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Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of
skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U. ...
toward what it describes as the grand narratives and
ideologies An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of co ...
of
modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
, as well as opposition to
epistemic Epistemology (; ) is the branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ...
certainty and the stability of
meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, elements, and types of meaning discussed in philosophy * Meaning (non-linguistic), a general ter ...
. It questions or criticizes viewpoints associated with Enlightenment rationality dating back to the 17th century, and is characterized by
irony Irony (), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device In rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emoti ...

irony
,
eclecticism and the Grand Boulevard in Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the List of cities and towns of Hungary, most populous city of Hungary, and the Largest cities of the European Union by population within city limits, ninth-largest city in ...
, and its rejection of the "universal validity" of
binary opposition A binary opposition (also binary system) is a pair of related terms or concepts that are opposite in meaning. Binary opposition is the system of language and/or thought by which two theoretical opposites are strictly defined and set off against one ...
s, stable
identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression and affiliation * Cultural identity, a person's self-affiliation (or categorization by others ...
,
hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...

hierarchy
, and
categorization Categorization is the human ability and activity of recognizing shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousness, at its simplest, is " se ...

categorization
. Postmodernism is associated with
relativism Relativism is a family of philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality ...
and a focus on ideology in the maintenance of economic and political power. Postmodernists are generally "skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races," and describe truth as relative. It can be described as a reaction against attempts to explain reality in an objective manner by claiming that reality is a mental construct. Access to an or to objectively rational knowledge is rejected on the grounds that all interpretations are contingent on the perspective from which they are made; as such, claims to objective fact are dismissed as naive
realism Realism, Realistic, or Realists may refer to: In the arts *Realism (arts), the general attempt to depict subjects truthfully in different forms of the arts Arts movements related to realism include: *Classical Realism *Literary realism, a movem ...
. Postmodern thinkers frequently describe
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
claims and
value system In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy ...
s as
contingent In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, langu ...
or socially-conditioned, describing them as products of political, historical, or cultural
discourse Discourse is a generalization of the notion of a conversation Conversation is interactive communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy) ...

discourse
s and hierarchies. Accordingly, postmodern thought is broadly characterized by tendencies to self-referentiality,
epistemological Epistemology (; ) is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact ...
and
moral relativism Moral relativism or ethical relativism (often reformulated as relativist ethics or relativist morality) is a term used to describe several Philosophy, philosophical positions concerned with the differences in Morality, moral judgments across diffe ...
, pluralism, and irreverence. Postmodernism is often associated with
schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, List of academic disciplines, discipline, belief, social movement, Schools of economic ...
such as
deconstruction Deconstruction is an approach to understanding the relationship between Text (literary theory), text and Meaning (linguistics), meaning. It was originated by the philosopher Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), who defined the term variously throughou ...

deconstruction
and
post-structuralism Post-structuralism is a term for philosophical, theoretical and literary forms of theory that both build upon and reject ideas established by structuralism In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns o ...
. Postmodernism relies on critical theory, which considers the effects of ideology, society, and history on culture. Postmodernism and critical theory commonly criticize universalist ideas of
objective reality In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, lan ...
,
morality Morality (from ) is the differentiation of intention Intentions are mental states in which the agent commits themselves to a course of action. Having the plan to visit the zoo tomorrow is an example of an intention. The action plan is the '' ...
,
truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In ...

truth
,
human nature Human nature is a concept that denotes the fundamental disposition A disposition is a quality of character, a habit A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British ...

human nature
,
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
, language, and
social progress Image:American Progress (John Gast painting).jpg, upright=1.14, alt=Painting depicting a woman draped in white robes flying westward across the land with settlers and following her on foot, John Gast (painter), John Gast, ''American Progress'', ...
. Initially, postmodernism was a mode of discourse on literature and literary criticism, commenting on the nature of literary text, meaning, author and reader, writing, and reading. Postmodernism developed in the mid- to late-twentieth century across philosophy,
the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
, architecture, and criticism as a departure or rejection of modernism. Postmodernist approaches have been adopted in a variety of academic and theoretical disciplines, including
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
,
organization theory A theory involves concepts or Construct (psychology), constructs that are related in such a way as to explain why certain phenomena occur. An organizational theory involves a set of concepts/constructs that are related to each other and explain ho ...
,
cultural studies #REDIRECT Cultural studies #REDIRECT Cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary cul ...
,
philosophy of science Philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methodology, methods, and implications of science. The central questions of this study concern Demarcation problem, what qualifies as science, the reliability of s ...
, economics, linguistics,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...
,
feminist theory Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or Philosophy, philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's and men's Gender role, social roles, experiences, intere ...
, and
literary criticism Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical analysis, philosophical discussion of literature ...
, as well as
art movements An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defin ...
in fields such as
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...
and music. As a critical practice, postmodernism employs concepts such as
hyperreality Hyperreality, in semiotics and postmodernism, is an inability of consciousness to distinguish reality from a simulation of reality, especially in technologically advanced postmodern Society, societies. Hyperreality is seen as a condition in which ...
,
simulacrum A simulacrum ( plural: simulacra or simulacrums, from Latin '' simulacrum'', which means "likeness, semblance") is a representation or imitation of a person or thing. The word was first recorded in the English language in the late 16th century, u ...
,
trace Trace may refer to: Arts and entertainment Music * ''Trace'' (Son Volt album), 1995 * ''Trace'' (Died Pretty album), 1993 * Trace (band) Trace was a Netherlands, Dutch progressive rock trio founded by Rick van der Linden in 1974 after leavin ...
, and difference, and rejects abstract principles in favor of direct experience. Criticisms of postmodernism are intellectually diverse, and include arguments that postmodernism promotes
obscurantism Obscurantism and Obscurationism ( or ) describe the practice of deliberately presenting information in an imprecise, abstruse manner designed to limit further inquiry and understanding. There are two historical and intellectual denotations of ''Ob ...
, is meaningless, and adds nothing to analytical or empirical knowledge. Some philosophers, beginning with the pragmatist philosopher
Jürgen Habermas Jürgen Habermas (, ; ; born 18 June 1929) is a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, e ...
, say that postmodernism contradicts itself through self-reference, as their critique would be impossible without the concepts and methods that modern reason provides. Various authors have criticized postmodernism, or trends under the general postmodern umbrella, as abandoning
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
rationalism or scientific rigor.


