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A perennial plant or simply perennial is a
plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

plant
that lives more than two years. The term ('' per-'' + '' -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth (secondary growth in girth) from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials. Perennialsespecially small
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
sthat grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, and then return in the spring from their
rootstock A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced. It could also be described as a stem with a well developed root system, to which a bud from another plant is grafted. It can refer to a r ...
or other overwintering structure, are known as herbaceous perennials. However, depending on the rigours of local climate (temperature, moisture, organic content in the soil, microorganisms), a plant that is a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings, or from divisions. Tomato vines, for example, live several years in their natural tropical/subtropical habitat but are grown as annuals in
temperate In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populati ...
regions because their above-ground biomass doesn't survive the winter. There is also a class of
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
, or non-herbaceous, perennials, including plants like ''
Bergenia ''Bergenia'' (elephant-eared saxifrage, elephant's ears) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family (biology), family Saxifragaceae, native plant, native to central Asia, from Afghanistan to China and the Himalayan region. Descr ...
'' which retain a mantle of leaves throughout the year. An intermediate class of plants is known as
subshrub A subshrub (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...

subshrub
s, which retain a vestigial woody structure in winter, e.g. ''
Penstemon ''Penstemon'' , the beardtongues, is a large genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. ...
''. The symbol for a perennial plant, based on ''
Species Plantarum ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with" ...
'' by
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...

Linnaeus
, is represented by the symbol: , which is also the
astronomical symbol Astronomical symbols are abstract pictorial symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in Western culture, European astronomy. The earliest forms of these symbols appear in Greek papyrus tex ...
for the planet
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the List of Solar System objects by size, largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass more than two and a half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined, but ...

Jupiter
.


Life cycle and structure

Perennial plants are most commonly herbaceous (plants that have leaves and stems that die to the ground at the end of the growing season and which show only primary growth) or woody (plants with persistent above grounds stems that survive from one growing season to the next, with primary and secondary growth, or growth in width protected by an outer cortex),
The First-Time Gardener: Growing Plants and Flowers: All the Know-How You Need to Plant and Tend Outdoor Areas Using Eco-friendly Methods
'. Quarto Publishing Group USA; 2 February 2021. . p. 18–.
and some are evergreen with persistent foliage without woody stems. They can be short-lived (only a few years) or long-lived. They include a wide assortment of plant groups from non-flowering plants like
fern A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia art ...

fern
s and
liverworts The Marchantiophyta () are a division of non-vascular plant, non-vascular embryophyte, land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts. Like mosses and hornworts, they have a gametophyte-dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plan ...
to the highly diverse flowering plants like
orchid Orchidaceae ( ), commonly called the orchid family, is a diverse and widespread family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social ...

orchid
s,
grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain ...

grass
es, and
woody plant A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue and thus has a hard stem. In cold climates, woody plants further survive winter or dry season above ground, as opposite to Herbaceous plant, herbaceous plants that die back to t ...
s. Plants that flower and fruit only once and then die are termed
monocarpic Monocarpic plants are those that flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological functi ...
or
semelparous Semelparity and iteroparity are two contrasting reproductive strategies available to living organisms. A species is considered semelparous if it is characterized by a single reproductive episode before death, and iteroparous if it is characteriz ...
, these species may live for many years before they flower,
The Biology of Reproduction
'. Cambridge University Press; 10 October 2019. . p. 77–.
for example,
century plant upPlant in bloom: the flower stalk may reach up to in height ''Agave americana'', common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is ...

century plant
can live for 80 years and grow 30 meters tall before flowering and dying.
Instant Notes in Plant Biology
'. Taylor & Francis; 15 June 2001. . p. 175–.
However, most perennials are
polycarpic Polycarpic plants are those that flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological f ...
(or iteroparous), flowering over many seasons in their lifetime.Jill Bailey.
The Facts on File Dictionary of Ecology and the Environment
'. Infobase Publishing; 2004. . p. 132–.
Perennials invest more resources than annuals into roots, crowns, and other structures that allow them to live from one year to the next, but have a competitive advantage because that they can commence their growth and fill out earlier in the growing season than annuals, in doing so they can better compete for space and collect more light.John P. Vogel.
Genetics and Genomics of Brachypodium
'. Springer; 17 February 2016. . p. 315–.
Perennials typically grow structures that allow them to adapt to living from one year to the next through a form of
vegetative reproduction Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is a type of that does not involve the fusion of s or change in the number of ...
rather than seeding. These structures include
bulb In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the A ...

