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Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of
hostility Hostility is seen as form of emotionally charged aggressive behavior. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym A synonym is a word, morpheme, or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word, morpheme, or phras ...
and
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Na ...

violence
. In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean a lack of
conflict Conflict may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Conflict'' (1936 film), an American boxing film starring John Wayne * ''Conflict'' (1938 film), a French drama film directed by Léonide Moguy * ''Conflict'' (1945 film), ...
(such as
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
) and freedom from
fear Fear is an intensely unpleasant emotion Emotions are mental state, psychological states brought on by neurophysiology, neurophysiological changes, variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure ...

fear
of
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Na ...

violence
between individuals or
groups A group is a number of people or things that are located, gathered, or classed together. Groups of people * Cultural group, a group whose members share the same cultural identity * Ethnic group, a group whose members share the same ethnic identi ...
. Throughout history, leaders have used
peacemaking Peacemaking is practical conflict transformation focused upon establishing equitable power relationships robust enough to forestall future conflict, often including the establishment of means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community, ...
and
diplomacy Diplomacy is the practice of influencing the decisions and conduct of foreign governments or organizations through dialogue, negotiation, and other nonviolent means. Diplomacy usually refers to international relations carried out through the inte ...

diplomacy
to establish a type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or
peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of ...
. Such behavioral restraint has often resulted in the reduced conflict, greater economic interactivity, and consequently substantial prosperity. "Psychological peace" (such as peaceful thinking and emotions) is perhaps less well defined, yet often a necessary precursor to establishing "behavioral peace." Peaceful behavior sometimes results from a "peaceful inner disposition." Some have expressed the belief that peace can be initiated with a certain quality of inner tranquility that does not depend upon the uncertainties of daily life. The acquisition of such a "peaceful internal disposition" for oneself and others can contribute to resolving otherwise seemingly irreconcilable competing interests. Peace is not often in the state of excitement although we are happy when excited, but peace is when one's mind is quiet and satisfied.


Etymology

The term-'peace' originates most recently from the Anglo-French ''pes,'' and the Old French ''pais'', meaning "peace, reconciliation, silence, agreement" (11th century). The Anglo-French term ''pes'' itself comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''pax'', meaning "peace, compact, agreement, treaty of peace, tranquility, absence of hostility, harmony." The English word came into use in various personal greetings from c.1300 as a translation of the Hebrew word
shalom ''Shalom'' ( he, שָׁלוֹם ''shalom''; also spelled as ''sholom'', ''sholem'', ''sholoim'', ''shulem'') is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiat ...

shalom
, which, according to Jewish theology, comes from a Hebrew verb meaning 'to be complete, whole'. Although 'peace' is the usual translation, however, it is an incomplete one, because 'shalom,' which is also cognate with the Arabic '' salaam'', has multiple other meanings in addition to peace, including justice, good health, safety, well-being, prosperity, equity, security, good fortune, and friendliness, as well as simply the greetings, "hello" and "goodbye". On a personal level, peaceful behaviors are kind, considerate,
respect Respect, also called esteem, is a positive feeling or action shown towards someone or something considered important or held in high esteem or regard. It conveys a sense of admiration for good or valuable qualities. It is also the process of ho ...

respect
ful, just, and tolerant of others' beliefs and behaviors – tending to manifest goodwill> This latter understanding of peace can also pertain to an individual's introspective sense or concept of her/himself, as in being "at peace" in one's own mind, as found in European references from c.1200. The early English term is also used in the sense of "
quiet
quiet
", reflecting calm, serene, and meditative approaches to family or group relationships that avoid quarreling and seek
tranquility Tranquillity (also spelled tranquility) is the quality or state of being tranquil; that is, calm, serene, and worry-free. The word tranquillity appears in numerous texts ranging from the religious writings of Buddhism, where the term ''passaddhi '' ...

tranquility
— an absence of disturbance or agitation. In many languages, the word for peace is also used as a greeting or a farewell, for example the Hawaiian word
aloha ''Aloha'' (, ) is the Hawaiian Hawaiian may refer to: * Hawaii state residents, regardless of ancestry * Native Hawaiians, the current term for the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants * Hawaiian language Historic uses ...

aloha
, as well as the Arabic word ''salaam''. In English the word peace is occasionally used as a farewell, especially for the dead, as in the phrase ''
rest in peace Rest in peace (RIP) is a phrase from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Throu ...

rest in peace
''. Wolfgang Dietrich, in his research project which led to the book ''The Palgrave International Handbook of Peace Studies'' (2011), maps the different meanings of peace in different languages and regions across the world. Later, in his ''Interpretations of Peace in History and Culture'' (2012), he groups the different meanings of peace into five peace families: Energetic/Harmony, Moral/Justice, Modern/Security, Postmodern/Truth, and Transrational, a synthesis of the positive sides of the four previous families and the society.


