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In
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
and
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

politics
, power is the capacity of an individual to influence the actions, beliefs, or conduct (behaviour) of others. The term ''
authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empiric ...
'' is often used for power that is perceived as legitimate or socially approved by the
social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergent from and determinant of the Structure and agency, actions of individuals. Likewise, society is believed to be grouped int ...
, not to be confused with
authoritarianism Authoritarianism is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mon ...
. Power can be seen as evil or
unjust Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or undeserved outcomes. The term may be applied in reference to a particular event or situation, or to a larger status quo is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
; however, power can also be seen as good and as something inherited or given for exercising
humanistic Humanism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the ...

humanistic
objectives that will help, move, and empower others as well.
Abraham Maslow Abraham Harold Maslow (; April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating , a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualizat ...
notes that "in the hands of the immature, vicious, or emotionally sick, power is a horrible danger." In general, power is derived by the factors of
interdependence Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems, i.e. cohesive groups of interrelated, interdependent parts that can be natural or man-made, human-made. Every system is bounded by space and time, influenced by its environment, defined by i ...
between two entities and the environment. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force (
coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualiz ...
). An example of using power without oppression is the concept "
soft power In politics (and particularly in international politics), soft power is the ability to attract co-option, co-opt rather than coerce (contrast hard power). In other words, soft Power (social and political), power involves shaping the preferences of ...
," as compared to
hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economic means to social influence, influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies. This form of political power is often aggressive (coercion), and is most immediately effective when ...
. In
corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal ...

corporate
environments, the ethical instrumentality of power is achievement, and as such it is a
zero-sum game Zero-sum game is a mathematical representation in game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interactions among Rational agent, rational agents.Roger B. Myerson, Myerson, Roger B. (1991). ''Game Theory: Analysis ...
. Much of the recent
sociological Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerl ...
debate about power revolves around the issue of its means to enablein other words, power as a means to make
social actions In sociology, social action, also known as Weberian social action, is Action (philosophy), an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agency (sociology), agents'). According to Max Weber, "Action is "social" inso ...
possible as much as it may constrain or prevent them.


Theories


Five bases

In a now-classic study (1959), social psychologists
John R. P. French John Robert Putnam French Jr. (August 7, 1913 – October 14, 1995) was an American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by ex ...
and
Bertram Raven Bertram Herbert Raven (September 26, 1926 – February 26, 2020) was an American academic. He was a member of the faculty of the psychology department at UCLA from 1956 until his death. He is perhaps best known for his early work in collaboration w ...
developed a schema of sources of power by which to analyse how power plays work (or fail to work) in a specific relationship. According to French and Raven, power must be distinguished from influence in the following way: power is that state of affairs which holds in a given relationship, A-B, such that a given influence attempt by A over B makes A's desired change in B more likely. Conceived this way, power is fundamentally ''relative'' – it depends on the specific understandings A and B each apply to their relationship, and requires B's recognition of a quality in A which would motivate B to change in the way A intends. A must draw on the 'base' or combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome. Drawing on the wrong power base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in A's own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, while not excluding other minor categories. Further bases have since been adduced – in particular by Gareth Morgan in his 1986 book, ''
Images of Organization Images of Organization is a bestseller book by Gareth Morgan (business theorist), Gareth Morgan, professor of organizational behavior and industrial relations at the Schulich School of Business at York University in Toronto, which attempts to unveil ...
''.


Legitimate power

Also called "positional power", legitimate power is the power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position within an organization. Legitimate power is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by various attributes of power such as a
uniform A uniform is a variety of clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over ti ...

uniform
, a title, or an imposing physical office. In simple terms, power can be expressed as being ''upward'' or ''downward''. With downward power, a
company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal or a mixture of both, with a specific objective. Company members share a common pu ...

company
's superior influences subordinates for attaining organizational goals. When a company exhibits upward power, subordinates influence the decisions of their
leader Leadership, both as a research area and as a practical skill, encompasses the ability of an individual, group or organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English ...

leader
or leaders.


Referent power

Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and build
loyalty Loyalty, in general use, is a devotion Devotion or Devotions may refer to: In religion * Faith * Anglican devotions * Buddhist devotion * Catholic devotions * Bible study (Christian), called "devotion" by some Christian denominations * Marian ...

loyalty
. It is based on the
charisma Charisma () is compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others. Scholars in sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, ...

charisma
and
interpersonal skills A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction and communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups ...
of the power holder. A person may be admired because of specific personal trait, and this admiration creates the opportunity for interpersonal influence. Here the person under power desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower.
Nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that holds that the nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target ...
and
patriotism Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love, devotion, and sense of attachment to a homeland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply on ...

patriotism
count towards an intangible sort of referent power. For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend the honor of the country. This is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Advertisers have long used the referent power of sports figures for products endorsements, for example. The charismatic appeal of the sports star supposedly leads to an acceptance of the endorsement, although the individual may have little real credibility outside the sports arena. Abuse is possible when someone that is likable, yet lacks integrity and honesty, rises to power, placing them in a situation to gain personal advantage at the cost of the group's position. Referent power is unstable alone, and is not enough for a leader who wants longevity and respect. When combined with other sources of power, however, it can help a person achieve great success.


