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Rice is the
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
of the
grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain ...
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
''
Oryza sativa ''Oryza sativa'', common name, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice. It is the List of rice cultivars, type of farmed rice whose cultivars are most common globally, and History of rice cu ...

Oryza sativa
'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''
Oryza glaberrima ''Oryza glaberrima'', commonly known as African rice, is one of the two domesticated rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is ...
'' (African rice). The name
wild rice Wild rice (Ojibwe language, Ojibwe: ; also called Canada rice, Indian rice, or water oats) is any of four species of Poaceae, grasses that form the genus ''Zizania'', and the grain that can be harvested from them. The grain was historically ga ...
is usually used for species of the genera '' Zizania'' and ''
Porteresia ''Porteresia coarctata'' is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest grou ...
'', both wild and domesticated, although the term may also be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of ''
Oryza ''Oryza'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their ana ...
''. As a
cereal grain A cereal is any grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen perenn ...

cereal grain
, domesticated rice is the most widely consumed
staple food A staple food, food staple, or simply a staple, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, ...

staple food
for over half of the world's
human population Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedality, bipedalism and large, complex brains. This has enabled the development of advanced tools, culture, and language. Humans are highl ...

human population
,Abstract, "Rice feeds more than half the world's population." especially in
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...

Asia
and
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
. It is the agricultural
commodity In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...
with the third-highest worldwide production, after
sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, ...

sugarcane
and
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important food crop with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the
calories The calorie is a unit of energy defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a quantity of water by one degree. For historical reasons, two main definitions of calorie are in wide use. The small calorie or gram calorie (usual ...
consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound irrigation planning but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters
vermin Vermin ( colloquially varmint(s) or varmit(s)) are pests or nuisance animals that spread diseases or destroy crops A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. Crops may refer e ...
. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domesti ...

irrigation
require higher effort in
weed A weed is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and included algae and fungi; however, all ...
and
pest control Pest control is the regulation or management of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often def ...
during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil. Rice, a
monocot Monocotyledons (), commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae ''sensu'' Chase & Reveal) are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms), the seeds of which typically contain only one Embryo#Plant embryos, embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. The ...
, is normally grown as an
annual plant An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle Life cycle, life-cycle, or lifecycle may refer to: Science and academia *Biological life cycle, the sequence of life stages that an organism undergoes from birth to reproduction ending w ...
, although in
tropical The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to ...

tropical
areas it can survive as a
perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things that were not animals, and incl ...
and can produce a
ratoon Ratooning is the agricultural Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated Domestica ...
crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high
rain Rain is liquid water in the form of droplet Rain water flux from a canopy. Among the forces that govern drop formation: cohesion, Van der Waals force">Cohesion_(chemistry).html" ;"title="surface tension, Cohesion (chemistry)">cohesion, ...

rain
fall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a steep hill or
mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least ...

mountain
area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. Production and consumption of rice is estimated to have been responsible for 4% of global
greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without ...
in 2010.


Characteristics

The rice plant can grow to tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves long and broad. The small
wind-pollinated Anemophily or wind pollination is a form of pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen Pollen Tube Diagram Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce mal ...
flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous
inflorescence An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some ...
long. The edible seed is a grain (
caryopsis Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out, right In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who spec ...
) long and thick.


Food


Cooking

The varieties of rice are typically classified as long-, medium-, and short-grained. The grains of long-grain rice (high in
amylose Amylose is a polysaccharide , a beta-glucan polysaccharide Image:amylose 3Dprojection.svg">350px, Amylose is a linear polymer of glucose mainly linked with α(1→4) bonds. It can be made of several thousands of glucose units. It is one of the two ...

amylose
) tend to remain intact after cooking; medium-grain rice (high in
amylopectin Amylopectin is a water-soluble Subscription required for online access. polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Glucose units are linke ...
) becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for ''
risotto Risotto (, , from meaning "rice") is a northern Italian Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern ...

risotto
'' in Italy, and many rice dishes, such as ''
arròs negre
arròs negre
'', in Spain. Some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in
amylopectin Amylopectin is a water-soluble Subscription required for online access. polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Glucose units are linke ...
, known as Thai Sticky rice, are usually steamed. A stickier short-grain rice is used for ''
sushi is a traditional Japanese dish of prepared , usually with some sugar and salt, accompanied by a variety of , such as seafood Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish Fish are Aquatic an ...

sushi
''; the stickiness allows rice to hold its shape when cooked. Short-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes. Short-grain rice is often used for
rice pudding Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon, vanilla and raisins. Variants are used for either desserts or dinners. When used as a dessert, it is commonly combined with a sweetener such a ...

rice pudding
.
Instant rice Instant rice is rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biol ...

Instant rice
differs from
parboiled rice Parboiled rice (also called converted rice and easy-cook rice) is rice that has been parboiling, partially boiled in the husk. The three basic steps of parboiling are soaking, steaming and drying. These steps make the rice easier to process by han ...
in that it is fully cooked and then dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and
starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance ...
often are used in
batters Batter or batters may refer to: * Batter (cooking), thin dough that can be easily poured into a pan * Batter (baseball), person whose turn it is to face the pitcher * Batter (cricket) or batsman, player who is currently batting * Batter (drum), a ...
and breadings to increase crispiness.