Origins of term

The term ''postmodern'' was first used in 1870. John Watkins Chapman suggested "a Postmodern style of painting" as a way to depart from French
Impressionism Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a specific period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, ...

Impressionism
. J. M. Thompson, in his 1914 article in '' The Hibbert Journal'' (a quarterly philosophical review), used it to describe changes in attitudes and beliefs in the critique of religion, writing: "The raison d'être of Post-Modernism is to escape from the double-mindedness of
Modernism Modernism is both a philosophical movement A philosophical movement refers to the phenomenon defined by a group of philosophers A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and ...
by being thorough in its criticism by extending it to religion as well as theology, to Catholic feeling as well as to Catholic tradition." In 1942 H. R. Hays described postmodernism as a new literary form. In 1926,
Bernard Iddings BellBernard Iddings Bell (October 13, 1886 – September 5, 1958) was an American Christian author, Episcopal priest, and conservative Conservatism is a Political philosophy, political and social philosophy promoting traditional social instituti ...
, president of St. Stephen's College (now
Bard College Bard College is a private Liberal arts colleges in the United States, liberal arts college in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. The campus overlooks the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains, and is within the Hudson River Historic District, a Nati ...
), published ''Postmodernism and Other Essays'', marking the first use of the term to describe the historical period following Modernity. The essay criticizes the lingering socio-cultural norms, attitudes, and practices of the Age of Enlightenment. It also forecasts the major cultural shifts toward Postmodernity and (Bell being an Anglican Episcopal priest) suggests orthodox religion as a solution. However, the term postmodernity was first used as a general theory for a historical movement in 1939 by
Arnold J. Toynbee Arnold Joseph Toynbee (; 14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, a philosopher of history, an author of numerous books and a research professor of comparative history, international history at the London School of Economics ...
: "Our own Post-Modern Age has been inaugurated by the general war of 1914–1918". In 1949 the term was used to describe a dissatisfaction with
modern architecture Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. ...

modern architecture
and led to the postmodern architecture movement in response to the modernist architectural movement known as the International Style. Postmodernism in architecture was initially marked by a re-emergence of surface ornament, reference to surrounding buildings in urban settings, historical reference in decorative forms (eclecticism), and non-orthogonal angles. Author
Peter Drucker Peter Ferdinand Drucker (; ; November 19, 1909 – November 11, 2005) was an Austrian-American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corp ...
suggested the transformation into a post-modern world that happened between 1937 and 1957 and described it as a "nameless era" characterized as a shift to a conceptual world based on pattern, purpose, and process rather than a mechanical cause. This shift was outlined by four new realities: the emergence of an Educated Society, the importance of
international development International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of "development" on an international scale. It is the basis for international classifications such as develo ...
, the decline of the nation-state, and the collapse of the viability of non-Western cultures. In 1971, in a lecture delivered at the Institute of Contemporary Art, London,
Mel Bochner Mel Bochner (born 1940) is an American conceptual artist. Bochner received his BFA in 1962 and honorary Doctor of Fine Arts in 2005 from the School of Art at Carnegie Mellon University. He lives in New York City. Life Bochner is Jewish and his ...
described "post-modernism" in art as having started with
Jasper Johns Image:Jasper Johns, Flag (detail).jpg, 260px, Detail of ''Flag'' 1954–55, Museum of Modern Art, New York City. This image illustrates Johns' early technique of painting with thick, dripping encaustic over a collage made from found materials suc ...
, "who first rejected sense-data and the singular point-of-view as the basis for his art, and treated art as a critical investigation". In 1996,
Walter Truett Anderson Walter Truett Anderson (born February 27, 1933) is an American political scientist, social psychologist Social psychology is the scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (B ...
described postmodernism as belonging to one of four typological world views which he identified as: * Neo-romantic, in which truth is found through attaining harmony with nature or spiritual exploration of the inner self. * Postmodern-ironist, which sees truth as socially constructed. * Scientific-rational, in which truth is defined through methodical, disciplined inquiry. * Social-traditional, in which truth is found in the heritage of American and Western civilization.


History

The basic features of what is now called postmodernism can be found as early as the 1940s, most notably in the work of artists such as
Jorge Luis Borges Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo (; ; 24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986) was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish literature, Spanish-language and universal literature. His best- ...

Jorge Luis Borges
. However, most scholars today agree postmodernism began to compete with modernism in the late 1950s and gained ascendancy over it in the 1960s. Since then, postmodernism has been a powerful, though not undisputed, force in art, literature, film, music, drama, architecture, history, and
continental philosophy Continental philosophy is a set of 19th- and 20th-century philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awarenes ...
. The primary features of postmodernism typically include the ironic play with styles, citations, and narrative levels, a metaphysical skepticism or
nihilism Nihilism (; ) is a philosophy, or family of views within philosophy, expressing some form of towards life or towards fundamental concepts such as knowledge, existence, and the meaning of life. Different nihilist positions hold variously th ...
towards a "
grand narrative A metanarrative (also meta-narrative and grand narrative; french: métarécit) in critical theory and particularly in postmodernism Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts, ...
" of Western culture, and a preference for the virtual at the expense of the Real (or more accurately, a fundamental questioning of what 'the real' constitutes). Since the late 1990s, there has been a growing sentiment in popular culture and in academia that postmodernism "has gone out of fashion". Others argue that postmodernism is dead in the context of current cultural production.