bulb
s,
tuber Tubers are enlarged structures used as storage organ A storage organ is a part of a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living ...
s, woody crowns,
rhizome In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the A ...

rhizome
s and turions. They might have specialized
stems
stems
or
crowns '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Prin ...
that allow them to survive periods of
dormancy Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle Life cycle, life-cycle, or lifecycle may refer to: Science and academia *Biological life cycle, the sequence of life stages that an organism undergoes from birth to reproduction ending with the pr ...
over cold or dry seasons during the year. Annuals, by contrast, produce seeds to continue the species as a new generation. At the same time, the growing season is suitable, and the seeds survive over the cold or dry period to begin growth when the conditions are again suitable. Many perennials have specialized features that allow them to survive extreme environmental conditions. Some have adapted to hot or dry conditions and others too cold temperatures; they tend to invest resources into their adaptations and often do not flower and set seed until after a few years of growth. In
climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ...

climate
s that are warm all year long, perennials may grow continuously.Lynden B. Miller.
Parks, Plants, and People: Beautifying the Urban Landscape
'. Norton; 2009. . p. 87–.
In seasonal climates, their growth is limited by temperature or moisture to a growing season. Some perennials retain their foliage year-round; these are
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
perennials.
Deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
perennials shed all their leaves part of the year,
Forests And Forest Plants - Volume III
'. EOLSS Publications; 24 February 2009. . p. 153–.
they include herbaceous and woody plants; herbaceous plants have stems that lack hard, fibrous growth, while woody plants hard stems with buds that survive above ground during dormancy,Tracy DiSabato-Aust.
The Well-Tended Perennial Garden: The Essential Guide to Planting and Pruning Techniques, Third Edition
'. Timber Press; 22 February 2017. . p. 134–.
some perennials are semi-deciduous, meaning they lose some of their leaves in either winter or summer. Deciduous perennials shed their leaves when growing conditions are no longer suitable for photosynthesis, such as when it is too cold or dry. In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods, and deciduous perennials lose their leaves in the dry season.T.T. Kozlowski.
Shedding of Plants Parts
'. Elsevier; 2 December 2012. . p. 88–.
Some perennial plants are protected from
wildfire A wildfire, bushfire, wildland fire or rural fire is an unplanned, unwanted, uncontrolled fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction ...

wildfire
s because they have underground roots that produce adventitious shoots, bulbs,
crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown Pri ...
s, or
stem Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the c ...
s;R. F. Wagle.
Fire, Its Effects on Plant Succession and Wildlife in the Southwest: Some Effects of Fire on Plant Succession and Variability in the Southwest from a Wildlife Management Viewpoint
'. School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona; 1981. p. 5.
other perennials like trees and shrubs may have thick cork layers that protect the stems.
Herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent wood, woody stems above ground, including many perennial plant, perennials, and nearly all Annual plant, annuals and Biennial plant, biennials. Definitions of "herb" and "herbaceous" ...
perennials from temperate and alpine regions of the world can tolerate the cold during winters. Perennial plants may remain dormant for long periods and then recommence growth and reproduction when the environment is more suitable, while most annual plants complete their life cycle during one growing period, and
biennial Biennial means (an event) lasting for two years or occurring every two years. The related term biennium is used in reference to a period of two years. In particular, it can refer to: * Biennial plant, a plant which blooms in its second year and th ...
s have two growing periods. The
meristem The meristem is a type of tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North America * ''Triphosa du ...
of perennial plants communicates with the hormones produced due to environmental situations (i.e., seasons), reproduction, and stage of development to begin and halt the ability to grow or flower. There is also a distinction between the ability to grow and the actual task of growth. For example, most trees regain the ability to grow during winter but do not initiate physical growth until the spring and summer months. The start of dormancy can be seen in perennials plants through withering flowers, loss of leaves on trees, and halting of reproduction in both flowering and budding plants. Perennials species may produce relatively large seeds that have the advantage of generating larger
seedling A seedling is a young sporophyte 350px, Sporophytes of moss during spring A sporophyte () is the diploid Ploidy () is the number of complete sets of chromosome A chromosome is a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic ...

seedling
s that can better compete with other plants. Perennials also produce seeds over many years.