Preparation

Rinsing rice before cooking removes much of the
starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance ...
, thereby reducing the extent to which individual grains will stick together. This yields a fluffier rice, whereas not rinsing yields a stickier and creamier result. Rice produced in the US is usually fortified with vitamins and minerals, and rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, and reduce stickiness. For some
varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate
germination Germination is the process by which an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biolog ...

germination
. This process, called germinated brown rice (GBR), activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including
gamma-aminobutyric acid ''gamma-''Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid , or GABA , is the chief inhibitory An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potent ...
to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by
boiling Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere. Ther ...
or
steaming Steaming is a method of cooking using steam. This is often done with a food steamer, a kitchen appliance made specifically to cook food with steam, but food can also be steamed in a wok. In the American southwest, steam pits used for cooking have ...

steaming
, and absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water which is drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are lost when the water is discarded. Electric
rice cooker A rice cooker or rice steamer is an automated kitchen appliance designed to boil or steam rice. It consists of a heat source, a cooking bowl, and a thermostat. The thermostat measures the temperature of the cooking bowl and controls the heat. ...
s, popular in Asia and Latin America, simplify the process of cooking rice. Rice (or any other grain) is sometimes quickly fried in oil or fat before boiling (for example
saffron rice
saffron rice
or
risotto Risotto (, , from meaning "rice") is a northern Italian Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern ...

risotto
); this makes the cooked rice less sticky, and is a cooking style commonly called
pilaf Pilau ( UK spelling) or pilaf ( US spelling) is a rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Recor ...
in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
or
biryani Biryani () is a mixed rice dish originating among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. It is made with Indian spices Indian spices include a variety of spices grown across the Indian subcontinent (a sub-region of South Asia). With ...

biryani
in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
.


Dishes

In
Arab cuisine Arab cuisine ( ar, المطبخ العربي) is the cuisine of the Arabs, defined as the various regional cuisines spanning the Arab world, from the Maghreb to the Fertile Crescent and the Arabian Peninsula. These cuisines are centuries old and r ...
, rice is an ingredient of many soups and dishes with fish, poultry, and other types of meat. It is used to stuff vegetables or is wrapped in grape leaves (
dolma Dolma is a family of stuffed dishes that can be served warm or cold. Some types of dolma are made with whole vegetables, fruit, offal or seafood, while others are made by wrapping leaves, most commonly grape or cabbage leaves, around the filling ...
). When combined with milk, sugar, and honey, it is used to make desserts. In some regions, such as
Tabaristan Tabaristan or Tabarestan ( fa, طبرستان, Ṭabarestān, or mzn, تبرستون, Tabarestun, ultimately from Middle Persian Middle Persian or Pahlavi, also known by its endonym Pārsīk or Pārsīg (𐭯𐭠𐭫𐭮𐭩𐭪) in its later ...

Tabaristan
, bread is made using rice flour. Rice may be made into
congee Congee or conjee ( ) is a type of rice Rice is the seed of the Poaceae, grass species ''Oryza sativa'' (Asian rice) or less commonly ''Oryza glaberrima'' (African rice). The name wild rice is usually used for species of the genera ''Ziza ...

congee
(also called rice porridge or
rice gruel
rice gruel
) by adding more water than usual, so that the cooked rice is saturated with water, usually to the point that it disintegrates. Rice porridge is commonly eaten as a breakfast food, and is a traditional food for the sick.


Nutrition

Rice is the
staple food A staple food, food staple, or simply a staple, is a food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, ...

staple food
of over half the world's population. It is the predominant dietary energy source for 17 countries in Asia and the Pacific, 9 countries in North and South America and 8 countries in Africa. Rice provides 20% of the world's dietary energy supply, while wheat supplies 19% and maize (corn) 5%. Cooked unenriched long-grain white rice is composed of 68% water, 28%
carbohydrates is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galacto ...
, 3%
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
, and negligible
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
(table). A reference serving of it provides of
food energy Food energy is chemical energy Chemical energy is the energy of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...
and contains no
micronutrient Micronutrients are nutrient, essential dietary elements required by organisms in varying quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health. Micronutrient requirements differ between organisms; for examp ...
s in significant amounts, with all less than 10% of the
Daily Value The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) used in nutrition labeling on food and dietary supplement products in the U.S. and Canada is the daily intake level of a nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The ...
(DV) (table). Cooked short-grain white rice provides the same food energy and contains moderate amounts of
B vitamins B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen chemical bond ...
,
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
, and
manganese Manganese is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical e ...

manganese
(10–17% DV) per 100-gram serving (table). A detailed analysis of nutrient content of rice suggests that the nutrition value of rice varies based on a number of factors. It depends on the strain of rice, such as
white White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...

white
,
brown Brown is a composite color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United State ...

brown
,
red Red is the color at the long wavelength end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength Image:dominant wavelength.png, frame, Dominant/complementary wavelength example on the CIE color ...

red
, and
black Black is a color which results from the absence or complete absorption Absorption may refer to: Chemistry and biology *Absorption (chemistry), diffusion of particles of gas or liquid into liquid or solid materials *Absorption (skin), a rout ...

black
(or purple) varieties having different prevalence across world regions. It also depends on nutrient quality of the soil rice is grown in, whether and how the rice is polished or processed, the manner it is enriched, and how it is prepared before consumption. A 2018
World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unit ...
(WHO) guideline showed that
fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Latin ''fortis'' ("strong") and ''facere'' ( ...
of rice to reduce
malnutrition Malnutrition is 'a state of nutrition in which a deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein and other nutrients causes measurable adverse effect on tissue and body form (body shape, size and composition) and function and clinical ou ...
may involve different micronutrient strategies, including
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
only, iron with
zinc Zinc is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical element ...

zinc
,
vitamin A Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, (also known as retinaldehyde), retinoic acid and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably Beta-Carotene, beta-carotene). Vitamin A has mul ...

vitamin A
, and
folic acid Folate, also known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds ar ...

folic acid
, or iron with other B-complex vitamins, such as
thiamin Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin A vitamin is an organic molecule , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydroge ...

thiamin
,
niacin Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, vitamin B3, an essential nutrient, essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtaine ...

niacin
,
vitamin B6 Vitamin B6 is one of the , and thus an . The term refers to a group of six chemically similar compounds, i.e., "s", which can be interconverted in biological systems. Its active form, , serves as a in more than 140 reactions in , , and meta ...
, and
pantothenic acid Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient. All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to ...

pantothenic acid
. A
systematic review Systematic reviews are a type of Literature review, review that uses repeatable analytical methods to collect secondary data and analyse it. Systematic reviews are a type of evidence synthesis which formulate research questions that are broad or ...
of
clinical research Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health Health is a state of physical ...
on the efficacy of rice fortification showed the strategy had the main effect of reducing the risk of
iron deficiency Iron deficiency, or sideropenia, is the state in which a body lacks enough iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), formi ...
by 35% and increasing blood levels of
hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin (spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct wa ...

hemoglobin
. The guideline established a major recommendation: "Fortification of rice with iron is recommended as a public health strategy to improve the iron status of populations, in settings where rice is a staple food." Rice grown experimentally under elevated
carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of s that constitute a particular or molecule, using symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as pare ...

carbon dioxide
levels, similar to those predicted for the year 2100 as a result of human activity, had less iron, zinc, and protein, as well as lower levels of thiamin,
riboflavin Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. It is required by the body for cellular respiration. Food sources include egg (food), eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy products, meat, ...

riboflavin
, folic acid, and pantothenic acid. The following table shows the nutrient content of rice and other major staple foods in a raw form on a dry weight basis to account for their different water contents.