History

In ancient times and more recently, peaceful alliances between different nations were codified through royal marriages. Two examples,
Hermodike I Hermodike I has been attributed with inventing the Greek written script, i.e. the transfer of earlier technical knowledge from Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom ...
c.800BC and
Hermodike II Hermodike II has been attributed with inventing coinage ''COINage'', a bi-monthly United States, American special-interest magazine, targeting Numismatics, numismatists and coin investment, investors. Behn-Miller Publications, Inc. - under the join ...
c.600BC were Greek princesses from the house of
Agamemnon In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
who married kings from what is now Central Turkey. The union of
Phrygia In classical antiquity, Phrygia (; grc, Φρυγία, ''Phrygía'' ; tr, Frigya) (also known as the Kingdom of Muska) was a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centred on the Sangarios River. After its co ...
/
Lydia Lydia (Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominant scale or acou ...

Lydia
with Aeolian Greeks resulted in regional peace, which facilitated the transfer of ground-breaking technological skills into Ancient Greece; respectively, the
phonetic written script
phonetic written script
and the minting of
coinage ''COINage'', a bi-monthly United States, American special-interest magazine, targeting Numismatics, numismatists and coin investment, investors. Behn-Miller Publications, Inc. - under the joint ownership of Gordon Behn and ''COINage'' editorial dire ...
(to use a token currency, where the value is guaranteed by the state). Both inventions were rapidly adopted by surrounding nations through further trade and cooperation and have been of fundamental benefit to the progress of civilization. Throughout history, victors have sometimes used ruthless measures to impose peace upon the vanquished. In his book ''
Agricola AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access) is an online database created and maintained by the United States National Agricultural Library of the United States Department of Agriculture. The database serves as the catalog and index for the collections ...
,'' the Roman historian
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
includes eloquent and vicious polemics against the rapacity and greed of Rome. One, that Tacitus says is by the
Caledonia Caledonia () was the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

Caledonia
n chieftain
Calgacus According to Tacitus, Calgacus (sometimes Calgacos or Galgacus) was a chieftain of the Caledonian Confederacy who fought the Ancient Rome, Roman army of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at the Battle of Mons Graupius in northern Scotland in AD 83 or 84. His ...

Calgacus
, ends with: ''Auferre trucidare rapere falsis nominibus imperium, atque ubi solitudinem faciunt, pacem appellant.'' (To ravage, to slaughter, to usurp under false titles, they call empire; and where they make a desert, they call it peace. — Oxford Revised Translation). Discussion of peace is therefore at the same time a discussion on its form.. Is it simply the absence of mass organized killing (war), or does peace require a particular morality and justice? (''just peace''). A peace must be seen at least in two forms: * A simple silence of arms, absence of
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
. * Absence of war accompanied by particular requirements for the mutual settlement of relations, which are characterized by terms such as justice, mutual respect, respect for law and good will. More recently, advocates for radical reform in justice systems have called for a public policy adoption of non-punitive, non-violent
Restorative Justice Restorative justice is an approach to justice Justice, one of the four cardinal virtues, by Vitruvio Alberi, 1589–1590. Fresco, corner of the vault, studiolo of the Virgin of Mercy, Madonna of Mercy, Palazzo Altemps, Rome Justice, in its ...
methods. Many of those studying the success of these methods, including
United Nations working group on Restorative Justice
, have attempted to re-define justice in terms related to peace. From the late 2000s on, a Theory of Active Peace has been proposed which conceptually integrates justice into a larger peace theory. Another internationally important approach to peace is the international, national and local protection of cultural assets in the event of conflicts.
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
,
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
and
Blue Shield International The Blue Shield, formerly the International Committee of the Blue Shield, is an international organization founded in 1996 to protect the world's cultural heritage from threats such as armed conflict and natural disasters. Originally intended as ...
deal with the protection of cultural heritage. This also applies to the integration of
United Nations peacekeeping#REDIRECT United Nations peacekeeping Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peace Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create t ...
. UNESCO Director General
Irina Bokova Irina Georgieva Bokova ( bg, Ирина Георгиева Бокова; born 12 July 1952) is a Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=n ...