Cultivation

Perennials that are cultivated include: woody plants like
fruit tree 250px, An almond tree in bloom A fruit tree is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of ...

fruit tree
s grown for their edible fruits; shrubs and trees grown as landscaping
ornamentalOrnamental may refer to: * Ornamental grass, a type of grass grown as a decoration * Ornamental iron, mild steel that has been formed into decorative shapes, similar to wrought iron work *Ornamental plant, a plant that is grown for its ornamental qu ...

ornamental
s; herbaceous food crops like
asparagus Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name ''Asparagus officinalis'', is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom ...

asparagus
,
rhubarb Rhubarb is the fleshy, edible stalks ( petioles) of species and hybrids (culinary rhubarb) of '' Rheum'' in the family Polygonaceae The Polygonaceae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals ...

rhubarb
,
strawberries The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown Hybrid (biology), hybrid species of the genus ''Fragaria'', collectively known as the strawberries, which are cultivated worldwide for their fruit. The f ...

strawberries
; and subtropical plants not hardy in colder areas such as
tomato The tomato is the edible berry A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are ...

tomato
es,
eggplant Eggplant ( US, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous ...

eggplant
, and
coleus ''Coleus'' is a genus of annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, sometimes succulent, sometimes with a fleshy or tuberous rootstock, found in the Old World tropics and subtropics. The relationship among the genera ''Coleus'', ''Solenostemon'' and ' ...

coleus
(which are treated as annuals in colder areas).Jules Janick.
Horticultural Science
'. W. H. Freeman; 15 February 1986 p. 44
Perennials also include plants grown for their flowering and other ornamental value including: bulbs (like tulips, narcissus, and gladiolus); and lawn grass, and other groundcovers, (such as
periwinkle
periwinkle
and ''Dichondra''). Each type of plant must be separated differently; for example, plants with fibrous root systems like daylilies, Siberian iris or grasses can be pried apart with two garden forks inserted back to back, or cut by knives. However, plants such as bearded irises have a root system of rhizomes; these root systems should be planted with the top of the rhizome just above ground level, with leaves from the following year showing. The point of dividing perennials is to increase the amount of a single breed of plant in your garden. In the United States more than 900 million dollars worth of potted herbaceous perennial plants were sold in 2019.


Benefits in agriculture

Although most of humanity is fed by the re-sowing of the seeds of
annual Annual may refer to: *Annual publication, periodical publications appearing regularly once per year **Yearbook **Literary annual *Annual plant *Annual report *Annual giving *Annual, Morocco, a settlement in northeastern Morocco *Annuals (band), a ...
grain crops, (either naturally or by the manual efforts of man),
perennial crop A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. The term (''wikt:per-#Prefix, per-'' + ''wikt:-ennial#Suffix, -ennial'', "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annual pl ...
s provide numerous benefits. Perennial plants often have deep, extensive root systems which can hold soil to prevent
erosion In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific ...

erosion
, capture dissolved
nitrogen Nitrogen is the chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

nitrogen
before it can contaminate ground and surface water, and out-compete weeds (reducing the need for
herbicide Herbicides (, ), also commonly known as weedkillers, are substances used to control unwanted plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, conv ...
s). These potential benefits of perennials have resulted in new attempts to increase the seed yield of perennial species, which could result in the creation of new perennial grain crops.Cox et al. 200

Retrieved on 2008-11-14
Some examples of new perennial crops being developed are
perennial rice Perennial rice are varieties of long-lived rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction Reproduction (or procreation ...
and intermediate wheatgrass. The Land Institute estimates that profitable, productive perennial grain crops will take at least 25 years to achieve.