Arsenic concerns

As arsenic is a natural element in soil, water, and air, the United States
Food and Drug Administration The United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
(FDA) monitors the levels of arsenic in foods, particularly in rice products used commonly for infant food. While growing, rice plants tend to absorb arsenic more readily than other food crops, requiring expanded testing by the FDA for possible arsenic-related risks associated with rice consumption in the United States. In April 2016, the FDA proposed a limit of 100 parts per billion (ppb) for inorganic arsenic in infant rice cereal and other foods to minimize exposure of infants to arsenic. For water contamination by arsenic, the United States
Environmental Protection Agency A biophysical environment is a biotic Biotics describe living or once living components of a community; for example organisms, such as animals and plants. Biotic may refer to: *Life, the condition of living organisms *Biology, the study of life ...
has set a lower standard of 10 ppb. Arsenic is a Group 1 carcinogen. The amount of arsenic in rice varies widely with the greatest concentration in brown rice and rice grown on land formerly used to grow cotton, such as in
Arkansas Arkansas () is a U.S. state, state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States, home to more than three million people as of 2018. Its name is from the Osage language, a Dhegihan languages, Dhegiha Siouan la ...

Arkansas
, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas. White rice grown in Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, and Texas, which account collectively for 76 percent of American-produced rice, had higher levels of arsenic than other regions of the world studied, possibly because of past use of arsenic-based pesticides to control cotton weevils. Jasmine rice from Thailand and Basmati rice from Pakistan and India contain the least arsenic among rice varieties in one study. China has set a limit of 150 ppb for arsenic in rice.


''Bacillus cereus''

Cooked rice can contain ''Bacillus cereus'' spores, which produce an emetic toxin when left at . When storing cooked rice for use the next day, rapid cooling is advised to reduce the risk of toxin production. One of the enterotoxins produced by ''Bacillus cereus'' is heat-resistant; reheating contaminated rice kills the bacteria, but does not destroy the toxin already present.


Other uses

Rice
starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance ...
is used as a cosmetic dusting powder and to stiffen laundry (starching).


Rice-growing environments

Rice growth and production are affected by: the environment, soil properties, biotic conditions, and cultural practices. Environmental factors include rainfall and water, temperature, photoperiod, solar radiation and, in some instances, tropical storms. Soil factors refer to soil type and their position in uplands or lowlands. Biotic factors deal with weeds, insects, diseases, and crop varieties. Rice can be grown in different environments, depending upon water availability. Generally, rice does not thrive in a waterlogged area, yet it can survive and grow herein and it can survive flooding. # Lowland, rainfed, which is drought prone, favors medium depth; waterlogged, submergence, and flood prone # Lowland, irrigated, grown in both the wet season and the dry season # Deep water rice, Deep water or floating rice # Coastal wetland # Upland rice (also known as hill rice or Ghaiya rice) is well known for its drought tolerance


History of cultivation


Production and commerce


Production

In 2017, world production of paddy rice was s, led by China and India with a combined 49% of this total. Other major producers were Indonesia, Bangladesh and Vietnam. The five major producers accounted for 72% of total production, while the top fifteen producers accounted for 91% of total world production in 2017 (see table on right). Developing countries account for 95% of the total production. Rice is a major food staple and a mainstay for the rural population and their food security. It is mainly cultivated by small farmers in holdings of less than one hectare. Rice is also a wage commodity for workers in the cash crop or non-agricultural sectors. Rice is vital for the nutrition of much of the population in Asia, as well as in Latin America and the Caribbean and in Africa; it is central to the food security of over half the world population. Many rice grain producing countries have significant losses post-harvest at the farm and because of poor roads, inadequate storage technologies, inefficient supply chains and farmer's inability to bring the produce into retail markets dominated by small shopkeepers. A World Bank – FAO study claims 8% to 26% of rice is lost in developing nations, on average, every year, because of post-harvest problems and poor infrastructure. Some sources claim the post-harvest losses exceed 40%. Not only do these losses reduce food security in the world, the study claims that farmers in developing countries such as China, India and others lose approximately US$89 billion of income in preventable post-harvest farm losses, poor transport, the lack of proper storage and retail. One study claims that if these post-harvest grain losses could be eliminated with better infrastructure and retail network, in India alone enough food would be saved every year to feed 70 to 100 million people.