Irina Bokova
stated: "The protection of culture and heritage is a humanitarian and security policy imperative that also paves the way for resilience, reconciliation and peace." The protection of the cultural heritage should preserve the particularly sensitive cultural memory, the growing cultural diversity and the economic basis of a state, a municipality or a region. In many conflicts there is a deliberate attempt to destroy the opponent's cultural heritage. Whereby there is also a connection between cultural user disruption or cultural heritage and the cause of flight. However, protection can only be implemented in a sustainable manner through the fundamental cooperation and training of military units and civilian personnel, together with the locals. The president of Blue Shield International
Karl von Habsburg Karl von Habsburg (given names: ''Karl Thomas Robert Maria Franziskus Georg Bahnam''; born 11 January 1961) is an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no ...
summed it up with the words: “Without the local community and without the local participants, that would be completely impossible”.UNIFIL - Action plan to preserve heritage sites during conflict, 12 Apr 2019.
/ref>


Organizations and prizes


United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achieving
world peace World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in it ...
. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. After authorization by the
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the Organs of the United Nations, six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international security, international peace and security, recommending the admission ...

Security Council
, the UN sends peacekeepers to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased or paused to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. The forces, also called the "Blue Helmets", who enforce UN accords are awarded
United Nations Medal A United Nations Medal is an international decoration awarded by the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop frie ...

United Nations Medal
s, which are considered
international decoration An international decoration is a military award which is not bestowed by a particular country, but rather by an international organization such as the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to ...
s instead of
military decoration Military awards and decorations are distinctions given as a mark of honor for military heroism, meritorious or outstanding service or achievement.United States Department of Defense, DoD Manual 1348.33, 2010, Vol. 3 A decoration is often a medal ...
s. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during t ...
in 1988.


Police

The obligation of the state to provide for domestic peace within its borders in usually charged to the
police The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing con ...

police
and other general domestic policing activities. The police are a constituted body of
persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as , , or , and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as , of , or . The defining features of and, consequently, wh ...
empowered by a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
to
enforce the law Enforcement is the process of ensuring compliance with laws, regulations, rules, standards, or social norms. Enforcement may also refer to: * Law enforcement, a system organized to enforce the law * Enforcement of foreign judgments, the recognit ...
, to protect the lives, liberty and possessions of citizens, and to prevent
crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a State (polity), state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Crime, defi ...

crime
and
civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, strike, or ignoring laws) in which the participants become hostile toward ...
. Their powers include the and the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with the police forces of a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

military
and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however,
gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

gendarmerie
are military units charged with civil policing. Police forces are usually public sector services, funded through taxes.


National security

It is the obligation of
national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally c ...
to provide for peace and security in a nation against foreign threats and foreign aggression. Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states (e.g.
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
or
cyber attack In computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These progra ...
),
violent non-state actor In international relations, violent non-state actors (VNSA), also known as non-state armed actors or non-state armed groups (NSAGs), are individuals and groups that are wholly or partly independent of state government, governments and which threa ...
s (e.g.
terrorist attack Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilianIn gen ...
), organised criminal groups such as
narcotic cartel A drug cartel is any Organized crime, criminal organization with the intention of supplying Illegal drug trade, drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterpri ...
s, and also the effects of
natural disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relations ...
s (e.g. flooding, earthquakes). Systemic drivers of insecurity, which may be transnational, include
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...

climate change
,
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of incomeIn economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (econom ...
and marginalisation, political exclusion, and
militarisation Militarization, or militarisation, is the process by which a society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social ter ...
. In view of the wide range of risks, the preservation of peace and the security of a nation state have several dimensions, including
economic security Economic security or financial security is the condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or loca ...
,
energy security Energy security is the association between national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and instit ...
,
physical security Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm (such as espionage, theft, or terrorist attacks). Physical ...
,
environmental securityEnvironmental security examines threats posed by environmental events and trends to individuals, communities or nations. It may focus on the impact of human conflict and international relations on the environment, or on how environmental problems ...
,
food security Food security is the measure of the availability of food and individuals' Economic inequality, ability to access it. According to the United Nations' Committee on World Food Security, food security is defined as meaning that all people, at all ti ...
, border security, and cyber security. These dimensions correlate closely with
elements of national power National Power was formerly an energy In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Mot ...
.


League of Nations

The principal forerunner of the United Nations was the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
. It was created at the
Paris Peace Conference of 1919 Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Ov ...
, and emerged from the advocacy of
Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of gove ...

