most green s for energy storage. Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in s like , es, (corn), , ...
into sugars, such as maltose, fructose and glucose. Sucrose is used in prepared foods (e.g. cookies and cakes), is sometimes added to commercially available
processed food Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially food preparation, prepared (often through food processing, processing) to optimise ease of Consumer (food chain), consumption. Such food is usually ready to eat without ...
and beverages, and may be used by people as a sweetener for foods (e.g. toast and cereal) and beverages (e.g. coffee and tea). The average person consumes about of sugar each year, with
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

North
and South Americans consuming up to and Africans consuming under . As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar, especially refined sugar, was damaging to
human health Health, according to the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Con ...
. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of
obesity Obesity is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often ...

obesity
,
diabetes Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a hyperglycemia, high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, Polydipsia, increased th ...
,
cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery disease Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), or simpl ...
, and
tooth decay Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is the breakdown of teeth A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcification, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to Mastication, break down food. ...
. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results, mainly because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of
free sugar Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to do something, without having to obey anyone/anything. * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised by rational agents over th ...
s to less than 10%, and encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.


Etymology

The
etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identi ...
reflects the spread of the commodity. From
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
(''śarkarā''), meaning "ground or candied sugar", came
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
''shakar'', then to 12th century French ''sucre'' and the English ''sugar''. The English word ''
jaggery Jaggery is a List of unrefined sweeteners, traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is a concentrated product of cane juice and often Date (fruit), date or Arecaceae, palm plant sap, sap wi ...

jaggery
'', a coarse
brown sugar Brown sugar is a sucrose Sucrose is common sugar. It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants, from which table sugar is refined. It has the molecular formula C ...
made from
date palm ''Phoenix dactylifera'', commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae The Arecaceae is a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birt ...

date palm
sap or
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese ''jágara'' from the Malayalam ''cakkarā'', which is from the Sanskrit ''śarkarā''.


History


Ancient world to Renaissance


Asia

Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the
Khyber Pass The Khyber Pass (خیبر درہ) is a mountain pass A mountain pass is a navigable route through a mountain range or over a ridge A ridge or a mountain ridge is a geographical feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that fo ...

Khyber Pass
. It was not plentiful nor cheap in early times, and in most parts of the world,
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by and some other . Bees produce honey from the y secretions of plants (floral ) or from secretions of other insects (such as ), by , activity, and water evaporation. Honey bees store honey in w ...

honey
was more often used for sweetening. Originally, people chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of tropical areas such as the Indian subcontinent (South Asia) and Southeast Asia. Different species seem to have originated from different locations with '' Saccharum barberi'' originating in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
and '''' and '''' coming from
New Guinea New Guinea (; : ''Niu Gini''; id, Papua, historically ) is the , and with an area of , the largest island in the . Located in in the southwestern , it is separated by the wide from . Numerous smaller islands are located to the west and east ...

New Guinea
. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine (), the sugarcane is known by the name ''Ikṣu'' and the sugarcane juice is known as ''Phāṇita''. Its varieties, synonyms and characteristics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa (1.6.23, group of sugarcanes). Sugar remained relatively unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning
sugarcane juice Sugarcane juice is the liquid extracted from pressed sugarcane. It is consumed as a beverage in many places, especially where sugarcane is commercially grown, such as Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, North Africa, and Latin America. Suga ...

sugarcane juice
into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport.Adas, Michael (January 2001). ''Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History''. Temple University Press. . p. 311. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called ''khanda'' (
Devanagari Devanagari ( ; , , Sanskrit pronunciation: ), also called Nagari (),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, , page 83 is a left-to-right abugida, based on the ancient Brahmi script, ''Brāhmī'' sc ...

Devanagari
: खण्ड, ), which is the source of the word ''candy''. Indian sailors, who carried
clarified butter Clarified butter is milk fat kitchen rendering, rendered from butter to separate the milk solids and water from the butterfat. Typically, it is produced by melting butter and allowing the components to separate by density. The water evaporates, s ...
and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various
trade routes A trade route is a Logistics, logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing Good (economics and accounting ...
they travelled. Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China.Kieschnick, John (2003). ''The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture''
Princeton University Press Princeton University Press is an independent publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creatio ...

Princeton University Press
. .
During the reign of
Harsha Harshavardhana (c. 590–647 CE) was an Indian emperor who ruled North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in Sou ...

Harsha
(r. 606–647) in
North India North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest count ...

North India
, Indian envoys in
Tang China The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an Zhou dynasty (690–705), interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and fol ...
taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after
Emperor Taizong of Tang Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 59810July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled fr ...
(r. 626–649) made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century.Sen, Tansen. (2003). ''Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600–1400''. Manoa: Asian Interactions and Comparisons, a joint publication of the University of Hawaii Press and the Association for Asian Studies. . pp. 38–40. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining.Kieschnick, John (2003). ''The Impact of Buddhism on Chinese Material Culture''
Princeton University Press Princeton University Press is an independent publisher Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the creatio ...