Theories and derivatives


Structuralism and post-structuralism

Structuralism In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, emp ...
was a philosophical movement developed by French academics in the 1950s, partly in response to French
existentialism Existentialism ( ) is a form of philosophy, philosophical inquiry that explores the problem of human existence and centres on the experience of thinking, feeling, and acting. In the view of the existentialist, the individual's starting point ha ...
, and often interpreted in relation to modernism and
high modernism " Machines for living:" for various critics, including Pruitt–Igoe.html"_;"title="Tom_Wolfe,_the_Pruitt–Igoe">Tom_Wolfe,_the_Pruitt–Igoe_housing_project_illustrated_both_the_essential_unlivability_of_Bauhaus-inspired_international_style_(arch ...
. Thinkers who have been called "structuralists" include the anthropologist
Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (, ; 28 November 1908 – 30 October 2009) was a French anthropologist and Ethnology, ethnologist whose work was key in the development of the theories of structuralism and structural anthropology. He held the chair of Soc ...
, the linguist
Ferdinand de Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (; ; 26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_typ ...

Ferdinand de Saussure
, the Marxist philosopher
Louis Althusser Louis Pierre Althusser (, ; ; 16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical m ...
, and the semiotician Algirdas Greimas. The early writings of the psychoanalyst
Jacques Lacan Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (, , ; 13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst Psychoanalysis (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, ...

Jacques Lacan
and the literary theorist
Roland Barthes Roland Gérard Barthes (; ; 12 November 1915 – 26 March 1980) was a French literary theorist Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an a ...

Roland Barthes
have also been called "structuralist". Those who began as structuralists but became post-structuralists include
Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault (, ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian of ideas Intellectual history (also the history of ideas) is the study of the history of human thought and of intellectual An intellectual is a ...

Michel Foucault
, Roland Barthes,
Jean Baudrillard Jean Baudrillard ( , , ; 27 July 1929 – 6 March 2007) was a French sociology, sociologist, philosopher and sociology of culture, cultural theorist. He is best known for his analyses of Media (communication), media, contemporary culture, and tec ...

Jean Baudrillard
, and
Gilles Deleuze Gilles Deleuze (; ; 18 January 1925 – 4 November 1995) was a French philosopher who, from the early 1950s until his death in 1995, wrote on philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such a ...

Gilles Deleuze
. Other post-structuralists include
Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (; ; born Jackie Élie Derrida; See also . July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004), born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers ...
,
Pierre Bourdieu Pierre Bourdieu (; 1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologistAn anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology. Anthropology is the study of aspects of humans within past and present Society, so ...
,
Jean-François Lyotard Jean-François Lyotard (; ; ; 10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French people, French Philosophy, philosopher, Sociology, sociologist, and Literary theory, literary theorist. His interdisciplinary discourse spans such topics as epistemolog ...
,
Julia Kristeva Julia Kristeva (; born Yuliya Stoyanova Krasteva, bg, Юлия Стоянова Кръстева; on 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarians in France, Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, semiotics, semiotician, psychoanalysis, psychoanalyst, ...

Julia Kristeva
, Hélène Cixous, and
Luce Irigaray Luce Irigaray (born 3 May 1930) is a Belgium, Belgian-born France, French Feminism, feminist, philosopher, linguist, Psycholinguistics, psycholinguist, psychoanalytic theory, psychoanalyst and culture theory, cultural theorist who examined the use ...
. The American cultural theorists, critics, and intellectuals whom they influenced include
Judith Butler Judith Pamela Butler (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom'. ...

Judith Butler
, John Fiske,
Rosalind Krauss Rosalind Epstein Krauss (born November 30, 1941) is an American art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art. Their written critiques or reviews contribute to art criticism and they are pub ...
,
Avital Ronell Avital Ronell (; born 15 April 1952) is an American academic who writes about continental philosophy, literary studies, psychoanalysis, political philosophy, and ethics. She is a professor in the humanities and in the departments of German studie ...
, and
Hayden White Hayden V. White (July 12, 1928 – March 5, 2018) was an American historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work ''Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe'' (1973/2014). Career Whi ...

Hayden White
. Like structuralists, post-structuralists start from the assumption that people's identities, values, and economic conditions determine each other rather than having ''intrinsic'' properties that can be understood in isolation. Thus the French structuralists considered themselves to be espousing relativism and constructionism. But they nevertheless tended to explore how the subjects of their study might be described, reductively, as a set of ''essential'' relationships, schematics, or mathematical symbols. (An example is Claude Lévi-Strauss's algebraic formulation of mythological transformation in "The Structural Study of Myth"). Postmodernist ideas in philosophy and in the analysis of culture and society have expanded the importance of critical theory. They have been the point of departure for works of literature, architecture, and design, as well as being visible in marketing/business and the interpretation of history, law, and culture, starting in the late 20th century. These developments—re-evaluation of the entire Western value system (love, marriage, popular culture, shift from an
industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering dealing with the optimization of complex industrial processes or systems * Industrial loan company, a f ...
to a
service economy Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments: * The increased importance of the service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic secto ...
) that took place since the 1950s and 1960s, with a peak in the Social Revolution of 1968—are described with the term ''
postmodernity Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist ''after'' modernity. Some schools of thought hold that modernity ended in the late 20th century – in the ...
'', as opposed to ''postmodernism'', a term referring to an opinion or movement. Post-structuralism is characterized by new ways of thinking through structuralism, contrary to the original form.