Woodrow Wilson
and other idealists during World War I. The Covenant of the League of Nations was included in the
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
in 1919, and the League was based in
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
until its dissolution as a result of World War II and replacement by the United Nations. The high hopes widely held for the League in the 1920s, for example amongst members of the
League of Nations UnionThe League of Nations Union (LNU) was an organization formed in October 1918 in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and ...
, gave way to widespread disillusion in the 1930s as the League struggled to respond to challenges from Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Japan. One of the most important scholars of the League of Nations was Sir
Alfred Eckhard Zimmern Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern (1879–1957) was an English classical scholar, historian, and political scientist writing on international relations. His book ''The Third British Empire'' was among the first to apply the expression "Commonwealth of N ...
. Like many of the other British enthusiasts for the League, such as
Gilbert Murray George Gilbert Aimé Murray (2 January 1866 – 20 May 1957) was an Australian-born British classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres. He was an outstanding scholar of the language and culture of Ancient Greece, ...

Gilbert Murray
and
Florence Stawell Florence Melian Stawell (2 May 1869 – 9 June 1936) was a classical scholar. Career Florence Melian Stawell, youngest daughter of Sir William Foster Stawell Sir William Foster Stawell Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, KCMG (27 June 1 ...

Florence Stawell
– known as the "Greece and peace" set – he came to this from the study of the
classics Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer ...

classics
. The creation of the League of Nations, and the hope for informed public opinion on international issues (expressed for example by the Union for Democratic Control during World War I), also saw the creation after World War I of bodies dedicated to understanding international affairs, such as the
Council on Foreign Relations The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States Nonprofit organization, nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and International relations, international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City ...
in New York and the
Royal Institute of International Affairs Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name)Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
at
Chatham House Chatham House, also known as the Royal Institute of International Affairs, is an independent policy institute headquartered in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England ...
in London. At the same time, the academic study of international relations started to professionalise, with the creation of the first professorship of international politics, named for Woodrow Wilson, at
Aberystwyth Aberystwyth () is a university town and community (Wales), community in Ceredigion, Wales. Historically in the Historic counties of Wales, historic county of Cardiganshire, the literal meaning of the cy, Aberystwyth is the mouth of the River Ys ...

Aberystwyth
, Wales, in 1919.


Olympic Games

The late 19th century idealist advocacy of peace which led to the creation of the
Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prize The Nobel Prizes ( ; sv, Nobelpriset ; no, Nobelprisen ) are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's Will and testament, will of 1895, are awarded to "those who, during t ...
, the
Rhodes Scholarships 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title="Rhodes House in Oxford">Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker The Rhodes Scholarship is an international Postgraduate education, postgraduate a ...
, the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, and ultimately the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
, also saw the re-emergence of the ancient Olympic ideal. Led by
Pierre de Coubertin Charles Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin (; born Pierre de Frédy; 1 January 1863 – 2 September 1937, also known as Pierre de Coubertin and Baron de Coubertin) was a French educator and historian, founder of the International Olympic Commi ...
, this culminated in the holding in 1896 of the first of the modern
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a pe ...
.


Nobel Peace Prize

The highest honour awarded to peace makers is the
Nobel Prize in Peace The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments (military weapons and equipment) manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Chemis ...
, awarded since 1901 by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. It is awarded annually to internationally notable persons following the prize's creation in the will of Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who "...shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."


Rhodes, Fulbright and Schwarzman scholarships

In creating the
Rhodes Scholarships 250px, Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker">Oxford.html" ;"title="Rhodes House in Oxford">Rhodes House in Oxford, designed by Sir Herbert Baker The Rhodes Scholarship is an international Postgraduate education, postgraduate a ...
for outstanding students from the United States, Germany and much of the British Empire, Cecil Rhodes wrote in 1901 that 'the object is that an understanding between the three great powers will render war impossible and educational relations make the strongest tie'. This peace purpose of the Rhodes Scholarships was very prominent in the first half of the 20th century, and became prominent again in recent years under Warden of the Rhodes House Donald Markwell, a historian of thought about the causes of war and peace. This vision greatly influenced Senator J. William Fulbright in the goal of the Fulbright fellowships to promote international understanding and peace, and has guided many other international fellowship programs, including the Schwarzman Scholars to China created by Stephen A. Schwarzman in 2013.


Gandhi Peace Prize

The International Gandhi Peace Prize, named after Mahatma Gandhi, is awarded annually by the Government of India. It was launched as a tribute to the ideals espoused by Gandhi in 1995 on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of his birth. This is an annual award given to individuals and institutions for their contributions towards social, economic and political transformation through non-violence and other Gandhian methods. The award carries Rs. 10 million in cash, convertible in any currency in the world, a plaque and a citation. It is open to all persons regardless of nationality, race, creed or sex.