Princeton University Press
. 258. .
In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts.


Europe

Nearchus Nearchus or Nearchos ( el, Νέαρχος; – 300 BC) was one of the officers, a navarch, in the army of Alexander the Great. He is known for his celebrated expeditionary voyage starting from the Indus river, Indus River, through the Persian Gulf ...
, admiral of
Alexander of Macedonia Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the Ancient Greece, ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) ...
, knew of sugar during the year 325 BC, because of his participation in led by Alexander (''
Arrian Arrian of Nicomedia (; Ancient Greek, Greek: ''Arrianos''; la, Lucius Flavius Arrianus; ) was a Greek people, Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman Greece, Roman period. ''The Anabasis of Alex ...

Arrian
,
Anabasis Anabasis (from Greek ''ana'' = "upward", ''bainein'' = "to step or march") is an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. Anabase and Anabasis may also refer to: History * ''Anabasis Alexandri ''The Anabasis of Alexander'' ...
''). The Greek physician
Pedanius Dioscorides Pedanius Dioscorides ( grc-gre, Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, ; 40–90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of ''De materia medica (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to th ...
in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise
De Materia Medica (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, ...
, and
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, ...

Pliny the Elder
, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungus, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history ...
: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better. It is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, and it crunches between the teeth. It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes."Faas, Patrick, (2003)
''Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome''
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 149.
Crusaders The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusaders
brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
, where they encountered caravans carrying "sweet salt". Early in the 12th century, Venice acquired some villages near
Tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Heritage site * Tyre District, Lebanon * Tyre, New York, a town in t ...
and set up estates to produce sugar for export to Europe. It supplemented the use of honey, which had previously been the only available sweetener. Crusade chronicler
William of Tyre William of Tyre ( la, Willelmus Tyrensis; 113029 September 1186) was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the int ...

William of Tyre
, writing in the late 12th century, described sugar as "very necessary for the use and health of mankind". In the 15th century,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
was the chief sugar refining and distribution center in Europe. There was a drastic change in the mid-15th century, when
São Tomé São Tomé is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercas ...
,
Madeira Madeira ( , , ), officially the Autonomous Region of Madeira ( pt, Região Autónoma da Madeira), is one of the two autonomous Regions of Portugal, autonomous regions of Portugal, the other being the Azores. It is an archipelago situated in t ...

Madeira
, and the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
were settled from Europe, and sugar grown there. After this an "all-consuming passion for sugar ... swept through society" as it became far more easily available, though initially still very expensive. By 1492, Madeira was producing over of sugar annually.
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
, one of the centers of distribution, became known for candied fruit, while Venice specialized in pastries, sweets (candies), and
sugar sculpture Roses and leaves made from pulled sugar Sugar sculpture is the art of producing artistic centerpieces entirely composed of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. T ...
s. Sugar was considered to have "valuable medicinal properties" as a "warm" food under prevailing categories, being "helpful to the stomach, to cure cold diseases, and sooth lung complaints". A feast given in
Tours Tours ( , ) is one of the largest cities in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France. It is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Indre-et-Loire Departments of France, department. The Communes of France, commune of Tours had 135,787 inha ...

Tours
in 1457 by Gaston de Foix, which is "probably the best and most complete account we have of a late medieval banquet" includes the first mention of sugar sculptures, as the final food brought in was "a heraldic menagerie sculpted in sugar: lions, stags, monkeys ... each holding in paw or beak the arms of the Hungarian king". Other recorded grand feasts in the decades following included similar pieces. Originally the sculptures seem to have been eaten in the meal, but later they become merely table decorations, the most elaborate called '' triomfi''. Several significant sculptors are known to have produced them; in some cases their preliminary drawings survive. Early ones were in brown sugar, partly
cast Cast may refer to: Music * Cast (band) Cast are an English indie rock band formed in Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. Its population in 2019 was approxim ...

cast
in molds, with the final touches carved. They continued to be used until at least the Coronation Banquet for
Edward VII of the United Kingdom Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria Victoria ...
in 1903; among other sculptures every guest was given a sugar crown to take away.


Modern history

In August 1492,
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
collected sugar cane samples in
La Gomera La Gomera () is one of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_c ...