Expert power

Expert An expert is somebody who has a broad and deep competence in terms of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or obj ...

Expert
power is an individual's power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organization's needs for those skills and expertise. Unlike the others, this type of power is usually highly specific and limited to the particular area in which the expert is trained and qualified. When they have knowledge and skills that enable them to understand a situation, suggest solutions, use solid judgment, and generally outperform others, then people tend to listen to them. When individuals demonstrate expertise, people tend to trust them and respect what they say. As subject matter experts, their ideas will have more value, and others will look to them for
leadership Leadership, both as a research area and as a practical skill, encompasses the ability of an individual, group or organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and B ...

leadership
in that area.


Reward power

Reward power depends on the ability of the power wielder to confer valued material rewards, it refers to the degree to which the individual can give others a reward of some kind such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or increases in pay or responsibility. This power is obvious but also ineffective if abused. People who abuse reward power can become pushy or be reprimanded for being too forthcoming or 'moving things too quickly'. If others expect to be rewarded for doing what someone wants, there is a high probability that they will do it. The problem with this basis of power is that the rewarder may not have as much control over rewards as may be required. Supervisors rarely have complete control over salary increases, and managers often cannot control all actions in isolation: even a company
CEO A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of Corporate Executive, corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent Legal person, legal entity ...
needs permission from the board of directors for some actions. When an individual uses up available rewards, or the rewards do not have enough perceived value to others, their power weakens. One of the frustrations of using rewards is that they often need to be bigger each time if they are to have the same motivational impact: even then, if rewards are given frequently, people can become satiated by the reward, such that it loses its effectiveness. In terms of
cancel culture Cancel culture is a modern form of ostracism Ostracism ( el, ὀστρακισμός, ''ostrakismos'') was an Athenian democracy, Athenian democratic procedure in which any citizen could be exile, expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten ...
, the mass ostracization used to reconcile unchecked injustice and abuse of power is an "upward power." Policies for policing internet against these processes as a pathway for creating due process for handling conflicts, abuses, and harm that's done through established processes is known as "downward power."


Coercive power

Coercive Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a rituali ...
power is the application of negative influences. It includes the ability to demote or to withhold other rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the fear of having them withheld can ensure the obedience of those under power. Coercive power tends to be the most obvious but least effective form of power as it builds resentment and resistance from the people who experience it. Threats and
punishment Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of soci ...
are common tools of coercion. Implying or threatening that someone will be fired, demoted, denied privileges, or given undesirable assignments – these are characteristics of using coercive power. Extensive use of coercive power is rarely appropriate in an organizational setting, and relying on these forms of power alone will result in a very cold, impoverished style of leadership. This is a type of power commonly seen in fashion industry by coupling with legitimate power, it is referred in the industry specific literature's as "glamorization of structural domination and exploitation".


Principles in interpersonal relationships

According to Laura K. Guerrero and Peter A. Andersen in ''Close Encounters: Communication in Relationships'': # Power as a Perception: Power is a perception in a sense that some people can have objective power, but still have trouble influencing others. People who use power cues and act powerfully and proactively tend to be perceived as powerful by others. Some people become influential even though they don't overtly use powerful behavior. # Power as a Relational Concept: Power exists in relationships. The issue here is often how much relative power a person has in comparison to one's partner. Partners in close and satisfying relationships often influence each other at different times in various arenas. # Power as Resource Based: Power usually represents a struggle over resources. The more scarce and valued resources are, the more intense and protracted are power struggles. The scarcity hypothesis indicates that people have the most power when the resources they possess are hard to come by or are in high demand. However, scarce resource leads to power only if it is valued within a relationship. # The Principle of Least Interest and Dependence Power: The person with less to lose has greater power in the relationship. Dependence power indicates that those who are dependent on their relationship or partner are less powerful, especially if they know their partner is uncommitted and might leave them. According to interdependence theory, quality of alternatives refers to the types of relationships and opportunities people could have if they were not in their current relationship. The principle of least interest suggests that if a difference exists in the intensity of positive feelings between partners, the partner who feels the most positive is at a power disadvantage. There's an inverse relationship between interest in relationship and the degree of relational power. # Power as Enabling or Disabling: Power can be
enabling In psychotherapy and mental health, enabling has a positive sense of empowering individuals, or a negative sense of encouraging dysfunctional behavior.social skill A social skill is any competence facilitating interaction Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to ...
rather than
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
. Personal power is protective against pressure and excessive
influence Influence or influencer may refer to: *Social influence, in social psychology, influence in interpersonal relationships **Minority influence, when the minority affect the behavior or beliefs of the majority *Influencer marketing, through individua ...
by others and/or situational stress. People who communicate through
self-confidence Confidence is a state of being clear-headed either that a hypothesis or prediction is correct or that a chosen course of action is the best or most effective. Confidence comes from a Latin word 'fidere' which means "to trust"; therefore, having ...
and expressive, composed behavior tend to be successful in achieving their goals and maintaining good relationships. Power can be disabling when it leads to destructive patterns of communication. This can lead to the chilling effect where the less powerful person often hesitates to communicate dissatisfaction, and the demand withdrawal pattern which is when one person makes demands and the other becomes defensive and withdraws (Mawasha, 2006). Both effects have negative consequences for relational satisfaction. # Power as a Prerogative: The prerogative principle states that the partner with more power can make and break the rules. Powerful people can violate
norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy), a standard in normative ethics that is prescriptive rather than a descriptive or explanato ...
, break relational rules, and manage interactions without as much penalty as powerless people. These actions may reinforce the powerful person's dependence power. In addition, the more powerful person has the prerogative to manage both verbal and nonverbal interactions. They can initiate conversations, change topics, interrupt others, initiate touch, and end discussions more easily than less powerful people. (See
expressions of dominance Power and dominance-submission are two key dimensions of relationships, especially close relationships in which parties rely on one another to achieve their goals and as such it is important to be able to identify indicators of dominance. Power i ...
.)