Student Peace Prize

The Student Peace Prize is awarded biennially to a student or a student organization that has made a significant contribution to promoting peace and human rights.


Culture of Peace News Network

The Culture of Peace News Network, otherwise known simply as CPNN, is a UN authorized interactive online news network, committed to supporting the global movement for a culture of peace.


Sydney Peace Prize

Every year in the first week of November, the Sydney Peace Foundation presents the Sydney Peace Prize. The Sydney Peace Prize is awarded to an organization or an individual whose life and work has demonstrated significant contributions to:
The achievement of peace with justice locally, nationally or internationally
The promotion and attainment of human rights
The philosophy, language and practice of non-violence


Museums

A peace museum is a museum that documents historical peace initiatives. Many provide advocacy programs for nonviolent conflict resolution. This may include conflicts at the personal, regional or international level. Smaller institutions include the Randolph Bourne Institute, the McGill Middle East Program of Civil Society and Peace Building and the International Festival of Peace Poetry..


Religious beliefs

Religious beliefs often seek to identify and address the basic problems of human life, including conflicts between, among, and within persons and societies. In ancient ancient Greek religion, Greek-speaking areas, the virtue of peace was personification, personified as the goddess Eirene (goddess), Eirene, and in ancient Roman religion, Latin-speaking areas as the goddess Pax (goddess), Pax. Her image was typically represented by ancient sculptors as a full-grown woman, usually with a cornucopia, horn of plenty and scepter and sometimes with a torch or olive branch, olive leaves.


Christianity

Christians, who believe Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth to be the Jewish Messiah called Christ (title), Christ (meaning Anointed One), interpret Isaiah 9:6 as a Christian messianic prophecies, messianic prophecy of Jesus in which he is called the "Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, Prince of Peace." In the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (priest), Zechariah celebrates his son John the Baptist, John: And you, child, will be called prophet of the Most High, for you will go before the Lord to prepare his ways, to give his people knowledge of salvation through the forgiveness of their sins, because of the tender mercy of our God by which the daybreak from on high will visit us to shine on those who sit in darkness and death's shadow, to guide our feet into the path of peace. As a testimony of peace, Churches of the Anabaptist Christian tradition (such as the Mennonites), as well Holiness Methodist Pacifists (such as the Immanuel Missionary Church) and Quakers (such as the Conservative Friends), practice nonresistance and do not participate in warfare. In the Catholic Church, numerous pontifical documents on the Holy Rosary document a continuity of views of the Popes to have confidence in the Holy Rosary as a means to foster peace. Subsequently, to the Encyclical Mense maio,1965, in which he urged the practice of the Holy Rosary, "the prayer so dear to the Virgin and so much recommended by the Supreme Pontiffs," and as reaffirmed in the encyclical Christi Matri, 1966, to implore peace, Pope Paul VI stated in the apostolic Recurrens mensis, October 1969, that the Rosary is a prayer that favors the great gift of peace.


Hinduism

Hinduism, Hindu texts contain the following passages:


Buddhism

Buddhists believe that peace can be attained once all suffering ends. They regard all suffering as stemming from cravings (in the extreme, greed), aversions (fears), or delusions. To eliminate such suffering and achieve personal peace, followers in the path of the Buddha adhere to a set of teachings called the Four Noble Truths — a central tenet in Buddhist philosophy.


Islam

Islam derived from the root word ''salam'' which literally means peace. Muslims are called followers of Islam. Quran clearly stated "Those who have believed and whose hearts are assured by the remembrance of Allah. Unquestionably, by the remembrance of Allah, hearts are assured" and stated "O you who have believed, when you are told, "Space yourselves" in assemblies, then make space; Allah will make space for you. And when you are told, "Arise," then arise; Allah will raise those who have believed among you and those who were given knowledge, by degrees. And Allah is Acquainted with what you do."