La Gomera
in the
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...
, and introduced it to the New World. The cuttings were planted and the first sugar-cane harvest in
Hispaniola Hispaniola (, also ; es, La Española; Latin and french: Hispaniola; ht, Ispayola; tnq, Ayiti) is an island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles. Hispaniola is the most populous island in the West Indies, and the region's se ...
took place in 1501. Many sugar mills had been constructed in
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...
and
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...
by the 1520s. The Portuguese took sugar cane to Brazil. By 1540, there were 800 cane-sugar mills in
Santa Catarina Island Santa Catarina Island ( pt, Ilha de Santa Catarina) is an island in the Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5  ...
and another 2,000 on the north coast of Brazil,
Demarara Demerara ( nl, Demerary) is a historical region in the Guianas on the north coast of South America which is now part of the country of Guyana. It was a Dutch colonization of the Americas, Dutch colony until 1815 and a county of British Guiana fr ...
, and . It took until 1600 for Brazilian sugar production to exceed that of
São Tomé São Tomé is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercas ...
, which was the main center of sugar production in sixteenth century. Sugar was a luxury in Europe until the early 19th century, when it became more widely available, due to the rise of
beet sugar A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for Sweetness, sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated s ...
in
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...
, and later in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
under
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
. Beet sugar was a German invention, since, in 1747,
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (; 3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist A chemist (from Greek ''chēm(ía)'' alchemy; replacing ''chymist'' from Medieval Latin ''alchemist'') is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scie ...
announced the discovery of sugar in beets and devised a method using alcohol to extract it. Marggraf's student,
Franz Karl Achard Franz Karl Achard (28 April 1753 – 20 April 1821) was a German (Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian: ''Prūsa'' or ''Prūsija'' was a historically prominent Germans, German state that originated in 1525 with Duchy of Prussia, a duchy centered on ...

Franz Karl Achard
, devised an economical industrial method to extract the sugar in its pure form in the late 18th century. Achard first produced beet sugar in 1783 in Kaulsdorf, and in 1801, the world's first beet sugar production facility was established in Cunern,
Silesia Silesia (, also , ) is a historical region of Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe and East ...

Silesia
(then part of Prussia). The works of Marggraf and Achard were the starting point for the sugar industry in Europe, and for the modern sugar industry in general, since sugar was no longer a luxury product and a product almost only produced in warmer climates. Sugar became highly popular and by the 19th century, was found in every household. This evolution of taste and demand for sugar as an essential food ingredient resulted in major economic and social changes. Demand drove, in part, the colonization of tropical islands and areas where labor-intensive sugarcane plantations and sugar manufacturing facilities could be successful. World consumption increased more than 100 times from 1850 to 2000, led by Britain, where it increased from about 2 pounds per head per year in 1650 to 90 pounds by the early 20th century. In the late 18th century Britain consumed about half the sugar which reached Europe. After slavery was abolished, the demand for workers in European colonies in the Caribbean was filled by indentured laborers from Indian subcontinent. Millions of enslaved or indentured laborers were brought to various European colonies in the Americas, Africa and Asia (as a result of demand in Europe for among other commodities, sugar), influencing the ethnic mixture of numerous nations around the globe. Sugar also led to some industrialization of areas where sugar cane was grown. For example, in the 1790s Lieutenant J. Paterson, of the
Bengal Presidency The Bengal Presidency, officially the Presidency of Fort William and later Bengal Province, was a subdivision of the British India, British Empire in India. At the height of its territorial jurisdiction, it covered large parts of what is now So ...
promoted to the
British parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind ...
the idea that sugar cane could grow in
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...
, where it had started, with many advantages and at less expense than in the West Indies. As a result, sugar factories were established in
Bihar Bihar (; ) is a states and union territories of India, state in eastern India. It is the list of states and union territories of India by population, third-largest state by population and list of states and union territories of India by area ...

Bihar
in eastern India. During the
Napoleonic Wars The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major World war, global conflicts pitting the First French Empire, French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon, Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of Coalition forces of the Napoleonic W ...
, sugar-beet production increased in continental Europe because of the difficulty of importing sugar when shipping was subject to
blockade A blockade is an effort to cut off Contraband, supplies, Materiel, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade is not an embargo or International sanctions, sanctions, which are legal b ...
. By 1880 the sugar beet was the main source of sugar in Europe. It was also cultivated in Lincolnshire and other parts of England, although the United Kingdom continued to import the main part of its sugar from its colonies. Until the late nineteenth century, sugar was purchased in sugarloaf, loaves, which had to be cut using implements called sugar nips. In later years, granulated sugar was more usually sold in bags. Sugar cubes were produced in the nineteenth century. The first inventor of a process to produce sugar in cube form was Jakob Christof Rad, director of a sugar refinery in Dačice. In 1841, he produced the first sugar cube in the world. He began sugar-cube production after being granted a five-year patent for the process on 23 January 1843. Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle was another early manufacturer of sugar cubes at his refineries in Liverpool and London. Tate purchased a patent for sugar-cube manufacture from German Eugen Langen, who in 1872 had invented a different method of processing of sugar cubes. Sugar was rationed during World War I, though it was said that "No previous war in history has been fought so largely on sugar and so little on alcohol", and more sharply during World War II. Rationing led to the development and use of various artificial sweeteners.