Processing

The seeds of the rice plant are first milled using a rice huller to remove the chaff (the outer husks of the grain) (see: rice hulls). At this point in the process, the product is called brown rice. The milling may be continued, removing the bran, ''i.e.'', the rest of the husk and the cereal germ, germ, thereby creating white rice. White rice, which keeps longer, lacks some important nutrients; moreover, in a limited diet which does not supplement the rice, brown rice helps to prevent the disease beriberi. Either by hand or in a rice polisher, white rice may be buffed with glucose or talc powder (often called polished rice, though this term may also refer to white rice in general), parboiled rice, parboiled, or processed into flour. White rice may also be enriched by adding nutrients, especially those lost during the milling process. While the cheapest method of enriching involves adding a powdered blend of nutrients that will easily wash off (in the United States, rice which has been so treated requires a label warning against rinsing), more sophisticated methods apply nutrients directly to the grain, coating the grain with a water-insoluble substance which is resistant to washing. In some countries, a popular form,
parboiled rice Parboiled rice (also called converted rice and easy-cook rice) is rice that has been parboiling, partially boiled in the husk. The three basic steps of parboiling are soaking, steaming and drying. These steps make the rice easier to process by han ...
(also known as converted rice and easy-cook rice) is subjected to a steaming or parboiling process while still a brown rice grain. The parboil process causes a gelatinisation of the starch in the grains. The grains become less brittle, and the color of the milled grain changes from white to yellow. The rice is then dried, and can then be milled as usual or used as brown rice. Milled parboiled rice is nutritionally superior to standard milled rice, because the process causes nutrients from the outer husk (especially thiamine) to move into the endosperm, so that less is subsequently lost when the husk is polished off during milling. Parboiled rice has an additional benefit in that it does not stick to the pan during cooking, as happens when cooking regular white rice. This type of rice is eaten in parts of India and countries of West Africa are also accustomed to consuming parboiled rice. Rice bran, called ''nuka'' in Japan, is a valuable commodity in Asia and is used for many daily needs. It is a moist, oily inner layer which is heated to produce oil. It is also used as a pickling bed in making Nukazuke, rice bran pickles and ''takuan''. Raw rice may be ground into flour for many uses, including making many kinds of beverages, such as ''amazake, horchata'', rice milk, and rice wine. Rice does not contain gluten, so is suitable for people on a gluten-free diet. Rice can be made into various types of noodles. Raw, wild, or brown rice may also be consumed by Raw foodism, raw-foodist or fruitarians if soaked and Sprouting, sprouted (usually a week to 30 days – gaba rice). Processed rice seeds must be boiled or steamed before eating. Boiled rice may be further fried in cooking oil or butter (known as fried rice), or beaten in a tub to make ''mochi''. Rice is a good source of protein and a staple food in many parts of the world, but it is not a complete protein: it does not contain all of the essential amino acids in sufficient amounts for good health, and should be combined with other sources of protein, such as nuts, seeds, beans, fish, or meat. Rice, like other cereal caryopsis, grains, can be Puffed rice, puffed (or popped). This process takes advantage of the grains' water content and typically involves heating grains in a special chamber. Further puffing is sometimes accomplished by processing puffed pellets in a low-pressure chamber. The ideal gas law means either lowering the local pressure or raising the water temperature results in an increase in volume prior to water evaporation, resulting in a puffy Texture (food), texture. Bulk raw rice density is about 0.9 g/cm3. It decreases to less than one-tenth that when puffed.


Harvesting, drying and milling

Unmilled rice, known as "paddy" (Indonesia and Malaysia: padi; Philippines, palay), is usually harvested when the grains have a moisture content of around 25%. In most Asian countries, where rice is almost entirely the product of smallholder agriculture, harvesting is carried out manually, although there is a growing interest in mechanical harvesting. Harvesting can be carried out by the farmers themselves, but is also frequently done by seasonal labor groups. Harvesting is followed by threshing, either immediately or within a day or two. Again, much threshing is still carried out by hand but there is an increasing use of mechanical threshers. Subsequently, paddy needs to be dried to bring down the moisture content to no more than 20% for milling. A familiar sight in several Asian countries is paddy laid out to dry along roads. However, in most countries the bulk of drying of marketed paddy takes place in mills, with village-level drying being used for paddy to be consumed by farm families. Mills either sun dry or use mechanical driers or both. Drying has to be carried out quickly to avoid the formation of molds. Mills range from simple Rice huller, hullers, with a throughput of a couple of tonnes a day, that simply remove the outer husk, to enormous operations that can process a day and produce highly polished rice. A good mill can achieve a paddy-to-rice conversion rate of up to 72% but smaller, inefficient mills often struggle to achieve 60%. These smaller mills often do not buy paddy and sell rice but only service farmers who want to mill their paddy for their own consumption.


Distribution

Because of the importance of rice to human nutrition and food security in Asia, the domestic rice markets tend to be subject to considerable state involvement. While the private sector plays a leading role in most countries, agencies such as Indonesian Bureau of Logistics, BULOG in Indonesia, the National Food Authority (Philippines), NFA in the Philippines, VINAFOOD in Vietnam and the Food Corporation of India are all heavily involved in purchasing of paddy from farmers or rice from mills and in distributing rice to poorer people. BULOG and NFA monopolise rice imports into their countries while VINAFOOD controls all exports from Vietnam.


Trade

World trade figures are very different from those for production, as less than 8% of rice produced is traded internationally. In economic terms, the global rice trade was a small fraction of 1% of world mercantile trade. Many countries consider rice as a strategic food staple, and various governments subject its trade to a wide range of controls and interventions. Developing countries are the main players in the world rice trade, accounting for 83% of exports and 85% of imports. While there are numerous importers of rice, the exporters of rice are limited. Just five countries—Thailand, Vietnam, China, the United States and India—in decreasing order of exported quantities, accounted for about three-quarters of world rice exports in 2002. However, this ranking has been rapidly changing in recent years. In 2010, the three largest exporters of rice, in decreasing order of quantity exported were Thailand, Vietnam and India. By 2012, India became the largest exporter of rice with a 100% increase in its exports on year-to-year basis, and Thailand slipped to third position. Together, Thailand, Vietnam and India accounted for nearly 70% of the world rice exports. The primary variety exported by Thailand and Vietnam were Jasmine rice, while exports from India included aromatic Basmati variety. China, an exporter of rice in early 2000s, was a net importer of rice in 2010 and will become the largest net importer, surpassing Nigeria, in 2013. According to a United States Department of Agriculture, USDA report, the world's largest exporters of rice in 2012 were India (), Vietnam (), Thailand (), Pakistan () and the United States (). Major importers usually include Nigeria, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Malaysia, the Philippines, Brazil and some African and Persian Gulf countries. In common with other West African countries, Nigeria is actively promoting domestic production. However, its very heavy import duties (110%) open it to smuggling from neighboring countries. Parboiled rice is particularly popular in Nigeria. Although China and India are the two largest producers of rice in the world, both countries consume the majority of the rice produced domestically, leaving little to be traded internationally.