Rational choice framework

Game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
, with its foundations in the Walrasian theory of
rational choice Rational choice theory, also known as theory of rational choice, choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior. It dictates that every person, in order to dete ...
, is increasingly used in various disciplines to help analyze power relationships. One rational choice definition of power is given by Keith Dowding in his book ''Power''. In rational choice theory, human individuals or groups can be modelled as 'actors' who choose from a 'choice set' of possible actions in order to try to achieve desired outcomes. An actor's 'incentive structure' comprises (its beliefs about) the costs associated with different actions in the choice set, and the likelihoods that different actions will lead to desired outcomes. In this setting we can differentiate between: # outcome power – the ability of an actor to bring about or help bring about outcomes; # social power – the ability of an actor to change the incentive structures of other actors in order to bring about outcomes. This framework can be used to model a wide range of social interactions where actors have the ability to exert power over others. For example, a 'powerful' actor can take options away from another's choice set; can change the relative costs of actions; can change the likelihood that a given action will lead to a given outcome; or might simply change the other's beliefs about its incentive structure. As with other models of power, this framework is neutral as to the use of 'coercion'. For example: a threat of violence can change the likely costs and benefits of different actions; so can a financial penalty in a 'voluntarily agreed' contract, or indeed a friendly offer.


Cultural hegemony

In the
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, ...
tradition, the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
writer
Antonio Gramsci Antonio Francesco Gramsci (, ; ; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxism, Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history and linguistics. He was a ...
elaborated the role of
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of ...
in creating a
cultural hegemony In Marxist philosophy, cultural hegemony is the dominance of a culturally diverse society by the ruling class In sociology, the ruling class of a society is the social class A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences and p ...
, which becomes a means of bolstering the power of
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...

capitalism
and of the
nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
. Drawing on
Niccolò Machiavelli Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (; ; rarely rendered Nicholas Machiavel (see below See or SEE may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Music: ** See (album), ''See'' (album), studio album by rock band The Rascals *** "See", song by ...
in
The Prince ''The Prince'' ( it, Il Principe ; la, De Principatibus) is a 16th-century political treatise A treatise is a formal Formal, formality, informal or informality imply the complying with, or not complying with, some set theory, set of requirem ...
, and trying to understand why there had been no
Communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Communist
revolution in
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
, while it was claimed there had been one in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, Gramsci conceptualised this hegemony as a
centaur A centaur ( ; grc, κένταυρος, kéntauros; ), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a creature from Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture share ...

centaur
, consisting of two halves. The back end, the beast, represented the more classic, material image of power, power through coercion, through brute force, be it physical or economic. But the capitalist hegemony, he argued, depended even more strongly on the front end, the human face, which projected power through 'consent'. In Russia, this power was lacking, allowing for a revolution. However, in Western Europe, specifically in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
, capitalism had succeeded in exercising ''consensual'' power, convincing the working classes that their interests were the same as those of capitalists. In this way, a revolution had been avoided. While Gramsci stresses the significance of ideology in power structures, Marxist-feminist writers such as Michele Barrett stress the role of ideologies in extolling the virtues of family life. The classic argument to illustrate this point of view is the use of women as a '
reserve army of labourReserve army of labour is a concept in Karl Marx Karl Heinrich Marx (; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφο ...
'. In wartime, it is accepted that women perform masculine tasks, while after the war the roles are easily reversed. Therefore, according to Barrett, the destruction of capitalist economic relations is necessary but not sufficient for the liberation of women.


Tarnow

Eugen Tarnow considers what power hijackers have over air plane passengers and draws similarities with power in the military. He shows that power over an individual can be amplified by the presence of a group. If the group conforms to the leader's commands, the leader's power over an individual is greatly enhanced while if the group does not conform the leader's power over an individual is nil.


Foucault

For
Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault (, ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian of ideas Intellectual history (also the history of ideas) is the study of the history of human thought and of intellectual An intellectual is a ...