Chemistry

Scientifically, ''sugar'' loosely refers to a number of carbohydrates, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or
oligosaccharide An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/; from the Greek ὀλίγος ''olígos'', "a few", and σάκχαρ ''sácchar'', "sugar") is a saccharide is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sug ...
s. Monosaccharides are also called "simple sugars", the most important being glucose. Most monosaccharides have a formula that conforms to with n between 3 and 7 (deoxyribose being an exception). Glucose has the molecular formula . The names of typical sugars end with -''ose'', as in "
glucose Glucose is a simple with the . Glucose is the most abundant , a subcategory of s. Glucose is mainly made by and most during from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make in s, the most abundant carbohydr ...

glucose
" and "
fructose Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a ketonic simple sugar Monosaccharides (from Greek language, Greek ''wikt:μόνος, monos'': single, ''sacchar'': sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units (monomers ...

fructose
". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. The Open-chain compound, acyclic mono- and disaccharides contain either aldehyde groups or ketone groups. These carbonyl, carbon-oxygen double bonds (C=O) are the reactive centers. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by
glycosidic bond A glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may ...
s with the resultant loss of a molecule of water () per bond. Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as
starch Starch or amylum is a consisting of numerous units joined by s. This is produced by most green s for energy storage. Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in s like , es, (corn), , ...
). Enzymes must hydrolyze or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolism, metabolized. After digestion and absorption the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form Heterocyclic compound, ring structures. In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains non-free, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at chemical equilibrium, equilibrium, with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.


Natural polymers

Biopolymers of sugars are common in nature. Through photosynthesis, plants produce glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), a phosphated 3-carbon sugar that is used by the cell to make monosaccharides such as glucose () or (as in cane and beet) sucrose (). Monosaccharides may be further converted into polysaccharides#Structural polysaccharides, structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and pectin for cell wall construction or into energy reserves in the form of polysaccharides#Storage polysaccharides, storage polysaccharides such as starch or inulin. Starch, consisting of two different polymers of glucose, is a readily degradable form of chemical potential energy, energy stored by cell (biology), cells, and can be converted to other types of energy. Another polymer of glucose is cellulose, which is a linear chain composed of several hundred or thousand glucose units. It is used by plants as a structural component in their cell walls. Humans can digest cellulose only to a very limited extent, though ruminants can do so with the help of Symbiosis, symbiotic bacteria in their gut. DNA and RNA are built up of the monosaccharides deoxyribose and ribose, respectively. Deoxyribose has the formula and ribose the formula .


Flammability and heat response

Because sugars burn easily when exposed to flame, the handling of sugars risks dust explosion. The risk of explosion is higher when the sugar has been milled to superfine texture, such as for use in chewing gum. The 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion, which killed 14 people and injured 36, and destroyed most of the refinery, was caused by the ignition of sugar dust. In its culinary use, exposing sugar to heat causes caramelization. As the process occurs, Volatility (chemistry), volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor.


Types


Monosaccharides

Fructose, galactose, and glucose are all simple sugars,
monosaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
s, with the general formula C6H12O6. They have five hydroxyl groups (−OH) and a carbonyl group (C=O) and are cyclic when dissolved in water. They each exist as several isomers with dextro- and laevo-rotatory forms that cause polarized light to diverge to the right or the left. * Fructose, or fruit sugar, occurs naturally in fruits, some root vegetables, cane sugar and honey and is the sweetest of the sugars. It is one of the components of sucrose or table sugar. It is used as a High-fructose corn syrup, high-fructose syrup, which is manufactured from hydrolyzed corn starch that has been processed to yield
corn syrup Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose Glucose is a simple sugar with the Chemical formula#Molecular formula, molecular formula . Glucose is the m ...

corn syrup
, with enzymes then added to convert part of the glucose into fructose. * Galactose generally does not occur in the free state but is a constituent with glucose of the disaccharide
lactose Lactose, a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-g ...

lactose
or milk sugar. It is less sweet than glucose. It is a component of the antigens found on the surface of red blood cells that determine ABO blood group system, blood groups. * Glucose occurs naturally in fruits and plant juices and is the primary product of photosynthesis.
Starch Starch or amylum is a consisting of numerous units joined by s. This is produced by most green s for energy storage. Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in s like , es, (corn), , ...
is converted into glucose during digestion, and glucose is the form of sugar that is transported around the bodies of animals in the bloodstream. Although in principle there are two enantiomers of glucose (mirror images one of the other), naturally occurring glucose is D-glucose. This is also called dextrose, or ''grape sugar'' because drying grape juice produces crystals of dextrose that can be sieved from the other components. Glucose syrup is a liquid form of glucose that is widely used in the manufacture of foodstuffs. It can be manufactured from starch by enzymatic hydrolysis. For example,
corn syrup Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose Glucose is a simple sugar with the Chemical formula#Molecular formula, molecular formula . Glucose is the m ...

corn syrup
, which is produced commercially by breaking down maize starch, is one common source of purified dextrose. However, dextrose is naturally present in many unprocessed, whole foods, including
honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by and some other . Bees produce honey from the y secretions of plants (floral ) or from secretions of other insects (such as ), by , activity, and water evaporation. Honey bees store honey in w ...

honey
and fruits such as grapes.