Yield records

The average world yield for rice was , in 2010. Australian rice farms were the most productive in 2010, with a nationwide average of . Yuan Longping of China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center set a world record for rice yield in 2010 at on a demonstration plot. In 2011, this record was reportedly surpassed by an Indian farmer, Sumant Kumar, with in Bihar, although this claim has been disputed by both Yuan and India's Central Rice Research Institute. These efforts employed newly developed rice breeds and System of Rice Intensification (SRI), a recent innovation in rice farming.


Price

In late 2007 to May 2008, the price of grains rose greatly due to droughts in major producing countries (particularly Australia), increased use of grains for animal feed and US subsidies for bio-fuel production. Although there was no shortage of rice on world markets this general upward trend in grain prices led to panic buying by consumers, government rice export bans (in particular, by Vietnam and India) and inflated import orders by the Philippines marketing board, the National Food Authority. This caused significant rises in rice prices. In late April 2008, prices hit 24 US cents a pound (mass), pound, twice the price of seven months earlier."Cyclone fuels rice price increase"
, BBC News, May 7, 2008
Over the period of 2007 to 2013, the Chinese government has substantially increased the price it pays domestic farmers for their rice, rising to per metric ton by 2013. The 2013 price of rice originating from other southeast Asian countries was a comparably low per metric ton. On April 30, 2008, Thailand announced plans for the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries (OREC) with the intention that this should develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice. However, little progress had been made to achieve this.


Worldwide consumption

, world food consumption of rice was of paddy equivalent ( of milled equivalent), while the largest consumers were China consuming of paddy equivalent (28.7% of world consumption) and India consuming of paddy equivalent (23.1% of world consumption). Per capita, Bangladesh ranks as the country with the highest rice consumption, followed by Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia. Between 1961 and 2002, per capita consumption of rice increased by 40%. Rice is the most important crop in Asia. In Cambodia, for example, 90% of the total agricultural area is used for rice production. U.S. rice consumption has risen sharply over the past 25 years, fueled in part by commercial applications such as beer production. Almost one in five adult Americans now report eating at least half a serving of white or brown rice per day.


Environmental impacts


Climate change

The worldwide production of rice accounts for more
greenhouse gas emissions Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without ...
(GHG) in total than that of any other plant food. It was estimated in 2021 to be responsible for 30% of agricultural methane emissions and 11% of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions. Methane release is caused by long-term flooding of rice fields, inhibiting the soil from absorbing atmospheric oxygen, a process causing anaerobic fermentation of organic matter in the soil. A 2021 study estimated that rice contributed 2 billion tonnes of Greenhouse gas, anthropogenic greenhouse gases in 2010, of the 47 billion total. The study added up GHG emissions from the entire lifecycle, including production, transportation, and consumption, and compared the global totals of different foods. The total for rice was half the total for beef. A 2010 study found that, as a result of rising temperatures and decreasing solar radiation during the later years of the 20th century, the rice yield growth rate has decreased in many parts of Asia, compared to what would have been observed had the temperature and solar radiation trends not occurred. The yield growth rate had fallen 10–20% at some locations. The study was based on records from 227 farms in Thailand, Vietnam, Nepal, India, China, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. The mechanism of this falling yield was not clear, but might involve increased respiration during warm nights, which expends energy without being able to photosynthesize.


Water usage

Rice requires slightly more water to produce than other grains. Rice production uses almost a third of Earth's fresh water. Water outflows from rice fields through transpiration, evaporation, seepage, and percolation. It is estimated that it takes about 2,500 liters of water need to be supplied to account for all of these outflows and produce 1 kg of rice.


Pests and diseases

Rice pests are any organisms or microbes with the potential to reduce the yield or value of the rice crop (or of rice seeds). Rice pests include weeds, pathogens, insects, nematode, rodents, and birds. A variety of factors can contribute to pest outbreaks, including climatic factors, improper irrigation, the overuse of insecticides and high rates of nitrogen fertilizer application. Weather conditions also contribute to pest outbreaks. For example, rice gall midge and Spodoptera mauritia, army worm outbreaks tend to follow periods of high rainfall early in the wet season, while thrips outbreaks are associated with drought.


Animal pests


Insects

Major rice insect pests include: the brown planthopper (BPH), several species of stemborers—including those in the genera ''Scirpophaga'' and ''Chilo suppressalis, Chilo'', the rice gall midge, several species of Rice bug (disambiguation), rice bugs, notably in the genus ''Leptocorisa'', defoliators such as the rice: Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, leafroller, Dicladispa armigera, hispa and Oxya, grasshoppers. The Fall armyworm, fall army worm, a species of Lepidoptera, also targets and causes damage to rice crops. Rice weevils attack stored produce.


Nematodes

Several nematode species infect rice crops, causing diseases such as Ufra (''Ditylenchus dipsaci''), White tip disease (''Aphelenchoide bessei''), and root knot disease (''Meloidogyne graminicola''). Some nematode species such as ''Pratylenchus'' spp. are most dangerous in upland rice of all parts of the world. Rice root nematode (''Hirschmanniella oryzae'') is a migratory endoparasite which on higher inoculum levels will lead to complete destruction of a rice crop. Beyond being obligate parasites, they also decrease the vigor of plants and increase the plants' susceptibility to other pests and diseases.


Other pests

These include the apple snail ''Pomacea canaliculata'', panicle rice mite, rats, and the weed ''Echinochloa crusgali''.