Location

Perennial plants dominate many natural
ecosystem An ecosystem (or ecological system) consists of all the organisms and the physical environment with which they interact. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Energy enters the syst ...

ecosystem
s on land and in fresh water, with only a very few (e.g. ''
Zostera Image:Zostera.jpg, ''Zostera'' sp in Mussel Ridge Channel, Birch Island, Maine ''Zostera'' is a small genus of widely distributed seagrasses, commonly called marine eelgrass, or simply seagrass or eelgrass, and also known as seaweed by some fis ...

Zostera
'') occurring in shallow sea water.
Herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent wood, woody stems above ground, including many perennial plant, perennials, and nearly all Annual plant, annuals and Biennial plant, biennials. Definitions of "herb" and "herbaceous" ...
perennial plants are particularly dominant in conditions too fire-prone for trees and shrubs, e.g., most plants on
prairie Wheatfield intersection in the Southern Saskatchewan prairies, Canada. Prairies are ecosystem An ecosystem is a community (ecology), community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interact ...
s and
steppe In physical geography, a steppe () is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may include: * the montane grasslands and shrublands biome * the temperate grassland ...

steppe
s are perennials; they are also dominant on
tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα ...

tundra
too cold for tree growth. Nearly all
forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a ...

forest
plants are perennials, including the trees and shrubs. Perennial plants are usually better long-term competitors, especially under stable, resource-poor conditions. This is due to the development of larger
root In vascular plant Vascular plants (from Latin ''vasculum'': duct), also known as Tracheophyta (the tracheophytes , from Greek τραχεῖα ἀρτηρία ''trācheia artēria'' 'windpipe' + φυτά ''phutá'' 'plants'), form a large grou ...

root
systems which can access water and soil nutrients deeper in the soil and to earlier emergence in the spring. Annual plants have an advantage in disturbed environments because of their faster growth and reproduction rates.Stephen B. Monsen.
Proceedings--ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands
'. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station; 1994. p. 342–.


Types

* Examples of
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
perennials include ''
Begonia ''Begonia'' is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae. The genus contains more than 1,800 different plant species. The Begonias are native to moist subtropical and tropical climates. Some species are commonly grown indo ...

Begonia
'' and
banana A banana is an elongated, edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specia ...

banana
. * Examples of
deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists are agriculturists who grow flowers, fruits and nuts, ...
perennials include
goldenrod Goldenrod is a common name for many species of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, commonly in reference to the genus ''Solidago''. Several genera, such as ''Euthamia'', were formerly included in a broader concept of the genus ...

goldenrod
and
mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted ver ...
. * Examples of
monocarpic Monocarpic plants are those that flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological functi ...
perennials include ''
Agave ''Agave'' (, , ) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ...

Agave
'' and some species of ''
Streptocarpus A popular house plant, ''Streptocarpus'', ("twisted fruit" from Greek στρεπτός (''streptos'') "twisted" and καρπός (''carpos'') "fruit") is an Afrotropics, Afrotropical genus of flowering plants in the family Gesneriaceae (the ges ...

Streptocarpus
''. * Examples of woody perennials include
maple ''Acer'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscr ...

maple
,
pine A pine is any conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The div ...

pine
, and
apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...

apple
trees. * Examples of
herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent wood, woody stems above ground, including many perennial plant, perennials, and nearly all Annual plant, annuals and Biennial plant, biennials. Definitions of "herb" and "herbaceous" ...
perennials used in agriculture include
alfalfa Alfalfa () (''Medicago sativa''), also called lucerne, is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the ...

alfalfa
, ''
Thinopyrum intermedium
Thinopyrum intermedium
'', and
Red clover ''Trifolium pratense'', the red clover, is a herbaceous plant, herbaceous species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, native to Europe, Western Asia, and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalized in many other regions. Descript ...

Red clover
.


List of perennials


Perennial flowers

Perennials grown for their decorative flowers include very many species and types. Examples include *
Dahlia Dahlia ( or ) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including the ...

Dahlia
*
Kniphofia ''Kniphofia'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to ...

Kniphofia
*
Hollyhock ''Alcea'' is a genus of about 60 species of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer ...

Hollyhock
*
Lupin ''Lupinus'', commonly known as lupin, lupine, or regionally bluebonnet etc., is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natur ...