Michel Foucault
, the real power will always rely on the ignorance of its agents. No single human, group nor single actor runs the dispositif (machine or apparatus) but power is dispersed through the apparatus as efficiently and silently as possible, ensuring its agents to do whatever is necessary. It is because of this action that power is unlikely to be detected that it remains elusive to 'rational' investigation. Foucault quotes a text reputedly written by political economist Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon, entitled ''Recherches et considérations sur la population de la France'' (1778), but turns out to be written by his secretary Jean-Baptise Moheau (1745–1794) and by emphasizing
biologist A biologist is a professional who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Mol ...
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck (; ), was a French naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fu ...

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
who constantly refers to
milieu The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has ...

milieu
s as a plural adjective and sees into the milieu as an expression as nothing more than water air and light confirming the genus within the milieu, in this case the human species, relates to a function of the population and its social and political interaction in which both form an artificial and natural milieu. This milieu (both artificial and natural) appears as a target of intervention for power according to Foucault which is radically different from the previous notions on sovereignty, territory and disciplinary space inter woven into from a social and political relations which function as a species (biological species). Foucault originated and developed the concept of "docile bodies" in his book ''
Discipline and Punish ''Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison'' (french: Surveiller et punir : Naissance de la prison) is a 1975 book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault Paul-Michel Foucault ( , ; ; 15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philo ...
''. He writes, "A body is docile that may be subjected, used, transformed and improved.


Clegg

Stewart Clegg proposes another three-dimensional model with his "circuits of power" theory. This model likens the production and organizing of power to an electric circuit board consisting of three distinct interacting circuits: episodic, dispositional, and facilitative. These circuits operate at three levels, two are macro and one is micro. The ''episodic circuit'' is the micro level and is constituted of irregular exercise of power as agents address feelings, communication, conflict, and resistance in day-to-day interrelations. The outcomes of the episodic circuit are both positive and negative. The ''dispositional circuit'' is constituted of macro level rules of practice and socially constructed meanings that inform member relations and legitimate authority. The ''facilitative circuit'' is constituted of macro level technology, environmental contingencies, job design, and networks, which empower or disempower and thus punish or reward, agency in the episodic circuit. All three independent circuits interact at "obligatory passage points" which are channels for
empowerment Empowerment is the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities. This enables them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority. It is the process of becoming stronge ...

empowerment
or disempowerment.


Galbraith

John Kenneth Galbraith John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 – April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-American economist, diplomat, public official, and intellectual An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking Cr ...

John Kenneth Galbraith
summarizes the types of power as being "condign" (based on force), "compensatory" (through the use of various resources) or "conditioned" (the result of
persuasion Persuasion or persuasion arts is an umbrella term of Social influence, influence. Persuasion can attempt to influence a person's beliefs, Attitude (psychology), attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors. Persuasion is studied in many di ...

persuasion
), and their sources as "personality" (individuals), "property" (their material resources) and "organizational" (whoever sits at the top of an organisational power structure).


Gene Sharp

Gene Sharp Gene Sharp (January 21, 1928 – January 28, 2018) was an American political scientist. He was the founder of the Albert Einstein Institution, a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the study of nonviolent action, and professor of polit ...
, an American professor of political science, believes that power depends ultimately on its bases. Thus a political regime maintains power because people accept and obey its dictates, laws and policies. Sharp cites the insight of Étienne de La Boétie. Sharp's key theme is that power is not monolithic; that is, it does not derive from some intrinsic quality of those who are in power. For Sharp, political power, the power of any state – regardless of its particular structural organization – ultimately derives from the subjects of the state. His fundamental belief is that any power structure relies upon the subjects' obedience to the orders of the ruler(s). If subjects do not obey, leaders have no power. His work is thought to have been influential in the overthrow of
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia, president of Republic o ...
, in the 2011
Arab Spring The Arab Spring ( ar, الربيع العربي) was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low stand ...
, and other
nonviolent Nonviolence is the personal practice of not causing harm to one's self and others under every condition. It may come from the belief that hurting people, animals and/or the environment is unnecessary to achieve an outcome and it may refer to a ge ...
revolutions.


Björn Kraus

Björn Kraus deals with the
epistemological Epistemology (; ) is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact ...

epistemological
perspective upon power regarding the question about possibilities of interpersonal influence by developing a special form of
constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
(named relational constructivism). Instead of focussing on the valuation and distribution of power, he asks first and foremost what the term can describe at all. Coming from
Max Weber Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (; ; 21 April 186414 June 1920) was a German Sociology, sociologist, historian, jurist, and political economy, political economist regarded as among the most important theorists of the development of Modernity, modern ...