Judaism

The Judaic tradition directly associates God with peace, as evidenced by various principles and laws in Judaism. Shalom, the biblical and modern Hebrew word for peace, is one of the names for God according to the Judaic law and tradition. For instance, in traditional Jewish law, individuals are prohibited from saying "Shalom" when they are in the bathroom as there is a prohibition on uttering any of God's names in the bathroom, out of respect for the divine name. Jewish liturgy and prayer is replete with prayers asking God to establish peace in the world. The Shmoneh Esreh, a key prayer in Judaism that is recited three times each day, concludes with a blessing for peace. The last blessing of the Shmoneh Esreh, also known as the Amida ("standing" as the prayer is said while standing), is focused on peace, beginning and ending with supplications for peace and blessings. Peace is central to Judaism's core principle of Moshaich ("messiah") which connotes a time of universal peace and abundance, a time where weapons will be turned into plowshares and lions will sleep with lambs. As it is written in the Book of Isaiah and : This last metaphor from Tanakh (Hebrew bible) symbolizes the peace that a longed for messianic age will be characterized by, a peace where natural enemies, the strong and the weak, predator and prey, will live in harmony. Jews pray for the messiah, messianic age of peace every day in the Shmoneh Esreh in addition to faith in the coming of the messianic age constituting one of the thirteen core principles of faith in Judaism, according to Maimonides.


Ideological beliefs


Pacifism

Pacifism is the categorical opposition to the behaviors of
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war
or
violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the United Na ...

violence
as a means of settling disputes or of gaining advantage. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views ranging from the belief that international disputes can and should all be resolved via peaceful behaviors; to calls for the abolition of various organizations which tend to institutionalize aggressive behaviors, such as the military, or arms manufacturers; to opposition to any organization of society that might rely in any way upon governmental force. Such groups which sometimes oppose the governmental use of force include Anarcho-pacifism, anarchists and Libertarianism, libertarians. Absolute pacifism opposes violent behavior under all circumstance, including defense of self and others. Pacifism may be based on morality, moral principles (a deontological view) or pragmatism (a consequentialist view). Principled pacifism holds that all forms of violent behavior are inappropriate responses to conflict, and are morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and inter-personal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found.


Inner peace, meditation and prayerfulness

Psychological or inner peace (i.e. peace of mind) refers to a state of being internally or spiritually at peace, with sufficient knowledge and understanding to keep oneself calm in the face of apparent discord or stress. Being internally "at peace" is considered by many to be a healthy mental state, or homeostasis and to be the opposite of feeling stressful, mentally anxious, or emotionally unstable. Within the meditative traditions, the psychological or inward achievement of "peace of mind" is often associated with bliss and happiness. Peace of mind, serenity, and calmness are descriptions of a disposition free from the effects of stress. In some meditative traditions, inner peace is believed to be a state of consciousness or enlightenment that may be cultivated by various types of meditation, prayer, t'ai chi ch'uan (T'ai chi ch'uan, 太极拳, tàijíquán), yoga, or other various types of mental or physical disciplines. Many such practices refer to this peace as an experience of knowing oneself. An emphasis on finding one's inner peace is often associated with traditions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, and some traditional Christian contemplative practices such as monasticism, as well as with the New Age movement.


Satyagraha

Satyagraha is a philosophy and practice of nonviolent resistance developed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He deployed satyagraha techniques in campaigns for Indian independence movement, Indian independence and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa. The word ''satyagraha'' itself was coined through a public contest that Gandhi sponsored through the newspaper he published in South Africa, ''Indian Opinion'', when he realized that neither the common, contemporary Hindu language nor the English language contained a word which fully expressed his own meanings and intentions when he talked about his nonviolent approaches to conflict. According to Gandhi's autobiography, the contest winner was Maganlal Gandhi (presumably no relation), who submitted the entry 'sadagraha', which Gandhi then modified to 'satyagraha'. Etymologically, this Hindic word means 'truth-firmness', and is commonly translated as 'steadfastness in the truth' or 'truth-force'. Satyagraha theory also influenced Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel, and others during the campaigns they led during the civil rights movement in the United States. The theory of satyagraha sees means and ends as inseparable. Therefore, it is contradictory to try to use violence to obtain peace. As Gandhi wrote: "They say, 'means are, after all, means'. I would say, 'means are, after all, everything'. As the means so the end..." A quote sometimes attributed to Gandhi, but also to A. J. Muste, sums it up: "There is no way to peace; peace is the way".


Monuments

The following are monuments to peace:


Theories

Many different theories of "peace" exist in the world of peace studies, which involves the study of de-escalation, conflict transformation, disarmament, and cessation of violence. The definition of "peace" can vary with religion, culture, or subject of study.