Disaccharides

Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are all compound sugars,
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of ...
s, with the general formula C12H22O11. They are formed by the combination of two monosaccharide molecules with the exclusion of a molecule of water. * Lactose is the naturally occurring sugar found in milk. A molecule of lactose is formed by the combination of a molecule of galactose with a molecule of glucose. It is broken down when consumed into its constituent parts by the enzyme lactase during digestion. Children have this enzyme but some adults no longer form it and they are unable to digest lactose. * Maltose is formed during the germination of certain grains, the most notable being barley, which is converted into
malt Malt is germinated cereal grain that has been dried in a process known as "". The grain is made to by soaking in water and is then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air. Malting grain develops the s (α-amylase, β-amylase) ...
, the source of the sugar's name. A molecule of maltose is formed by the combination of two molecules of glucose. It is less sweet than glucose, fructose or sucrose. It is formed in the body during the digestion of starch by the enzyme amylase and is itself broken down during digestion by the enzyme maltase. * Sucrose is found in the stems of sugarcane and roots of sugar beet. It also occurs naturally alongside fructose and glucose in other plants, in particular fruits and some roots such as carrots. The different proportions of sugars found in these foods determines the range of sweetness experienced when eating them. A molecule of sucrose is formed by the combination of a molecule of glucose with a molecule of fructose. After being eaten, sucrose is split into its constituent parts during digestion by a number of enzymes known as sucrases.


Sources

The sugar contents of common fruits and vegetables are presented in Table 1. The fructose to fructose plus glucose ratio is calculated by including the fructose and glucose coming from the sucrose. In November 2019, scientists reported detecting, for the first time, sugar molecules, including ribose, in meteorites, suggesting that chemical processes on asteroids can produce some fundamentally essential bio-ingredients important to life, and supporting the notion of an RNA World prior to a DNA-based Abiogenesis, origin of life on Earth, and possibly, as well, the notion of panspermia. : The carbohydrate figure is calculated in the USDA database and does not always correspond to the sum of the sugars, the starch, and the dietary fiber.


Production

Due to rising demand, sugar production in general increased some 14% over the period 2009 to 2018. The largest importers were China, Indonesia, and the United States.


Sugarcane

Global production of
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
in 2016 was 1.9 billion tonnes, with Brazil producing 41% of the world total and India 18% (table). Sugarcane refers to any of several species, or their hybrids, of giant grasses in the genus ''Saccharum'' in the family Poaceae. They have been cultivated in tropical climates in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia over centuries for the sucrose found in their stems. A great expansion in sugarcane production took place in the 18th century with the establishment of slave plantations in the Americas. The use of slavery for the labor-intensive process resulted in sugar production, enabling prices cheap enough for most people to buy. Mechanization reduced some labor needs, but in the 21st century, cultivation and production relied on low-wage laborers.Sugar cane requires a frost-free climate with sufficient rainfall during the growing season to make full use of the plant's substantial growth potential. The crop is harvested mechanically or by hand, chopped into lengths and conveyed rapidly to the sugar mill, processing plant (commonly known as a sugar mill) where it is either milled and the juice extracted with water or extracted by diffusion. The juice is clarified with Calcium hydroxide, lime and heated to destroy enzymes. The resulting thin syrup is concentrated in a series of evaporators, after which further water is removed. The resulting Supersaturation, supersaturated solution is seeded with sugar crystals, facilitating crystal formation and drying. Molasses is a by-product of the process and the fiber from the stems, known as bagasse, is burned to provide energy for the sugar extraction process. The crystals of raw sugar have a sticky brown coating and either can be used as they are, can be bleached by sulfur dioxide, or can be treated in a carbonatation process to produce a whiter product. About of irrigation water is needed for every of sugar produced.


Sugar beet

In 2016, global production of
sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production. In plant breeding, it is known as the Altissima cultivar group of the common beet (''Beta vulgaris''). Together wit ...
s was 277 million
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s, led by Russia with 19% of the world total (table). The sugar beet became a major source of sugar in the 19th century when methods for extracting the sugar became available. It is a biennial plant, a cultivar, cultivated variety of ''Beta vulgaris'' in the Family (biology), family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which contains a high proportion of sucrose. It is cultivated as a root crop in temperate regions with adequate rainfall and requires a fertile soil. The crop is harvested mechanically in the autumn and the crown of leaves and excess soil removed. The roots do not deteriorate rapidly and may be left in the field for some weeks before being transported to the processing plant where the crop is washed and sliced, and the sugar extracted by diffusion. Milk of lime is added to the raw juice with carbonatation, calcium carbonate. After water is evaporated by boiling the syrup under a vacuum, the syrup is cooled and seeded with sugar crystals. The white sugar that crystallizes can be separated in a centrifuge and dried, requiring no further refining.