Max Weber
's definition of power, he realizes that the term of power has to be split into "instructive power" and "destructive power". More precisely, instructive power means the chance to determine the actions and thoughts of another person, whereas destructive power means the chance to diminish the opportunities of another person. How significant this distinction really is, becomes evident by looking at the possibilities of rejecting power attempts: Rejecting instructive power is possible – rejecting destructive power is not. By using this distinction, proportions of power can be analyzed in a more sophisticated way, helping to sufficiently reflect on matters of responsibility.See Björn Kraus: ''Erkennen und Entscheiden. Grundlagen und Konsequenzen eines erkenntnistheoretischen Konstruktivismus für die Soziale Arbeit''. Beltz Juventa, Weinheim/Basel 2013. This perspective permits to get over an "either-or-position" (either there is power, or there isn't), which is common especially in epistemological discourses about power theories, and to introduce the possibility of an "as well as-position".


Unmarked categories

The idea of ''unmarked categories'' originated in
feminism Feminism is a range of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popu ...

feminism
. As opposed to looking at social difference by focusing on what or whom is perceived to be different, theorists who use the idea of unmarked categories insist that one must also look at how whatever is "normal" comes to be perceived as unremarkable, and what effects this has on social relations. Attending the ''un''marked category is thought to be a way to analyze linguistic and cultural practices to provide insight into how social differences, including power, are produced and articulated in everyday occurrences. According to the idea of unmarked categories, when the cultural practices of people who occupy positions of relative power or can more easily exercise power seem obvious, they tend not to be explicitly articulated and therefore are perceived as default or baseline practices against which others are evaluated as different, deviant, or aberrant. The unmarked category becomes the standard against which to measure everything else. For example, it is posited that if a protagonist's race is not indicated, most Western readers will assume the protagonist is
white White is the lightest color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the Unite ...
; if a sexual identity is not indicated, it will be assumed the protagonist is
heterosexual Heterosexuality is romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** ...
; if the gender of a body is not indicated, it is assumed to be
male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male organism cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sexually ...

male
; if no disability is indicated, it will be assumed the protagonist is able-bodied. These assumptions do not, however, mean the unmarked category is superior, preferable, or more "natural," nor that the practices associated with the unmarked category require less social effort to enact. Although the ''unmarked'' category is typically not explicitly ''noticed'' and often goes overlooked, it is still necessarily ''visible''. As visible but unnoticed and unremarkable, membership in the unmarked category can be an index of power. For example, whiteness forms an unmarked category not commonly noticeable to the powerful, as they often fall within this category. Social groups can hold this view of power in terms of a variety of social distinctions, such as race,
class Class or The Class may refer to: Common uses not otherwise categorized * Class (biology), a taxonomic rank * Class (knowledge representation), a collection of individuals or objects * Class (philosophy), an analytical concept used differently f ...
,
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is ...
, , and
sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. This involves biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning " ...
.


Counterpower

The term 'counter-power' (sometimes written 'counterpower') is used in a range of situations to describe the countervailing force that can be utilised by the oppressed to counterbalance or erode the power of elites. A general definition has been provided by the anthropologist David Graeber as 'a collection of social institutions set in opposition to the state and capital: from self-governing communities to radical labor unions to popular militias'. The examples given (self-governing communities, radical labour unions, popular militias) reflect the Idea/Economics/Physical taxonomy Graeber also notes that counter-power can also be referred to as 'anti-power' and 'when institutions f counter-powermaintain themselves in the face of the state, this is usually referred to as a 'dual power' situation'.
Tim Gee Tim Gee is a writer and political activist in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a s ...
, in his 2011 book ''Counterpower: Making Change Happen'', put forward a theory that those disempowered by governments' and elite groups' power can use ''counterpower'' to counter this. In Gee's model, ''counterpower'' is split into three categories: ''idea counterpower'', ''economic counterpower'', and ''physical counterpower''. Although the term has come to prominence through its use by participants in the global justice/
anti-globalization movement The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalization movement, is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a or one. This may be to carry out, r ...
of the 1990s onwards, the word has been used for at least 60 years; for instance
Martin Buber Martin Buber ( he, מרטין בובר; german: Martin Buber; yi, מארטין בובער; February 8, 1878 – June 13, 1965) was an Austrian Jewish and Israeli philosopher best known for his philosophy of dialogue, a form of existentialism cente ...

Martin Buber
's 1949 book 'Paths in Utopia' includes the line 'Power abdicates only under the stress of counter-power'.


Other theories

*
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes ( ; sometimes known as Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was an , considered to be one of the founders of modern . Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book ', in which he expounds an influential form ...
(1588–1679) defined power as a man's "present means, to obtain some future apparent good" (''
Leviathan Leviathan (; , ) is a sea serpent A sea serpent or sea dragon is a type of dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary consid ...
'', Ch. 10). * The thought of
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, me ...

Friedrich Nietzsche
underlies much 20th century analysis of power. Nietzsche disseminated ideas on the "
will to power The will to power (german: der Wille zur Macht) is a prominent concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The will to power describes what Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche may have believed to be the main driving force in humans. However, the ...
," which he saw as the domination of other humans as much as the exercise of control over one's environment. * Some schools of
psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...

psychology
, notably that associated with
Alfred Adler Alfred Adler (; ; 7 February 1870 – 28 May 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist Psychotherapy (also psychological therapy or talking therapy) is the use of Psychology, psychological methods, particularly when based on regu ...