Balance of power

The classical "realist" position is that the key to promoting order between states, and so of increasing the chances of peace, is the maintenance of a Balance of power (international relations), balance of power between states – a situation where no state is so dominant that it can "lay down the law to the rest". Exponents of this view have included Metternich, Otto von Bismarck, Bismarck, Hans Morgenthau, and Henry Kissinger. A related approach – more in the tradition of Hugo Grotius than Thomas Hobbes – was articulated by the so-called "English school of international relations theory" such as Martin Wight in his book ''Power Politics'' (1946, 1978) and Hedley Bull in ''The Anarchical Society'' (1977). As the maintenance of a balance of power could in some circumstances require a willingness to go to war, some critics saw the idea of a balance of power as promoting war rather than promoting peace. This was a radical critique of those supporters of the Allied and Associated Powers who justified entry into World War I on the grounds that it was necessary to preserve the balance of power in Europe from a German bid for hegemony. In the second half of the 20th century, and especially during the cold war, a particular form of balance of power – mutual nuclear deterrence – emerged as a widely held doctrine on the key to peace between the great powers. Critics argued that the development of nuclear stockpiles increased the chances of war rather than peace, and that the "nuclear umbrella" made it "safe" for smaller wars (e.g. the Vietnam war and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia to end the Prague Spring), so making such wars more likely.


Free trade, interdependence and globalization

It was a central tenet of classical liberalism, for example among English liberal thinkers of the late 19th and early 20th century, that free trade promoted peace. For example, the Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) said that he was "brought up" on this idea and held it unquestioned until at least the 1920s. During the economic globalization in the decades leading up to World War I, writers such as Norman Angell argued that the growth of economic interdependence between the great powers made war between them futile and therefore unlikely. He made this argument in 1913. A year later Europe's economically interconnected states were embroiled in what would later become known as the First World War. These ideas have again come to prominence among liberal internationalists during the globalization of the late 20th and early 21st century. These ideas have seen capitalism as consistent with, even conducive to, peace.


War game

The ''Peace and War Game'' is an approach in game theory to understand the relationship between peace and conflicts. The iterated game hypotheses was originally used by academic groups and computer simulations to study possible strategies of cooperation and aggression. As peace makers became richer over time, it became clear that making war had greater costs than initially anticipated. One of the well studied strategy, strategies that acquired wealth more rapidly was based on Genghis Khan, i.e. a constant aggressor making war continually to gain resources. This led, in contrast, to the development of what's known as the "provokable nice guy strategy", a peace-maker until attacked, improved upon merely to win by occasional forgiveness even when attacked. By adding the results of all pairwise games for each player, one sees that multiple players gain wealth cooperating with each other while bleeding a constantly aggressive player.N.R. Miller
"Nice Strategies Finish First: A Review of ''The Evolution of Cooperation''"
''Politics and the Life Sciences'', Association for Politics and the Life Sciences, 1985.


Socialism and managed capitalism

Socialist, communist, and left-wing liberal writers of the 19th and 20th centuries (e.g., Lenin, J.A. Hobson, John Strachey (politician), John Strachey) argued that capitalism caused war (e.g. through promoting imperial or other economic rivalries that lead to international conflict). This led some to argue that international socialism was the key to peace. However, in response to such writers in the 1930s who argued that capitalism caused war, the economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946) argued that managed capitalism could promote peace. This involved international coordination of fiscal/monetary policies, an international monetary system that did not pit the interests of countries against each other, and a high degree of freedom of trade. These ideas underlay Keynes's work during World War II that led to the creation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank at Breton Woods, New Jersey, Bretton Woods in 1944, and later of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (subsequently the World Trade Organization).


Justice and wholeness

Borrowing from the teachings of Norwegian theorist Johan Galtung, one of the pioneers of the field of Peace and conflict studies, Peace Research, on 'Positive Peace', and on the writings of Maine Quaker Gray Cox, a consortium of theorists, activists, and practitioners in the experimental John Woolman College initiative have arrived at a theory of "active peace". This theory posits in part that peace is part of a triad, which also includes justice and wholeness (or well-being), an interpretation consonant with scriptural scholarly interpretations of the meaning of the early Hebrew word ''shalom''. Furthermore, the consortium have integrated Galtung's teaching of the meanings of the terms peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding, to also fit into a triadic and interdependent formulation or structure. Vermont Quaker John V. Wilmerding posits five stages of growth applicable to individuals, communities, and societies, whereby one transcends first the 'surface' awareness that most people have of these kinds of issues, emerging successively into acquiescence, pacifism, passive resistance, active resistance, and finally into ''active peace'', dedicating themselves to peacemaking, peacekeeping or peace building.