Deconstruction

One of the most well-known postmodernist concerns is ''deconstruction'', a theory for philosophy, literary criticism, and textual analysis developed by
Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (; ; born Jackie Élie Derrida; See also . July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004), born in Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers ...
. Critics have insisted that Derrida's work is rooted in a statement found in ''Of Grammatology'': "" ('there is no outside text). Such critics misinterpret the statement as denying any reality outside of books. The statement is actually part of a critique of "inside" and "outside" metaphors when referring to the text, and is a corollary to the observation that there is no "inside" of a text as well. This attention to a text's unacknowledged reliance on metaphors and figures embedded within its discourse is characteristic of Derrida's approach. Derrida's method sometimes involves demonstrating that a given philosophical discourse depends on binary oppositions or excluding terms that the discourse itself has declared to be irrelevant or inapplicable. Derrida's philosophy inspired a postmodern movement called
deconstructivism Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in ...
among architects, characterized by a design that rejects structural "centers" and encourages decentralized play among its elements. Derrida discontinued his involvement with the movement after the publication of his collaborative project with architect Peter Eisenman in ''Chora L Works: Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman''.


Post-postmodernism

The connection between postmodernism, posthumanism, and cyborgism has led to a challenge to postmodernism, for which the terms ''postpostmodernism'' and ''postpoststructuralism'' were first coined in 2003: More recently metamodernism, post-postmodernism and the "death of postmodernism" have been widely debated: in 2007 Andrew Hoberek noted in his introduction to a special issue of the journal ''Twentieth-Century Literature'' titled "After Postmodernism" that "declarations of postmodernism's demise have become a critical commonplace". A small group of critics has put forth a range of theories that aim to describe culture or society in the alleged aftermath of postmodernism, most notably Raoul Eshelman (performatism), Gilles Lipovetsky (
hypermodernity Hypermodernity (supermodernity) is a type, mode, or stage of society that reflects an inversion of modernity in which the function of an object has its reference point in the form of an object rather than function being the reference point for form ...
),
Nicolas Bourriaud Nicolas Bourriaud (born 1965) is a curator A curator (from la, cura, meaning "to take care") is a manager or overseer. Traditionally, a curator or keeper of a cultural heritage institution (e.g., Art museum, gallery, museum, library or archive) ...
( altermodern), and Alan Kirby (digimodernism, formerly called pseudo-modernism). None of these new theories or labels have so far gained very widespread acceptance. Sociocultural anthropologist Nina Müller-Schwarze offers neostructuralism as a possible direction. The exhibition ''Postmodernism – Style and Subversion 1970–1990'' at the
Victoria and Albert Museum The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in l ...

Victoria and Albert Museum
(London, 24 September 2011 – 15 January 2012) was billed as the first show to document postmodernism as a historical movement.


Philosophy

In the 1970s a group of poststructuralists in France developed a radical critique of modern philosophy with roots discernible in Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, and Heidegger, and became known as postmodern theorists, notably including Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Jean-François Lyotard, Jean Baudrillard, and others. New and challenging modes of thought and writing pushed the development of new areas and topics in philosophy. By the 1980s, this spread to America (Richard Rorty) and the world.


Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida was a French-Algerian philosopher best known for developing a form of
semiotic Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of sign processes (semiosis Semiosis (, ), or sign process, is any form of activity Activity may refer to: * Action (philosophy), in general * Human activity: human behavior, in sociology ...

semiotic
analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of
phenomenology Phenomenology may refer to: * Empirical research, when used to describe measurement methods in some sciences * An empirical relationship or phenomenological model * Phenomenology (architecture), based on the experience of building materials and the ...
. He is one of the major figures associated with post-structuralism and
postmodern philosophy Postmodern philosophy is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is ...
. Derrida re-examined the fundamentals of writing and its consequences on philosophy in general; sought to undermine the language of "presence" or
metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity and possibility. It includes questions about the nature of consciousness and the relationship between ...

metaphysics
in an analytical technique which, beginning as a point of departure from Heidegger's notion of ''Destruktion'', came to be known as deconstruction.


Michel Foucault

Michel Foucault was a
French philosopher French philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in the French language, has been extremely diverse and has influenced Western philosophy as a whole for centuries, from the medieval scholasticism of Peter Abelard, through the founding of modern phil ...
,
historian of ideas Intellectual history (also the history of ideas) is the study of the history of human thought and of intellectual An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research Research is "creativity, creative and systemat ...
, social theorist, and literary critic. First associated with
structuralism In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The t ...
, Foucault created an oeuvre that today is seen as belonging to
post-structuralism Post-structuralism is a term for philosophical, theoretical and literary forms of theory that both build upon and reject ideas established by structuralism In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns o ...
and to postmodern philosophy. Considered a leading figure of , his work remains fruitful in the English-speaking academic world in a large number of sub-disciplines. The
Times Higher Education ''Times Higher Education'' (''THE''), formerly ''The Times Higher Education Supplement'' (''THES''), is a British magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education. Ownership TPG Capital acquired TSL Education from ...
Guide described him in 2009 as the most cited author in the humanities. Michel Foucault introduced concepts such as ''discursive regime'', or re-invoked those of older philosophers like ''episteme'' and ''genealogy'' in order to explain the relationship between meaning, power, and social behavior within social orders (see ''
The Order of Things ''The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences'' (''Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines'', 1966) by Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault ( , ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philosopher, hi ...
'', ''
The Archaeology of Knowledge ''The Archaeology of Knowledge'' (''L’archéologie du savoir,'' 1969) by Michel Foucault is a treatise about the methodology and historiography of the systems of thought (''epistemes'') and of knowledge (''discursive formations'') which follow ...
'', ''
Discipline and Punish ''Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison'' (french: Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault ( , ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philo ...
'', and ''
The History of Sexuality ''The History of Sexuality'' (french: L'Histoire de la sexualité) is a four-volume study of sexuality in the Western world by the French historian and philosopher Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault ( , ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was ...
'').


Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Lyotard is credited with being the first to use the term in a philosophical context, in his 1979 work '' ''. In it, he follows Wittgenstein's
language games A language game (also called Cant (language), cant, secret language, ludling, or argot) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear. Language games are used primarily by groups attempting to conce ...
model and speech act theory#History, speech act theory, contrasting two different language games, that of the expert, and that of the philosopher. He talks about the transformation of knowledge into information in the computer age and likens the transmission or reception of coded messages (information) to a position within a language game. Lyotard defined philosophical postmodernism in ''The Postmodern Condition'', writing: "Simplifying to the extreme, I define postmodern as incredulity towards metanarratives...." where what he means by metanarrative is something like a unified, complete, universal, and Epistemic modality, epistemically certain story about everything that is. Postmodernists reject metanarratives because they reject the concept of truth that metanarratives presuppose. Postmodernist philosophers, in general, argue that truth is always contingent on historical and social context rather than being absolute and universal—and that truth is always partial and "at issue" rather than being complete and certain.


Richard Rorty

Richard Rorty argues in ''Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature'' that contemporary analytic philosophy mistakenly imitates scientific methods. In addition, he denounces the traditional epistemological perspectives of Direct and indirect realism, representationalism and Correspondence theory of truth, correspondence theory that rely upon the independence of knowers and observers from phenomena and the passivity of natural phenomena in relation to consciousness.


Jean Baudrillard

Jean Baudrillard, in ''Simulacra and Simulation'', introduced the concept that reality or the principle of the Real is short-circuited by the interchangeability of signs in an era whose communicative and semantic acts are dominated by electronic media and digital technologies. Baudrillard proposes the notion that, in such a state, where subjects are detached from the outcomes of events (political, literary, artistic, personal, or otherwise), events no longer hold any particular sway on the subject nor have any identifiable context; they, therefore, have the effect of producing widespread indifference, detachment, and passivity in industrialized populations. He claimed that a constant stream of appearances and references without any direct consequences to viewers or readers could eventually render the division between appearance and object indiscernible, resulting, ironically, in the "disappearance" of mankind in what is, in effect, a virtual or holographic state, composed only of appearances. For Baudrillard, "simulation is no longer that of a territory, a referential being or a substance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal."


Fredric Jameson

Fredric Jameson set forth one of the first expansive theoretical treatments of postmodernism as a historical period, intellectual trend, and social phenomenon in a series of lectures at the Whitney Museum of American Art, Whitney Museum, later expanded as ''Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism'' (1991).


Douglas Kellner

In ''Analysis of the Journey'', a journal birthed from postmodernism, Douglas Kellner insists that the "assumptions and procedures of modern theory" must be forgotten. Extensively, Kellner analyzes the terms of this theory in real-life experiences and examples. Kellner used science and technology studies as a major part of his analysis; he urged that the theory is incomplete without it. The scale was larger than just postmodernism alone; it must be interpreted through cultural studies where science and technology studies play a huge role. The reality of the September 11 attacks on the United States of America is the catalyst for his explanation. In response, Kellner continues to examine the repercussions of understanding the effects of the 11 September attacks. He questions if the attacks are only able to be understood in a limited form of postmodern theory due to the level of irony. The conclusion he depicts is simple: postmodernism, as most use it today, will decide what experiences and signs in one's reality will be one's reality as they know it.


Manifestations


Architecture

The idea of Postmodernism in architecture began as a response to the perceived blandness and failure of the Utopianism of the Modern movement. Modern Architecture, as established and developed by Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, was focused on: * the attempted harmony of form and function; and, * the dismissal of "frivolous ornament." * the pursuit of a perceived ideal perfection; They argued for architecture that represented the spirit of the age as depicted in cutting-edge technology, be it airplanes, cars, ocean liners, or even supposedly artless grain silos. Modernist Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is associated with the phrase "Minimalism, less is more". Critics of Modernism have: * argued that the attributes of perfection and minimalism are themselves subjective; * pointed out anachronisms in modern thought; and, * questioned the benefits of its philosophy. The intellectual scholarship regarding postmodernism and architecture is closely linked with the writings of critic-turned-architect Charles Jencks, beginning with lectures in the early 1970s and his essay "The Rise of Post Modern Architecture" from 1975. His ''magnum opus'', however, is the book ''The Language of Post-Modern Architecture'', first published in 1977, and since running to seven editions. Jencks makes the point that Post-Modernism (like Modernism) varies for each field of art, and that for architecture it is not just a reaction to Modernism but what he terms ''double coding'': "Double Coding: the combination of Modern techniques with something else (usually traditional building) in order for architecture to communicate with the public and a concerned minority, usually other architects." In their book, "Revisiting Postmodernism", Terry Farrell (architect), Terry Farrell and Adam Furman argue that postmodernism brought a more joyous and sensual experience to the culture, particularly in architecture.


Art

Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. Cultural production manifesting as intermedia, installation art, conceptual art, deconstructionist display, and multimedia, particularly involving video, are described as postmodern.


Graphic design

Early mention of postmodernism as an element of graphic design appeared in the British magazine, "Design". A characteristic of postmodern graphic design is that "retro, techno, punk, grunge, beach, parody, and pastiche were all conspicuous trends. Each had its own sites and venues, detractors and advocates."