Diseases

Rice blast, caused by the fungus ''Magnaporthe grisea'', is the most significant disease affecting rice cultivation. It and bacterial leaf streak (caused by ''Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae'') are perennially the two worst rice diseases worldwide, and such is their importance - and the importance of rice - that they are both among the top 10 diseases of plants in general.p.214, "Rice blast (caused by the fungal pathogen ''Magnaporthe oryzae'') and bacterial blight (caused by the bacterial pathogen ''Xanthomonas oryzae'' pv. ''oryzae'') are the most devastating rice diseases (119) and are among the 10 most important fungal and bacterial diseases in plants (32, 95). Owing to their scientific and economic importance, both pathosystems have been the focus of concentrated study over the past two decades, and they are now advanced molecular models for plant fungal and bacterial diseases." Other major fungal and bacterial rice diseases include sheath blight (caused by ''Rhizoctonia solani''), false smut (''Ustilaginoidea virens''), bacterial panicle blight (''Burkholderia glumae''),p.214, "...other diseases, including rice sheath blight (caused by the fungal pathogen ''Rhizoctonia solani''), false smut (caused by the fungal pathogen ''Ustilaginoidea virens''), bacterial leaf streak (caused by ''X. oryzae'' pv. ''oryzicola''), bacterial panicle blight (''Burkholderia glumae''), are emerging globally as important rice diseases (53, 72, 180) (Figure 1)." sheath rot (''Sarocladium oryzae''), and ''bakanae'' (''Fusarium fujikuroi'').p.214, Table 1: Important fungal and bacterial diseases in rice. Viral diseases exist, such as Rice ragged stunt virus, rice ragged stunt (Vector (epidemiology), vector: BPH), and Tungrovirus, tungro (vector: ''Nephotettix'' spp). Many viral diseases, especially those vector (epidemiology), vectored by planthoppers and leafhoppers, are major causes of losses across the world. There is also an ascomycete fungus, ''Cochliobolus miyabeanus'', that causes brown spot disease in rice.


Integrated pest management

Crop protection scientists are trying to develop rice pest management techniques which are Sustainable agriculture, sustainable. In other words, to manage crop pests in such a manner that future crop production is not threatened. Sustainable pest management is based on four principles: biodiversity, host plant resistance (HPR), landscape ecology, and hierarchies in a landscape—from biological to social. At present, rice pest management includes cultural techniques, pest-resistant rice varieties, and pesticides (which include insecticide). Increasingly, there is evidence that farmers' pesticide applications are often unnecessary, and even facilitate pest outbreaks. By reducing the populations of natural enemies of rice pests, misuse of insecticides can actually lead to pest outbreaks. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) demonstrated in 1993 that an 87.5% reduction in pesticide use can lead to an overall drop in pest numbers. IRRI also conducted two campaigns in 1994 and 2003, respectively, which discouraged insecticide misuse and smarter pest management in Vietnam. Rice plants produce their own chemical defenses to protect themselves from pest attacks. Some synthetic chemicals, such as the herbicide 2,4-D, cause the plant to increase the production of certain defensive chemicals and thereby increase the plant's resistance to some types of pests. Conversely, other chemicals, such as the insecticide imidacloprid, can induce changes in the gene expression of the rice that cause the plant to become more susceptible to attacks by certain types of pests. 5-Alkylresorcinols are chemicals that can also be found in rice. Botanicals, so-called "natural pesticides", are used by some farmers in an attempt to control rice pests. Botanicals include extracts of leaves, or a mulch of the leaves themselves. Some upland rice farmers in Cambodia spread chopped leaves of the bitter bush (''Chromolaena odorata'') over the surface of fields after planting. This practice probably helps the soil retain moisture and thereby facilitates seed germination. Farmers also claim the leaves are a natural fertilizer and helps suppress weed and insect infestations. Among rice cultivars, there are differences in the responses to, and recovery from, pest damage. Many rice varieties have been selected for resistance to insect pests. Therefore, particular cultivars are recommended for areas prone to certain pest problems. The genetically based ability of a rice variety to withstand pest attacks is called resistance. Three main types of plant resistance to pests are recognized as nonpreference, antibiosis, and tolerance. Nonpreference (or antixenosis) describes host plants which insects prefer to avoid; antibiosis is where insect survival is reduced after the ingestion of host tissue; and tolerance is the capacity of a plant to produce high yield or retain high quality despite Home stored product entomology, insect infestation. Over time, the use of pest-resistant rice varieties selects for pests that are able to overcome these mechanisms of resistance. When a rice variety is no longer able to resist pest infestations, resistance is said to have broken down. Rice varieties that can be widely grown for many years in the presence of pests and retain their ability to withstand the pests are said to have durable resistance. Mutants of popular rice varieties are regularly screened by plant breeders to discover new sources of durable resistance.


Parasitic weeds

Rice is parasitized by the weed eudicot ''Striga hermonthica'', which is of local importance for this crop.