Alfred Adler
, place power dynamics at the core of their theory (where orthodox
Freudian Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine Me ...
s might place
sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. This involves biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning " ...
). * A generalization of power is given as "what counts as a means of determining a subject's position in a given competition".


Psychological research

Recent experimental psychology suggests that the more power one has, the less one takes on the perspective of others, implying that the powerful have less
empathy Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, that is, the capacity to place oneself in another's position. Definitions of empathy encompass a broad range of emotional st ...

empathy
. , along with several coauthors, found that when those who are reminded of their powerlessness are instructed to draw Es on their forehead, they are 3 times more likely to draw them such that they are legible to others than those who are reminded of their power. Powerful people are also more likely to take action. In one example, powerful people turned off an irritatingly close fan twice as much as less powerful people. Researchers have documented the
bystander effect The bystander effect, or bystander apathy, is a social psychological theory that states that individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when there are other people present. First proposed in 1964, much research, mostly in the lab, has ...
: they found that powerful people are three times as likely to first offer help to a "stranger in distress". A study involving over 50 college students suggested that those primed to feel powerful through stating 'power words' were less susceptible to external pressure, more willing to give honest feedback, and more creative.


Empathy gap

"''Power is defined as a possibility to influence others.''" The use of power has evolved from centuries. Gaining prestige, honor and reputation is one of the central motives for gaining power in human nature. Power also relates with empathy gaps because it limits the interpersonal relationship and compares the power differences. Having power or not having power can cause a number of psychological consequences. It leads to strategic versus social responsibilities. Research experiments were done as early as 1968 to explore power conflict.


Past research

Earlier, research proposed that increased power relates to increased rewards and leads one to approach things more frequently. In contrast, decreased power relates to more constraint, threat and punishment which leads to inhibitions. It was concluded that being powerful leads one to successful outcomes, to develop negotiation strategies and to make more self-serving offers. Later, research proposed that differences in power lead to strategic considerations. Being strategic can also mean to defend when one is opposed or to hurt the decision-maker. It was concluded that facing one with more power leads to strategic consideration whereas facing one with less power leads to a social responsibility.


Bargaining games

Bargaining games were explored in 2003 and 2004. These studies compared behavior done in different power given situations. In an ''ultimatum game'', the person in given power offers an ultimatum and the recipient would have to accept that offer or else both the proposer and the recipient will receive no reward. In a ''dictator game'', the person in given power offers a proposal and the recipient would have to accept that offer. The recipient has no choice of rejecting the offer.


= Conclusion

= The dictator game gives no power to the recipient whereas the ultimatum game gives some power to the recipient. The behavior observed was that the person offering the proposal would act less strategically than would the one offering in the ultimatum game. Self-serving also occurred and a lot of pro-social behavior was observed. When the counterpart recipient is completely powerless, lack of strategy, social responsibility and moral consideration is often observed from the behavior of the proposal given (the one with the power).


Abusive power and control

One can regard power as evil or
unjust Injustice is a quality relating to unfairness or undeserved outcomes. The term may be applied in reference to a particular event or situation, or to a larger status quo is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
; however, power can also be seen as good and as something inherited or given for exercising Humanism, humanistic objectives that will help, move, and Empowerment , empower others as well. In general, power derives from the factors of Positive interdependence, interdependence between two entities and the environment. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force (
coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a ritualiz ...
). An example of using power without oppression is the concept "
soft power In politics (and particularly in international politics), soft power is the ability to attract co-option, co-opt rather than coerce (contrast hard power). In other words, soft Power (social and political), power involves shaping the preferences of ...
" (as compared to
hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economic means to social influence, influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies. This form of political power is often aggressive (coercion), and is most immediately effective when ...
). Much of the recent Sociology, sociological debate about power revolves around the issue of its means to enablein other words, power as a means to make
social actions In sociology, social action, also known as Weberian social action, is Action (philosophy), an act which takes into account the actions and reactions of individuals (or 'agency (sociology), agents'). According to Max Weber, "Action is "social" inso ...
possible as much as it may constrain or prevent them. Abusive power and control (or controlling behaviour or coercive control) involve the ways in which abusers gain and maintain power and control over victims for abusive purposes such as psychological abuse, psychological, physical abuse, physical, sexual abuse, sexual, or financial abuse. Such abuse can have various causes - such as personal gain, personal gratification, psychological projection, Idealization and devaluation, devaluation, envy or just for the sake of it - as the abuser may simply enjoy exercising power and control. Controlling abusers may use multiple tactics to exert power and control over their victims. The tactics themselves are psychologically and sometimes physically abusive. Control may be helped through Economic abuse#Controlling mechanism, economic abuse, thus limiting the victim's actions as they may then lack the necessary resources to resist the abuse.''Economic abuse wheel''
Women's Domestic Abuse Helpline. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
Abusers aim to control and intimidate victims or to
influence Influence or influencer may refer to: *Social influence, in social psychology, influence in interpersonal relationships **Minority influence, when the minority affect the behavior or beliefs of the majority *Influencer marketing, through individua ...
them to feel that they do not have an equal voice in the relationship.Jill Cory; Karen McAndless-Davis.
When Love Hurts: A Woman's Guide to Understanding Abuse in Relationships
'. WomanKind Press; 1 January 2000. . p. 30.
Psychological manipulation, Manipulators and abusers may control their victims with a range of tactics, including: * positive reinforcement (such as praise, superficial charm, flattery, ingratiation, love bombing, smiling, gifts, attention) * negative reinforcement * intermittent or partial reinforcement * Punishment (psychology), psychological punishment (such as nagging, silent treatment, profanity , swearing, threats,
intimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degr ...