Refining

Refined sugar is made from raw sugar that has undergone a refining process to remove the molasses. Raw sugar is
sucrose Sucrose is a type of sugar Sugar is the generic name for , soluble s, many of which are used in food. Simple sugars, also called s, include , , and . Compound sugars, also called s or double sugars, are molecules made of two monosacchari ...

sucrose
which is extracted from sugarcane or
sugar beet A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production. In plant breeding, it is known as the Altissima cultivar group of the common beet (''Beta vulgaris''). Together wit ...
. While raw sugar can be consumed, the refining process removes unwanted tastes and results in refined sugar or white sugar. The sugar may be transported in bulk to the country where it will be used and the refining process often takes place there. The first stage is known as affination and involves immersing the sugar crystals in a concentrated syrup that softens and removes the sticky brown coating without dissolving them. The crystals are then separated from the liquor and dissolved in water. The resulting syrup is treated either by a carbonatation or by a phosphatation process. Both involve the precipitation of a fine solid in the syrup and when this is filtered out, many of the impurities are removed at the same time. Removal of color is achieved by using either a granular activated carbon or an ion-exchange resin. The sugar syrup is concentrated by boiling and then cooled and seeded with sugar crystals, causing the sugar to crystallize out. The liquor is spun off in a centrifuge and the white crystals are dried in hot air and ready to be packaged or used. The surplus liquor is made into refiners' molasses. The International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis sets standards for the measurement of the purity of refined sugar, known as ICUMSA numbers; lower numbers indicate a higher level of purity in the refined sugar. Refined sugar is widely used for industrial needs for higher quality. Refined sugar is purer (ICUMSA below 300) than raw sugar (ICUMSA over 1,500). The level of purity associated with the colors of sugar, expressed by standard number International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis, ICUMSA, the smaller ICUMSA numbers indicate the higher purity of sugar.


Forms and uses


Crystal size

* Coarse-grain sugar, also known as sanding sugar, composed of reflective crystals with grain size of about 1 to 3 mm, similar to kitchen salt. Used atop baked products and candies, it will not dissolve when subjected to heat and moisture. * Granulated sugar (about 0.6 mm crystals), also known as table sugar or regular sugar, is used at the table, to sprinkle on foods and to sweeten hot drinks (coffee and tea), and in home baking to add sweetness and texture to baked products (cookies and cakes) and desserts (pudding and ice cream). It is also used as a preservative to prevent micro-organisms from growing and perishable food from spoiling, as in candied fruits, jams, and marmalades. * Milled sugars are ground to a fine powder. They are used for dusting foods and in baking and confectionery. ** Caster sugar, sold as "superfine" sugar in the United States, with grain size of about 0.35 mm ** Powdered sugar, also known as confectioner's sugar or icing sugar, available in varying degrees of fineness (e.g., fine powdered or 3X, very fine or 6X, and ultra-fine or 10X). The ultra-fine variety (sometimes called 10X) has grain size of about 0.060 mm, that is about ten times smaller than granulated sugar. ** Snow powder, a non-melting form of powdered sugar usually consisting of glucose, rather than sucrose. * Screened sugars are crystalline products separated according to the size of the grains. They are used for decorative table sugars, for blending in dry mixes and in baking and confectionery.


Shapes

* Sugar cubes(:de:Würfelzucker, de) (sometimes called sugar lumps) are white or brown granulated sugars lightly steamed and pressed together in block shape. They are used to sweeten drinks. * Sugarloaf was the usual cone-form in which refined sugar was produced and sold until the late 19th century. This shape is still in use in Germany (for preparation of ''Feuerzangenbowle'') as well as Iran and Morocco.


Brown sugars

Brown sugars are granulated sugars, either containing residual molasses, or with the grains deliberately coated with molasses to produce a light- or dark-colored sugar. They are used in baked goods, confectionery, and toffees. Their darkness is due to the amount of molasses they contain. They may be classified based on their darkness or country of origin. For instance: * Light brown, with little content of molasses (about 3.5%) * Dark brown, with higher content of molasses (about 6.5%) * Non-centrifugal cane sugar, unrefined and hence very dark cane sugar obtained by evaporating water from sugarcane juice, such as: ** Panela, also known as rapadura, chancaca, piloncillo. ** Some varieties of muscovado, also known as Barbados sugar. Other varieties are partially refined by centrifugation or by using a spray dryer. ** Some varieties of
jaggery Jaggery is a List of unrefined sweeteners, traditional non-centrifugal cane sugar consumed in the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It is a concentrated product of cane juice and often Date (fruit), date or Arecaceae, palm plant sap, sap wi ...

jaggery
. Other varieties are produced from date fruits or from palm sugar, palm sap, rather than sugarcane juice.