Ecotypes and cultivars

While most rice is bred for crop quality and productivity, there are varieties selected for characteristics such as texture, smell, and firmness. There are four major categories of rice worldwide: Indica rice, indica, japonica rice, japonica, Aromatic rice, aromatic and glutinous rice, glutinous. The different varieties of rice are not considered interchangeable, either in food preparation or agriculture, so as a result, each major variety is a completely separate market from other varieties. It is common for one variety of rice to rise in price while another one drops in price. Rice cultivars also fall into groups according to environmental conditions, season of planting, and season of harvest, called ecotypes. Some major groups are the Japan-type (grown in Japan), "buly" and "tjereh" types (Indonesia); ''sali'' (or ''aman''—main winter crop), ''ahu'' (also ''aush'' or ''ghariya'', summer), and ''boro'' (spring) (Bengal and Assam). Cultivars exist that are adapted to deep flooding, and these are generally called "floating rice". The largest collection of rice cultivars is at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, with over 100,000 rice accessions held in the International Rice Genebank. Rice cultivars are often classified by their grain shapes and texture. For example, Thai Jasmine rice is long-grain and relatively less sticky, as some long-grain rice contains less
amylopectin Amylopectin is a water-soluble Subscription required for online access. polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Glucose units are linke ...
than short-grain cultivars. Chinese restaurants often serve long-grain as plain unseasoned steamed rice though short-grain rice is common as well. Japanese mochigome, mochi rice and Chinese sticky rice are short-grain. Chinese people use sticky rice which is properly known as "glutinous rice" (note: glutinous refer to the glue-like characteristic of rice; does not refer to "gluten") to make zongzi. The Japanese rice, Japanese table rice is a sticky, short-grain rice. Japanese sake rice is another kind as well. Indian rice cultivars include long-grained and aromatic Basmati (ਬਾਸਮਤੀ) (grown in the North), long and medium-grained Patna rice, and in South India (Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka) short-grained Sona Masuri (also called as Bangaru theegalu). In the state of Tamil Nadu, the most prized cultivar is Ponni Rice, ''ponni'' which is primarily grown in the delta regions of the Kaveri River. Kaveri is also referred to as ponni in the South and the name reflects the geographic region where it is grown. In the Western Indian state of Maharashtra, a short grain variety called Ambemohar is very popular. This rice has a characteristic fragrance of Mango blossom. Aromatic rices have definite aromas and flavors; the most noted cultivars are Thai fragrant rice, Basmati, Patna rice, Vietnamese fragrant rice, and a Hybrid (biology), hybrid cultivar from America, sold under the trade name Texmati. Both Basmati and Texmati have a mild popcorn-like aroma and flavor. In Indonesia, there are also ''red'' and ''black'' cultivars. High-yield cultivars of rice suitable for cultivation in Africa and other dry ecosystems, called the New Rice for Africa, new rice for Africa (NERICA) cultivars, have been developed. It is hoped that their cultivation will improve food security in West Africa. Draft genomes for the two most common rice cultivars, ''indica'' and ''japonica'', were published in April 2002. Rice was chosen as a model organism for the biology of grasses because of its relatively small genome (~430 megabase pairs). Rice was the first crop with a complete genome sequence. On December 16, 2002, the UN General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice. The declaration was sponsored by more than 40 countries. Varietal development has ceremonial and historical significance for some cultures (see below). The King of Thailand, Thai kings have patronised rice breeding since at least the reign of Chulalongkorn, and his great-great-grandson Vajiralongkorn released five particular rice varieties to celebrate Coronation of Vajiralongkorn, his coronation.


Biotechnology


High-yielding varieties

The high-yielding varieties are a group of crops created intentionally during the Green Revolution to increase global food production. This project enabled labor markets in Asia to shift away from agriculture, and into industrial sectors. The first "Rice Car", IR8 was produced in 1966 at the International Rice Research Institute which is based in the Philippines at the University of the Philippines' Los Baños site. IR8 was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named "Peta" and a Chinese variety named "Dee Geo Woo Gen.". IRRI Knowledge Bank. Scientists have identified and cloned many genes involved in the gibberellin signaling pathway, including GAI1 (Gibberellin Insensitive) and SLR1 (Slender Rice). Disruption of gibberellin signaling can lead to significantly reduced stem growth leading to a dwarf phenotype. Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. In the presence of nitrogen fertilizers, and intensive crop management, these varieties increase their yield two to three times.


Future potential

As the UN Millennium Development project seeks to spread global economic development to Africa, the "Green Revolution" is cited as the model for economic development. With the intent of replicating the successful Asian boom in agronomic productivity, groups like the Earth Institute are doing research on African agricultural systems, hoping to increase productivity. An important way this can happen is the production of "New Rices for Africa" (NERICA). These rices, selected to tolerate the low input and harsh growing conditions of African agriculture, are produced by the African Rice Center, and billed as technology "from Africa, for Africa". The NERICA have appeared in ''The New York Times'' (October 10, 2007) and ''International Herald Tribune'' (October 9, 2007), trumpeted as miracle crops that will dramatically increase rice yield in Africa and enable an economic resurgence. Ongoing research in China to develop perennial rice could result in enhanced sustainability and food security.


Golden rice


Expression of human proteins

Ventria Bioscience has genetically modified rice to gene expression, express lactoferrin, lysozyme which are proteins usually found in breast milk, and human serum albumin, These proteins have Antiviral protein, antiviral, antibacterial, and Antifungal protein, antifungal effects. Rice containing these added proteins can be used as a component in oral rehydration solutions which are used to treat diarrheal diseases, thereby shortening their duration and reducing recurrence. Such supplements may also help reverse anemia.


Flood-tolerant rice

Due to the varying levels that water can reach in regions of cultivation, Deepwater rice, flood tolerant varieties have long been developed and used. Flooding is an issue that many rice growers face, especially in South and South East Asia where flooding annually affects . Standard rice varieties cannot withstand stagnant flooding of more than about a week, mainly as it disallows the plant access to necessary requirements such as sunlight and essential gas exchanges, inevitably leading to plants being unable to recover. In the past, this has led to massive losses in yields, such as in the Philippines, where in 2006, rice crops worth $65 million were lost to flooding.Climate change-ready rice
" International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Retrieved October 31, 2013.
Recently developed cultivars seek to improve flood tolerance.


Drought-tolerant rice

Drought represents a significant environmental stress for rice production, with of rainfed rice production in South and South East Asia often at risk.Drought, submergence and salinity management
" International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Retrieved September 29, 2013.
Climate change-ready rice
" International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Retrieved September 29, 2013.
Under drought conditions, without sufficient water to afford them the ability to obtain the required levels of nutrients from the soil, conventional commercial rice varieties can be severely affected—for example, yield losses as high as 40% have affected some parts of India, with resulting losses of around US$800 million annually.Newly-discovered rice gene goes to the root of drought resistance
" Palmer, N. (2013). Retrieved September 29, 2013.
The International Rice Research Institute conducts research into developing drought-tolerant rice varieties, including the varieties 5411 and Sookha dhan, currently being employed by farmers in the Philippines and Nepal respectively. In addition, in 2013 the Japanese National Institute for Agrobiological Sciences led a team which successfully inserted the DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) gene, from the Philippine Upland and lowland (freshwater ecology), upland rice variety Kinandang Patong, into the popular commercial rice variety IR64, giving rise to a far deeper root system in the resulting plants. This facilitates an improved ability for the rice plant to derive its required nutrients in times of drought via accessing deeper layers of soil, a feature demonstrated by trials which saw the IR64 + DRO1 rice yields drop by 10% under moderate drought conditions, compared to 60% for the unmodified IR64 variety.