Literature

Jorge Luis Borges' (1939) short story "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote, Pierre Menard, Author of the ''Quixote''", is often considered as predicting postmodernism and is a paragon of the ultimate parody. Samuel Beckett is also considered an important precursor and influence. Novelists who are commonly connected with postmodern literature include Vladimir Nabokov, William Gaddis, Umberto Eco, Pier Vittorio Tondelli, John Hawkes (novelist), John Hawkes, William S. Burroughs, Kurt Vonnegut, John Barth, Jean Rhys, Donald Barthelme, E. L. Doctorow, Richard Kalich, Jerzy Kosiński, Don DeLillo, Thomas Pynchon (Pynchon's work has also been described as high modern), Ishmael Reed, Kathy Acker, Ana Lydia Vega, Jáchym Topol and Paul Auster. In 1971, the Arab-American scholar Ihab Hassan published ''The Dismemberment of Orpheus: Toward a Postmodern Literature,'' an early work of literary criticism from a postmodern perspective that traces the development of what he calls "literature of silence" through Marquis de Sade, Franz Kafka, Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, and many others, including developments such as the Theatre of the Absurd and the nouveau roman. In ''Postmodernist Fiction'' (1987), Brian McHale details the shift from modernism to postmodernism, arguing that the former is characterized by an epistemological dominant and that postmodern works have developed out of modernism and are primarily concerned with questions of ontology. McHale's second book, ''Constructing Postmodernism'' (1992), provides readings of postmodern fiction and some contemporary writers who go under the label of cyberpunk. McHale's "What Was Postmodernism?" (2007) follows Raymond Federman's lead in now using the past tense when discussing postmodernism.


Music

Jonathan Kramer has written that avant-garde musical compositions (which some would consider modernist rather than postmodernist) "defy more than seduce the listener, and they extend by potentially unsettling means the very idea of what music is." The postmodern impulse in classical music arose in the 1960s with the advent of musical minimalism. Composers such as Terry Riley, Henryk Górecki, Bradley Joseph, John Adams (composer), John Adams, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Michael Nyman, and Lou Harrison reacted to the perceived elitism and dissonant sound of atonal academic modernism by producing music with simple textures and relatively consonant harmonies, whilst others, most notably John Cage challenged the prevailing narratives of beauty and objectivity common to Modernism. Author on postmodernism, Dominic Strinati, has noted, it is also important "to include in this category the so-called 'art rock' musical innovations and mixing of styles associated with groups like Talking Heads, and performers like Laurie Anderson, together with the self-conscious 'reinvention of disco' by the Pet Shop Boys".


Urban planning

Modernism sought to design and plan cities that followed the logic of the new model of industrial mass production; reverting to large-scale solutions, aesthetic standardisation, and prefabricated design solutions. Modernism eroded urban living by its failure to recognise differences and aim towards homogeneous landscapes (Simonsen 1990, 57). Jane Jacobs' 1961 book ''The Death and Life of Great American Cities'' was a sustained critique of urban planning as it had developed within Modernism and marked a transition from modernity to postmodernity in thinking about urban planning (Irving 1993, 479). The transition from Modernism to Postmodernism is often said to have happened at 3:32 pm on 15 July in 1972, when Pruitt–Igoe, a housing development for low-income people in St. Louis designed by architect Minoru Yamasaki, which had been a prize-winning version of Le Corbusier's 'machine for modern living,' was deemed uninhabitable and was torn down (Irving 1993, 480). Since then, Postmodernism has involved theories that embrace and aim to create diversity. It exalts uncertainty, flexibility and change (Hatuka & D'Hooghe 2007) and rejects utopianism while embracing a utopian way of thinking and acting. Postmodernity of 'resistance' seeks to deconstruct Modernism and is a critique of the origins without necessarily returning to them (Irving 1993, 60). As a result of Postmodernism, planners are much less inclined to lay a firm or steady claim to there being one single 'right way' of engaging in urban planning and are more open to different styles and ideas of 'how to plan' (Irving 474). The study of postmodern urbanism itself, i.e. the postmodern way of creating and perpetuating the urban form, and the postmodern approach to understanding the city were pioneered in the 1980s by what could be called the "Los Angeles School of Urbanism" centered on the University of California, Los Angeles, UCLA's Urban Planning Department in the 1980s, where contemporary Los Angeles was taken to be the postmodern city par excellence, contra posed to what had been the dominant ideas of the Chicago school (sociology), Chicago School formed in the 1920s at the University of Chicago, with its framework of urban ecology and emphasis on functional areas of use within a city, and the concentric circles to understand the sorting of different population groups. Edward Soja of the Los Angeles School combined Marxist and postmodern perspectives and focused on the economic and social changes (globalization, specialization, industrialization/deindustrialization, Neo-Liberalism, mass migration) that lead to the creation of large city-regions with their patchwork of population groups and economic uses.