Perennial fruits

The majority of fruit bearing plants are perennial even in temperate climates. Examples include *
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...

Apple
*
Blackcurrant The blackcurrant (''Ribes nigrum''), also known as black currant or cassis, is a deciduous shrub in the family Grossulariaceae grown for its edible berries. It is native to temperate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth ...

Blackcurrant
*
Blueberry Blueberries are perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the plant kingdom encompassed all living things ...

Blueberry
*
Blackberry The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus ''Rubus'' in the family (biology), family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus ''Rubus'', and hybrids between the subgenera ''Rubus'' and ''Idaeobatus'' ...

Blackberry
*
Currant
Currant
*
Grape A grape is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term ...

Grape
*
Pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree and shrub are a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological ...

Pear
*
Plum A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg. Prunus, ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bl ...

Plum
*
Raspberries The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is ...

Raspberries
*
Strawberry The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; ''Fragaria × ananassa'') is a widely grown hybrid species Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation Speciation is the evolution Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypi ...

Strawberry


Perennial herbs

Many
herb In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is app ...

herb
s are perennial including these examples: *
Fennel Fennel (''Foeniculum vulgare'') is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: ...

Fennel
*
Mint MiNT is Now TOS (MiNT) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted ver ...
*
Rosemary ''Salvia rosmarinus'', commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native plant, native to the Mediterranean Region, Mediterranean region. Until 2017, it was known ...

Rosemary
*
Sage
Sage
*
Thyme Thyme () is the herb (dried aerial parts) of some members of the genus ''Thymus The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system The immune system is a network of biological processes that protects an organism ...

Thyme
*
Grains A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double albu ...


Perennial vegetables

Many vegetable plants can grow as perennials in tropical climates, but die in cold weather. Examples of some of the more completely perennial vegetables are: *
Asparagus Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name ''Asparagus officinalis'', is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom ...

Asparagus
*
Chives Chives, scientific name ''Allium schoenoprasum'', is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaryllidaceae that produces edible leaves and flowers. Their close relatives include the common onions, garlic Garlic (''Allium sativum'') ...

Chives
* Globe artichoke *
Jerusalem artichoke#REDIRECT Jerusalem artichoke The Jerusalem artichoke (''Helianthus tuberosus''), also called sunroot, sunchoke, or earth apple, is a species of sunflower native to central North America North America is a continent entirely within the ...
*
Leek The leek is a vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including t ...

Leek
* New Zealand spinach *
Rhubarb Rhubarb is the fleshy, edible stalks ( petioles) of species and hybrids (culinary rhubarb) of '' Rheum'' in the family Polygonaceae The Polygonaceae are a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals ...

Rhubarb
*
Sorrel Sorrel (''Rumex acetosa''), also called common sorrel or garden sorrel, is a perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Planta ...
* Rakkyo * Sea kale *
Kale Kale (), or leaf cabbage, belongs to a group of cabbage (''Brassica oleracea ''Brassica oleracea'' is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard gre ...

Kale
*
Sweet potato The sweet potato or sweetpotato (''Ipomoea batatas'') is a dicotyledon The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angi ...

Sweet potato


See also

*
Annual plant An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle Life cycle, life-cycle, or lifecycle may refer to: Science and academia *Biological life cycle, the sequence of life stages that an organism undergoes from birth to reproduction ending w ...
*
Biennial plant Biennial means (an event) lasting for two years or occurring every two years. The related term biennium is used in reference to a period of two years. In particular, it can refer to: * Biennial plant, a plant which blooms in its second year and th ...
*
Herbaceous Herbaceous plants are vascular plants that have no persistent wood, woody stems above ground, including many perennial plant, perennials, and nearly all Annual plant, annuals and Biennial plant, biennials. Definitions of "herb" and "herbaceous" ...
* Herbchronology *
Perennial grain 300px, Roots of intermediate wheatgrass, a perennial grain candidate compared to those of annual wheat (at left in each panel) A perennial grain is a Food grain, grain crop that lives and remains productive for two or more years, rather than growi ...


Notes


References


External links


USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map

Gardening with Perennials



Plants for a Future
{{Authority control Garden plants