Liquid sugars

*
Honey Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance made by and some other . Bees produce honey from the y secretions of plants (floral ) or from secretions of other insects (such as ), by , activity, and water evaporation. Honey bees store honey in w ...

Honey
, mainly containing unbound molecules of fructose and glucose, is a viscous liquid produced by bees by digesting floral nectar. * Syrups are thick, viscous liquids consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water. They are used in the food processing of a wide range of products including beverages, hard candy, ice cream, and Fruit preserves, jams. ** Syrups made by dissolving granulated sugar in water are sometimes referred to as liquid sugar. A liquid sugar containing 50% sugar and 50% water is called simple syrup. ** Syrups can also be made by reduction (cooking), reducing naturally sweet juices such as sugarcane, cane juice, or maple syrup, maple sap. ** Corn syrup is made by converting corn starch to sugars (mainly maltose and glucose). ** High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), is produced by further processing corn syrup to convert some of its glucose into fructose. ** Inverted sugar syrup, commonly known as invert syrup or invert sugar, is a mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating granulated sugar in water. It is used in breads, cakes, and beverages for adjusting sweetness, aiding moisture retention and avoiding crystallization of sugars. * Molasses and treacle are obtained by removing sugar from sugarcane or sugar beet juice, as a byproduct of sugar production. They may be blended with the above-mentioned syrups to enhance sweetness and used in a range of baked goods and confectionery including toffees and licorice. ** Blackstrap molasses, also known as black treacle, has dark color, relatively small sugar content and strong flavour. It is sometimes added to animal feed, or processed to produce rum, or ethanol for fuel. ** Regular molasses and golden syrup treacle have higher sugar content and lighter color, relative to blackstrap. * In winemaking, sugars in wine, fruit sugars are converted into alcohol by a fermentation (wine), fermentation process. If the must formed by pressing the fruit has a low sugar content, additional sugar may be added to raise the alcohol content of the wine in a process called chaptalization. In the production of sweet wines, fermentation may be halted before it has run its full course, leaving behind some Sweetness of wine, residual sugar that gives the wine its sweet taste.


Other sweeteners

* Low-calorie sweeteners are often made of maltodextrin with added sweeteners. Maltodextrin is an easily digestible synthetic
polysaccharide Polysaccharides (), or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant found in . They are long chain carbohydrates composed of units bound together by . This carbohydrate can react with water () using as catalyst, which produces constituent sugars ...
consisting of short chains of three or more glucose molecules and is made by the partial hydrolysis of starch. Strictly, maltodextrin is not classified as sugar as it contains more than two glucose molecules, although its structure is similar to
maltose} Maltose ( or ), also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disacchari ...

maltose
, a molecule composed of two joined glucose molecules. * Polyols are
sugar alcohol Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, e ...
s and are used in chewing gums where a sweet flavor is required that lasts for a prolonged time in the mouth. * Several different kinds of zero-calorie artificial sweeteners may be also used as sugar substitutes.


Consumption

In most parts of the world, sugar is an important part of the human diet, making food more palatable and providing food energy. After cereals and vegetable oils, sugar derived from sugarcane and beet provided more kilocalories per capita per day on average than other food groups. In 1750 the average Briton got 72 calories a day from sugar. In 1913 this had risen to 395. In 2015 it still provided around 14% of the calories in British diets. According to one source, per capita consumption of sugar in 2016 was highest in the United States, followed by Germany and the Netherlands.


Nutrition and flavor

Brown and white granulated sugar are 97% to nearly 100%
carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are simple sugars soluble in water. Three common ex ...
s, respectively, with less than 2% water, and no dietary fiber, protein or fat (table). Brown sugar contains a moderate amount of iron (15% of the Reference Daily Intake in a 100 gram amount, see table), but a typical serving of 4 grams (one teaspoon), would provide 15 calories and a negligible amount of iron or any other nutrient. Because brown sugar contains 5–10% molasses reintroduced during processing, its value to some consumers is a richer flavor than white sugar.


Health effects


Sugar industry funding and health information

Sugar refiners and manufacturers of sugary foods and drinks have sought to influence medical research and public health recommendations, with substantial and largely clandestine spending documented from the 1960s to 2016. The results of research on the health effects of sugary food and drink differ significantly, depending on whether the researcher has financial ties to the food and drink industry. A 2013 medical review concluded that "unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD [non-communicable disease] policy". There have been similar efforts to steer coverage of sugar-related health information in popular media, including news media and social media.


Obesity and metabolic syndrome

A 2003
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
technical report provided evidence that high intake of sugary drinks (including fruit juice) increased the risk of
obesity Obesity is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often ...

obesity
by adding to overall energy intake. By itself, sugar is not a factor causing obesity and metabolic syndrome, but rather – when over-consumed – is a component of unhealthy dietary behavior. meta-analysis, Meta-analyses showed that excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increased the risk of developing Diabetes mellitus type 2, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome – including weight gain and obesity – in adults and children.