Criticisms

Criticisms of postmodernism are intellectually diverse, including the argument that postmodernism is meaningless and promotes obscurantism. In part in reference to post-modernism, conservative English philosopher Roger Scruton wrote, "A writer who says that there are no truths, or that all truth is 'merely relative,' is asking you not to believe him. So don't." Similarly, Dick Hebdige criticized the vagueness of the term, enumerating a long list of otherwise unrelated concepts that people have designated as postmodernism, from "the décor of a room" or "a 'scratch' video", to fear of nuclear armageddon and the "implosion of meaning", and stated that anything that could signify all of those things was "a buzzword".Dick Hebdige, 'Postmodernism and "the other side"', in ''Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A reader'', edited by John Storey, London, Pearson Education, 2006 The linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky has said that postmodernism is meaningless because it adds nothing to analytical or empirical knowledge. He asks why postmodernist intellectuals do not respond like people in other fields when asked, "what are the principles of their theories, on what evidence are they based, what do they explain that wasn't already obvious, etc.?...If [these requests] can't be met, then I'd suggest recourse to David Hume, Hume's advice in similar circumstances: 'to the flames'." Christian philosopher William Lane Craig has said "The idea that we live in a postmodern culture is a myth. In fact, a postmodern culture is an impossibility; it would be utterly unliveable. People are not relativistic when it comes to matters of science, engineering, and technology; rather, they are relativistic and pluralistic in matters of religion and ethics. But, of course, that's not postmodernism; that's modernism!" American academic and aesthete Camille Paglia has said: German philosopher Albrecht Wellmer has said that "postmodernism at its best might be seen as a self-critical – a sceptical, ironic, but nevertheless unrelenting – form of modernism; a modernism beyond utopianism, scientism and foundationalism; in short a post-metaphysical modernism." A formal, academic critique of postmodernism can be found in ''Beyond the Hoax'' by physics professor Alan Sokal and in ''Fashionable Nonsense'' by Sokal and Belgian physicist Jean Bricmont, both books discussing the so-called Sokal affair. In 1996, Sokal wrote a deliberately nonsensical article in a style similar to postmodernist articles, which was accepted for publication by the postmodern cultural studies journal, ''Social Text''. On the same day of the release he published another article in a different journal explaining the ''Social Text'' article hoax. The philosopher Thomas Nagel has supported Sokal and Bricmont, describing their book ''Fashionable Nonsense'' as consisting largely of "extensive quotations of scientific gibberish from name-brand French intellectuals, together with eerily patient explanations of why it is gibberish," and agreeing that "there does seem to be something about the Parisian scene that is particularly hospitable to reckless verbosity." The French psychotherapist and philosopher, Félix Guattari, often considered a postmodernist, rejected its theoretical assumptions by arguing that the structuralist and postmodernist visions of the world were not flexible enough to seek explanations in psychological, social, and environmental domains at the same time. Zimbabwean-born British Marxist Alex Callinicos says that postmodernism "reflects the disappointed revolutionary generation of '68, and the incorporation of many of its members into the professional and managerial 'new middle class'. It is best read as a symptom of political frustration and social mobility rather than as a significant intellectual or cultural phenomenon in its own right." Analytic philosopher Daniel Dennett said, "Postmodernism, the school of 'thought' that proclaimed 'There are no truths, only interpretations' has largely played itself out in absurdity, but it has left behind a generation of academics in the humanities disabled by their distrust of the very idea of truth and their disrespect for evidence, settling for 'conversations' in which nobody is wrong and nothing can be confirmed, only asserted with whatever style you can muster." American historian Richard Wolin traces the origins of postmodernism to intellectual roots in fascism, writing "postmodernism has been nourished by the doctrines of Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Blanchot, and Paul de Man—all of whom either prefigured or succumbed to the proverbial intellectual fascination with fascism." Daniel A. Farber and Suzanna Sherry criticised postmodernism for reducing the complexity of the modern world to an expression of power and for undermining truth and reason: Richard Caputo, William Epstein, David Stoesz & Bruce Thyer consider postmodernism to be a "dead-end in social work epistemology." They write: H. Sidky pointed out what he sees as several inherent flaws of a postmodern antiscience perspective, including the confusion of the authority of science (evidence) with the scientist conveying the knowledge; its self-contradictory claim that all truths are relative; and its strategic ambiguity. He sees 21st-century anti-scientific and pseudo-scientific approaches to knowledge, particularly in the United States, as rooted in a postmodernist "decades-long academic assault on science:"


See also

;Theory * * * ;Culture and politics * * * ;Philosophy * * ;Religion * ;History * ;Opposed by * * * *