intimidation
, emotional blackmail, guilt trips, inattention) * traumatic tactics (such as verbal abuse or explosive anger) The Vulnerabilities exploited by manipulators, vulnerabilities of the victim are exploited, with those who are particularly vulnerable being most often selected as targets. Traumatic bonding can occur between the abuser and victim as the result of ongoing cycle of abuse, cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of Reward system , reward and punishment fosters powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change, as well as a climate of fear.Chrissie Sanderson.
Counselling Survivors of Domestic Abuse
'. Jessica Kingsley Publishers; 15 June 2008.
An attempt may be made to Normalization (sociology) , normalise, legitimise, rationalization (psychology), rationalise, denial, deny, or minimisation (psychology), minimise the abusive behaviour, or to blame the victim for it. Isolation to facilitate abuse, Isolation, gaslighting, mind games, lie, lying, disinformation, propaganda, destabilisation, brainwashing and divide and rule are other strategies that are often used. The victim may be plied with alcohol or drugs or deprived of sleep to help disorientate them. Certain personality type , personality-types feel particularly compelled to control other people.


Tactics

In everyday situations people use a variety of power tactics to push or prompt other people into particular actions. Many examples exist of common power tactics employed every day. Some of these tactics include bullying, collaboration, complaining, criticizing, demanding, disengaging, evading, humor, inspiring, Psychological manipulation , manipulating, negotiating, socializing, and supplicating. One can classify such power tactics along three different dimensions:Pdf.
# Soft power, Soft and Hard power, hard: Soft tactics take advantage of the relationship between the influencer and the target. They are more indirect and interpersonal (e.g., collaboration, socializing). Conversely, hard tactics are harsh, forceful, direct, and rely on concrete outcomes. However, they are not more powerful than soft tactics. In many circumstances, fear of social exclusion can be a much stronger motivator than some kind of physical punishment. # Rational and nonrational: Rational tactics of influence make use of reasoning, logic, and sound judgment, whereas nonrational tactics may rely on emotionality or misinformation. Examples of each include bargaining and persuasion, and Evasion (ethics) , evasion and put-downs, respectively. # Unilateral and bilateral: Bilateral tactics, such as collaboration and negotiation, involve reciprocity on the part of both the person influencing and their target. Unilateral tactics, on the other hand, develop without any participation on the part of the target. These tactics include disengagement (disambiguation) , disengagement and the deployment of fait accompli , ''faits accomplis''. People tend to vary in their use of power tactics, with different types of people opting for different tactics. For instance, interpersonally oriented people tend to use soft and rational tactics. Moreover, extroverts use a greater variety of power tactics than do introverts. People will also choose different tactics based on the group situation, and based on whom they wish to influence. People also tend to shift from soft to hard tactics when they face resistance.


Balance of power

Because power operates both relationally and reciprocally, sociologists speak of the balance of power (disambiguation), "balance of power" between parties to a personal relationship, relationship: all parties to all relationships have ''some'' power: the sociological examination of power concerns itself with discovering and describing the relative strengths: equal or unequal, stable or subject to periodic change. Sociologists usually analyse relationships in which the parties have relatively equal or nearly equal power in terms of ''constraint'' rather than of power. In this context, "power" has a connotation of unilateralism. If this were not so, then all relationships could be described in terms of "power", and its meaning would be lost. Given that power is not innate and can be granted to others, to acquire power one must possess or control a form of power currency.


Effects

Power changes those in the position of power and those who are targets of that power.


Approach/inhibition theory

Developed by D. Keltner and colleagues, approach/inhibition theory assumes that having power and using power alters psychological states of individuals. The theory is based on the notion that most organisms react to environmental events in two common ways. The reaction of ''approach'' is associated with action, self-promotion, seeking rewards, increased energy and movement. ''Inhibition'', on the contrary, is associated with self-protection, avoiding threats or danger, vigilance, loss of motivation and an overall reduction in activity. Overall, approach/inhibition theory holds that power promotes approach tendencies, while a reduction in power promotes inhibition tendencies.