Salt-tolerant rice

Soil salinity poses a major threat to rice crop productivity, particularly along low-lying coastal areas during the dry season. For example, roughly of the coastal areas of Bangladesh are affected by saline soils. These high concentrations of salt can severely affect rice plants' normal physiology, especially during early stages of growth, and as such farmers are often forced to abandon these otherwise potentially usable areas.Wild parent spawns super salt tolerant rice
" International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) (2013). Retrieved September 30, 2013.
Progress has been made, however, in developing rice varieties capable of tolerating such conditions; the hybrid created from the cross between the commercial rice variety IR56 and the wild rice species ''Oryza coarctata'' is one example.Breakthrough in salt-resistant rice research—single baby rice plant may hold the future to extending rice farming
" Integrated Breeding Platform (IBP) (2013). Retrieved October 6, 2013.
''O. coarctata'' is capable of successful growth in soils with double the limit of salinity of normal varieties, but lacks the ability to produce edible rice. Developed by the International Rice Research Institute, the Hybrid (biology), hybrid variety can utilise specialised leaf glands that allow for the removal of salt into the atmosphere. It was initially produced from one successful embryo out of 34,000 crosses between the two species; this was then Backcrossing, backcrossed to IR56 with the aim of preserving the genes responsible for salt tolerance that were inherited from ''O. coarctata''. Extensive trials are planned prior to the new variety being available to farmers by approximately 2017–18. When the problem of soil salinity arises it will be opportune to select salt tolerant varieties (IRRI or to resort to soil salinity control. Soil salinity is often measured as the electric conductivity (EC) of the extract of a saturated soil paste (ECe). The EC units are usually expressed in decisiemens per metre or dS/m. The critical ECe value of 5.5 dS/m in the figure, obtained from measurements in farmers' fields, indicates that the rice crop is slightly salt sensitive.


Environment-friendly rice

Producing rice in Paddy field, paddies is harmful for the environment due to the release of methane by Methanogen, methanogenic bacteria. These bacteria live in the anaerobic waterlogged soil, and live off nutrients released by rice roots. Researchers have recently reported in ''Nature'' that putting the barley gene SUSIBA2 into rice creates a shift in biomass production from root to shoot (above ground tissue becomes larger, while below ground tissue is reduced), decreasing the methanogen population, and resulting in a reduction of methane emissions of up to 97%. Apart from this environmental benefit, the modification also increases the amount of rice grains by 43%, which makes it a useful tool in feeding a growing world population.


Meiosis and DNA repair

Rice is used as a model organism for investigating the molecular mechanisms of meiosis and DNA repair in higher plants. Meiosis is a key stage of the sexual cycle in which diploid cells in the ovule (female structure) and the Stamen, anther (male structure) produce haploid cells that develop further into gametophytes and Gamete#Plants, gametes. So far, 28 meiotic genes of rice have been characterized. Studies of rice gene OsRAD51C showed that this gene is necessary for Homologous recombination, homologous recombinational repair of DNA, particularly the accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks during meiosis. Rice gene OsDMC1 was found to be essential for pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, and rice gene OsMRE11 was found to be required for both synapsis of homologous chromosomes and repair of double-strand breaks during meiosis.


Cultural roles of rice

Rice plays an important role in certain religions and popular beliefs. In many cultures relatives will scatter rice during or towards the end of a wedding ceremony in front of the bride and groom. The pounded rice ritual is conducted during weddings in Nepal. The bride gives a leafplate full of pounded rice to the groom after he requests it politely from her. In the Philippines rice wine, popularly known as ''tapuy'', is used for important occasions such as weddings, rice harvesting ceremonies and other celebrations. Dewi Sri is the traditional rice goddess of the Javanese people, Javanese, Sundanese people, Sundanese, and Balinese people in Indonesia. Most rituals involving Dewi Sri are associated with the mythical origin attributed to the rice plant, the staple food of the region. In Thailand, a similar rice deity is known as ''Phosop''; she is a deity more related to ancient local folklore than a goddess of a structured, mainstream religion. The same female rice deity is known as ''Po Ino Nogar'' in Cambodia and as ''Nang Khosop'' in Laos. Ritual offerings are made during the different stages of rice production to propitiate the Rice Goddess in the corresponding cultures. A 2014 study of Han Chinese communities found that a history of farming rice makes cultures more psychologically interdependent, whereas a history of farming wheat makes cultures more independent. A Royal Ploughing Ceremony is held in certain Asian countries to mark the beginning of the rice planting season. It is still honored in the kingdoms of Cambodia and Thailand. The 2,600-year-old tradition begun by Śuddhodana in Kapilavastu (ancient city), Kapilavastu was revived in the republic of Nepal in 2017 after a lapse of a few years. Thai king Vajiralongkorn released five particular rice varieties to celebrate Coronation of Vajiralongkorn, his coronation.


See also

* Artificial rice * Glutinous rice * List of dried foods * List of rice cultivars * List of rice dishes * Maratelli rice * Fungiculture#Substrates, Mushroom production on rice straw * Leaf Color Chart * Post-harvest losses (grains), Post-harvest losses * Puffed rice * Rice Belt * Rice bran oil * Rice bread * Rice wine * Rice writing * Rijsttafel * Risotto * Straw * System of Rice Intensification * Texas rice production * Upland rice * Wild rice


References

*


Further reading

* Deb, Debal, "Restoring Rice Biodiversity", ''Scientific American'', vol. 321, no. 4 (October 2019), pp. 54–61. "India originally possessed some 110,000 landraces of rice with diverse and valuable properties. These include enrichment in vital nutrients and the ability to withstand flood, drought, salinity or pest infestations. The Green Revolution covered fields with a few high-yielding varieties, so that roughly 90 percent of the landraces vanished from farmers' collections. High-yielding varieties require expensive inputs. They perform abysmally on marginal farms or in adverse environmental conditions, forcing poor farmers into debt." (p. 54.) *


External links


International Rice Research Institute
{{Authority control Rice, Crops originating from China Grasses of Asia Plant models Types of food Tropical agriculture