References


Further reading

* * Alexie, Sherman (2000). "The Toughest Indian in the World" () * Anderson, Perry. ''The origins of postmodernity''. London: Verso, 1998. * Anderson, Walter Truett. ''The Truth about the Truth (New Consciousness Reader)''. New York: Tarcher. (1995) () * Arena, Leonardo Vittorio (2015) ''On Nudity. An Introduction to Nonsense'', Mimesis International. * Ashley, Richard and Walker, R. B. J. (1990) "Speaking the Language of Exile." ''International Studies Quarterly'' v 34, no 3 259–68. * Zygmunt Bauman, Bauman, Zygmunt (2000) ''Liquid Modernity''. Cambridge: Polity Press. * Ulrich Beck, Beck, Ulrich (1986) ''Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity''. * Benhabib, Seyla (1995) "Feminism and Postmodernism" in (ed. Nicholson) ''Feminism Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange''. New York: Routledge. * Berman, Marshall (1982) ''All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity'' (). * Hans Bertens, Bertens, Hans (1995) ''The Idea of the Postmodern: A History''. London: Routledge. (). * Steven Best, Best, Steven and Douglas Kellner. ''Postmodern Theory '' (1991
excerpt and text search
* Best, Steven, and Douglas Kellner. ''The Postmodern Turn'' (1997
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* Best, Steven, and Douglas Kellner. ''The Postmodern Adventure: Science, Technology, and Cultural Studies at the Third Millennium'' Guilford Press, 2001 () * Bielskis, Andrius (2005) ''Towards a Postmodern Understanding of the Political: From Genealogy to Hermeneutics'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005). * Brass, Tom, ''Peasants, Populism and Postmodernism'' (London: Cass, 2000). * Judith Butler, Butler, Judith (1995) 'Contingent Foundations' in (ed. Nicholson) ''Feminist Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange''. New York: Routledge. * Alex Callinicos, Callinicos, Alex, ''Against Postmodernism: A Marxist Critique'' (Cambridge: Polity, 1999). * Margaret Drabble, Drabble, M. ''The Oxford Companion to English Literature'', 6 ed., article "Postmodernism". * Farrell, John. "Paranoia and Postmodernism," the epilogue to ''Paranoia and Modernity: Cervantes to Rousseau'' (Cornell UP, 2006), 309–327. * Featherstone, M. (1991) Consumer culture and postmodernism, London; Newbury Park, Calif., Sage Publications. * Anthony Giddens, Giddens, Anthony (1991) Modernity and Self Identity, Cambridge: Polity Press. * Gosselin, Paul (2012) Flight From the Absolute: Cynical Observations on the Postmodern West. volume I. Samizda
Flight From the Absolute: Cynical Observations on the Postmodern West. Volume I
() * Pelagia Goulimari, Goulimari, Pelagia (ed.) (2007) Postmodernism. What Moment? Manchester: Manchester University Press () * Grebowicz, Margaret (ed.), ''Gender After Lyotard''. NY: Suny Press, 2007. () * Greer, Robert C. ''Mapping Postmodernism''. IL: Intervarsity Press, 2003. () * Groothuis, Douglas. ''Truth Decay''. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 2000. * Harvey, David (1989) ''The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change'' () * Ted Honderich, Honderich, T., ''The Oxford Companion to Philosophy'', article "Postmodernism". * Hutcheon, Linda. ''The Politics of Postmodernism''. (2002
online edition
* Jameson, Fredric (1991) ''Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism'' () *Jarzombek, Mark (2016). ''Digital Stockholm Syndrome in the Post-Ontological Age''. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. * Kimball, Roger (2000). ''Experiments against Reality: the Fate of Culture in the Postmodern Age''. Chicago: I.R. Dee. viii, 359 p. () * Kirby, Alan (2009) ''Digimodernism''. New York: Continuum. * Lash, S. (1990) ''The sociology of postmodernism'' London, Routledge. * Lucy, Niall. (2016) ''A dictionary of Postmodernism'' () * Lyotard, Jean-François (1984) ''The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge'' () * Lyotard, Jean-François (1988). ''The Postmodern Explained: Correspondence 1982–1985''. Ed. Julian Pefanis and Morgan Thomas. () * Lyotard, Jean-François (1993), "Scriptures: Diffracted Traces." In: ''Theory, Culture and Society'', Vol. 21(1), 2004. * Lyotard, Jean-François (1995), "Anamnesis: Of the Visible." In: ''Theory, Culture and Society'', Vol. 21(1), 2004. * MacIntyre, Alasdair, After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory (University of Notre Dame Press, 1984, 2nd edn.). * Magliola, Robert ''On Deconstructing Life-Worlds: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture'' (Atlanta: Scholars Press of American Academy of Religion, 1997; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; , cloth, , pbk). * Robert Magliola, Magliola, Robert, ''Derrida on the Mend'' (Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 1984; 1986; pbk. 2000, ISBN I-55753-205-2). * Manuel, Peter. "Music as Symbol, Music as Simulacrum: Pre-Modern, Modern, and Postmodern Aesthetics in Subcultural Musics," Popular Music 1/2, 1995, pp. 227–239. * McHale, Brian (1992), ''Constructing Postmodernism''. NY & London: Routledge. * McHale, Brian (2007), "What Was Postmodernism?" electronic book review

* McHale, Brian (2008), "1966 Nervous Breakdown, or, When Did Postmodernism Begin?" ''Modern Language Quarterly'' 69, 3:391–413. * McHale, Brian, (1987) ''Postmodernist Fiction''. London: Routledge. * * Murphy, Nancey, ''Anglo-American Postmodernity: Philosophical Perspectives on Science, Religion, and Ethics'' (Westview Press, 1997). * Natoli, Joseph (1997) ''A Primer to Postmodernity'' () * Norris, Christopher (1990) ''What's Wrong with Postmodernism: Critical Theory and the Ends of Philosophy'' () * Pangle, Thomas L., ''The Ennobling of Democracy: The Challenge of the Postmodern Age'', Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991 * Park, Jin Y., ed., ''Buddhisms and Deconstructions'' Lanham: Rowland & Littlefield, 2006, ; . * Pérez, Rolando. Ed. Agorapoetics: Poetics after Postmodernism. Aurora: The Davies Group, Publishers. 2017. . * * Powell, Jim (1998). "Postmodernism For Beginners" () * Sim, Stuart. (1999). "The Routledge critical dictionary of postmodern thought" () * Sokal, Alan and Jean Bricmont (1998) ''Fashionable Nonsense: Postmodern Intellectuals' Abuse of Science'' () * Stephen, Hicks (2014). "Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault (Expanded Edition)", Ockham's Razor Publishing * Vattimo, Gianni (1989). ''The Transparent Society'' () * Gene Edward Veith, Veith Jr., Gene Edward (1994) ''Postmodern Times: A Christian Guide to Contemporary Thought and Culture'' () * Keith Windschuttle, Windschuttle, Keith (1996) ''The Killing of History: How Literary Critics and Social Theorists are Murdering Our Past''. New York: The Free Press. * Woods, Tim, ''Beginning Postmodernism,'' Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999, (Reprinted 2002)( Hardback, Paperback).


External links


Discourses of Postmodernism. Multilingual bibliography by Janusz Przychodzen (PDF file)


* [https://ase.tufts.edu/cogstud/dennett/papers/postmod.tru.htm Postmodernism and truth] by philosopher Daniel Dennett
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's entry on postmodernism
{{Authority control Postmodernism, 1880s neologisms Criticism of rationalism Metanarratives Modernism Philosophical movements Theories of aesthetics