Hyperactivity

A 2019 meta-analysis found that sugar consumption does not improve mood (psychology), mood, but can lower alertness and increase fatigue within an hour of consumption. Some studies report evidence of causality between high consumption of refined sugar and hyperactivity. One review of low-quality studies of children consuming high amounts of energy drinks showed association with higher rates of unhealthy behaviors, including smoking and excessive alcohol use, and with hyperactivity and insomnia.


Tooth decay

The 2003 WHO report stated that "Sugars are undoubtedly the most important dietary factor in the development of dental caries". A review of human studies showed that the incidence of caries is lower when sugar intake is less than 10% of total energy consumed.


Nutritional displacement

The Empty calorie, "empty calories" argument states that a diet high in added sugar will reduce consumption of foods that contain essential nutrients. This nutrient displacement occurs if sugar makes up more than 25% of daily energy intake, a proportion associated with poor diet quality and risk of obesity. Displacement may occur at lower levels of consumption.


Recommended dietary intake

The
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
recommends that both adults and children reduce the intake of free sugars to less than 10% of total energy intake, and suggests a reduction to below 5%. "Free sugars" include
monosaccharide Monosaccharides (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...
s and
disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of ...
s added to foods, and sugars found in fruit juice and concentrates, as well as in honey and syrups. According to the WHO, "[t]hese recommendations were based on the totality of available evidence reviewed regarding the relationship between free sugars intake and body weight (low and moderate quality evidence) and dental caries (very low and moderate quality evidence)." On 20 May 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced changes to the Nutrition Facts panel displayed on all foods, to be effective by July 2018. New to the panel is a requirement to list "Added sugars" by weight and as a percent of Daily Value (DV). For vitamins and minerals, the intent of DVs is to indicate how much should be consumed. For added sugars, the guidance is that 100% DV should not be exceeded. 100% DV is defined as 50 grams. For a person consuming 2000 calories a day, 50 grams is equal to 200 calories and thus 10% of total calories—the same guidance as the World Health Organization. To put this in context, most 355 mL (12 US fl oz) cans of soda contain 39 grams of sugar. In the United States, a government survey on food consumption in 2013–2014 reported that, for men and women aged 20 and older, the average total sugar intakes—naturally occurring in foods and added—were, respectively, 125 and 99 g/day.


Measurements

Various culinary sugars have different densities due to differences in particle size and inclusion of moisture. Domino Sugar gives the following weight to volume conversions (in United States customary units): * Firmly packed brown sugar 1 lb = 2.5 cups (or 1.3 L per kg, 0.77 kg/L) * Granulated sugar 1 lb = 2.25 cups (or 1.17 L per kg, 0.85 kg/L) * Unsifted confectioner's sugar 1 lb = 3.75 cups (or 2.0 L per kg, 0.5 kg/L) The "Engineering Resources – Bulk Density Chart" published in ''Powder and Bulk'' gives different values for the bulk densities: * Beet sugar 0.80 g/mL * Dextrose sugar 0.62 g/mL ( = 620 kg/m^3) * Granulated sugar 0.70 g/mL * Powdered sugar 0.56 g/mL


Society and culture

Manufacturers of sugary products, such as soft drinks and candy, and the Sugar Association, Sugar Research Foundation have been accused of trying to influence consumers and medical associations in the 1960s and 1970s by creating doubt about the potential health hazards of sucrose overconsumption, while promoting saturated fat as the main dietary risk factor in
cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. CVD includes coronary artery disease Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), or simpl ...
s. In 2016, the criticism led to recommendations that diet policymakers emphasize the need for high-quality research that accounts for multiple biomarkers on development of cardiovascular diseases.


See also

* Barley sugar * Holing cane * List of unrefined sweeteners * Powdered sugar * Rare sugar * Sugar plantations in the Caribbean * Sugar substitute * Glycomics


Gallery

File:Sa brownsugar.jpg, Brown sugar crystals File:Vollrohrzucker Dattelpalme.JPG, Whole date palm#Fruit, date sugar File:Vollrohrzucker grau.JPG, Whole sugarcane, cane sugar (grey), Vacuum drying, vacuum-dried File:Vollrohrzucker braun.JPG, Whole cane sugar (brown), vacuum-dried File:Raw sugar closeup.jpg, alt=raw sugar closeup, Raw crystals of unrefined, unbleached sugar


References


Further reading

* * * *Peter Frankopan, Frankopan, Peter, ''The Silk Roads: A New History of the World'', 2016, Bloomsbury, *Roy Strong, Strong, Roy (2002), Feast: A History of Grand Eating, Jonathan Cape, ISBN 0224061380


External links


Sugar
at the National Health Service {{Authority control Sugar, Carbohydrates Excipients Indian inventions