Positive

* Power prompts people to take action * Makes individuals more responsive to changes within a group and its environment * Powerful people are more proactive, more likely to speak up, make the first move, and lead negotiation * Powerful people are more focused on the goals appropriate in a given situation and tend to plan more task-related activities in a work setting * Powerful people tend to experience more positive emotions, such as happiness and satisfaction, and they smile more than low-power individuals * Power is associated with optimism about the future because more powerful individuals focus their attention on more positive aspects of the environment * People with more power tend to carry out executive cognitive functions more rapidly and successfully, including internal control mechanisms that coordinate attention, decision-making, planning, and goal-selection


Negative

* Powerful people are prone to take risky, inappropriate, or unethical decisions and often overstep their Personal boundaries, boundaries * They tend to generate negative emotional reactions in their subordinates, particularly when there is a conflict in the group * When individuals gain power, their self-evaluation become more positive, while their evaluations of others become more negative * Power tends to weaken one's social attentiveness, which leads to difficulty understanding other people's point of view * Powerful people also spend less time collecting and processing information about their subordinates and often perceive them in a stereotypical fashion * People with power tend to use more coercive tactics, increase social distance between themselves and subordinates, believe that non-powerful individuals are untrustworthy, and devalue work and ability of less powerful individuals


Reactions


Tactics

A number of studies demonstrate that harsh power tactics (e.g. punishment (both personal and impersonal), rule-based sanctions, and non-personal rewards) are less effective than soft tactics (expert power, referent power, and personal rewards). It is probably because harsh tactics generate hostility, depression, fear, and anger, while soft tactics are often reciprocated with cooperation. Coercive and reward power can also lead group members to lose interest in their work, while instilling a feeling of autonomy in one's subordinates can sustain their interest in work and maintain high productivity even in the absence of monitoring. Coercive influence creates conflict that can disrupt entire group functioning. When disobedient group members are severely reprimanded, the rest of the group may become more disruptive and uninterested in their work, leading to negative and inappropriate activities spreading from one troubled member to the rest of the group. This effect is called ''Disruptive contagion or ripple effect'' and it is strongly manifested when reprimanded member has a high status within a group, and authority's requests are vague and ambiguous.


Resistance to coercive influence

Coercive influence can be tolerated when the group is successful, the leader is trusted, and the use of coercive tactics is justified by group norms. Furthermore, coercive methods are more effective when applied frequently and consistently to punish prohibited actions. However, in some cases, group members chose to resist the authority's influence. When low-power group members have a feeling of shared identity, they are more likely to form a ''Revolutionary Coalition'', a subgroup formed within a larger group that seeks to disrupt and oppose the group's authority structure. Group members are more likely to form a revolutionary coalition and resist an authority when authority lacks referent power, uses coercive methods, and asks group members to carry out unpleasant assignments. It is because these conditions create Reactance (psychology), reactance, individuals strive to reassert their sense of freedom by affirming their agency for their own choices and consequences.


Kelman's compliance-identification-internalization theory of conversion

Herbert Kelman identified three basic, step-like reactions that people display in response to coercive influence: Compliance (psychology), compliance, Identification (psychology), identification, and internalization. This theory explains how groups convert hesitant recruits into zealous followers over time. At the stage of ''compliance,'' group members comply with authority's demands, but personally do not agree with them. If authority does not monitor the members, they will probably not obey. ''Identification'' occurs when the target of the influence admires and therefore imitates the authority, mimics authority's actions, values, characteristics, and takes on behaviours of the person with power. If prolonged and continuous, identification can lead to the final stage – internalization. When ''internalization'' occurs, individual adopts the induced behaviour because it is congruent with his/her value system. At this stage, group members no longer carry out authority orders but perform actions that are congruent with their personal beliefs and opinions. Extreme obedience often requires internalization.


Power literacy

Power literacy refers to how one perceives power, how it is formed and accumulates, and the structures that support it and who is in control of it. Education can be helpful for heightening power literacy. In a 2014 TED talk Eric Liu notes that "we don't like to talk about power" as "we find it scary" and "somehow evil" with it having a "negative moral valence" and states that the pervasiveness of power illiteracy causes a concentration of knowledge, understanding and clout. Joe L. Kincheloe describes a "cyber-literacy of power" that is concerned with the forces that shape knowledge production and the construction and transmission of meaning, being more about engaging knowledge than "mastering" information, and a "cyber-power literacy" that is focused on transformative knowledge production and new modes of accountability.


See also


References


External links

* * Vatiero M. (2009)
''Understanding Power. A 'Law and Economics' Approach''
VDM Verlag. * Michael Eldred
''Social Ontology: Recasting Political Philosophy Through a Phenomenology of Whoness''
Ontos, Frankfurt 2008 * Mirko VAGNONI, Charles V and the Furyat the Prado Museum:The Power of the King’s Body as Image, Eikón / Imago: Vol 6 No 2 (2017). 49 – 66. https://doi.org/10.5209/eiko.73559 * Simmel, Geor

* Simmel, Geor

* Kanter, R. M. (1979)
''Power failures in management circuits''
Harvard Business Review. * {{DEFAULTSORT:Power (social and political) Power (social and political), Baruch Spinoza Bullying Concepts in political philosophy Majority–minority relations Michel Foucault Social concepts Sociological terminology