International organization and law

One of the most influential theories of peace, especially since
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Woodrow Wilson
led the creation of the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919, Paris Peace Conference of 1919, is that peace will be advanced if the intentional anarchy of states is replaced through the growth of international law promoted and enforced through international organizations such as the League of Nations, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
, and other functional international organizations. One of the most important early exponents of this view was Alfred Eckhart Zimmern, for example in his 1936 book ''The League of Nations and the Rule of Law''.


Trans-national solidarity

Many "idealist" thinkers about international relations – e.g. in the traditions of Kant and Karl Marx – have argued that the key to peace is the growth of some form of solidarity between peoples (or classes of people) spanning the lines of cleavage between nations or states that lead to war. One version of this is the idea of promoting international understanding between nations through the international mobility of students – an idea most powerfully advanced by Cecil Rhodes in the creation of the
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, and his successors such as J. William Fulbright. Another theory is that peace can be developed among countries on the basis of active management of water resources.


Lyotard post-modernism

Following Wolfgang Dietrich, Wolfgang Sützl and the Innsbruck School of Peace Studies, some peace thinkers have abandoned any single and all-encompassing definition of peace. Rather, they promote the idea of ''many peaces''. They argue that since no singular, correct definition of peace can exist, peace should be perceived as a plurality. This post-modern understanding of peace(s) was based on the philosophy of Jean Francois Lyotard. It served as a fundament for the more recent concept of trans-rational peace(s) and elicitive conflict transformation. In 2008, Dietrich enlarged his approach of the ''many peaces'' to the so-called ''five families'' of peace interpretations: the energetic, moral, modern, post-modern and trans-rational approach. Trans-rationality unites the rational and mechanistic understanding of modern peace in a relational and culture-based manner with spiritual narratives and energetic interpretations. The systemic understanding of trans-rational peaces advocates a client-centred method of conflict transformation, the so-called elicitive approach.


Day

Peace day was founded as a day to recognize, honour and promote peace. It is commemorated each year by United Nations members.


Studies, rankings, and periods


Peace and conflict studies

''Peace and conflict studies'' is an academic field which identifies and analyses Violence, violent and Nonviolence, nonviolent behaviours, as well as the structural mechanisms attending violent and non-violent social conflicts. This is to better understand the processes leading to a more desirable human condition. One variation, ''Peace studies'' (irenology), is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary effort aiming at the prevention, de-escalation, and solution of conflicts. This contrasts with war studies (polemology), directed at the efficient attainment of victory in conflicts. Disciplines involved may include political science, geography, economics, psychology, sociology, international relations, history, anthropology, religious studies, and gender studies, as well as a variety of other disciplines.


Measurement and ranking

Although peace is widely perceived as something intangible, various organizations have been making efforts to quantify and measure it. Global Peace Index, The Global Peace Index produced by Institute for Economics and Peace, the Institute for Economics and Peace is a known effort to evaluate peacefulness in countries based on 23 indicators of the absence of violence and absence of the fear of violence. The last edition of the Index ranks 163 countries on their internal and external levels of peace. According to the 2017 Global Peace Index, Iceland is the most peaceful country in the world while Syria is the least peaceful one. Fragile States Index (formerly known as the Failed States Index) created by the Fund for Peace focuses on risk for instability or violence in 178 nations. This index measures how fragile a state is by 12 indicators and subindicators that evaluate aspects of politics, social economy, and military facets in countries. The 2015 Failed State Index reports that the most fragile nation is South Sudan, and the least fragile one is Finland. University of Maryland, College Park, University of Maryland publishes the Peace and Conflict Instability Ledger in order to measure peace. It grades 163 countries with 5 indicators, and pays the most attention to risk of political instability or armed conflict over a three-year period. The most recent ledger shows that the most peaceful country is Slovenia on the contrary Afghanistan is the most conflicted nation. Besides indicated above reports from the Institute for Economics and Peace, Fund for Peace, and University of Maryland, other organizations including George Mason University release indexes that rank countries in terms of peacefulness.


Long periods

The longest continuing period of peace and neutrality among currently existing states is observed in Sweden since 1814 and in Switzerland, which has had an official policy of neutrality since 1815. This was made possible partly by the periods of relative peace in Europe and the world known as Pax Britannica (1815–1914), Pax Europaea/Pax Americana (since 1950s), and Pax Atomica (also since the 1950s). Other examples of long periods of peace are: * the isolationism, isolationistic Edo period (also known as Tokugawa shogunate) in Japan 1603 to 1868 (250 years) * Pax Khazarica in Khazar Khanate (south-east Turkey) about 700–950 AD (250 years) * Pax Romana in the Roman empire (for 190 or 206 years).


See also

* Catholic peace traditions * Creative Peacebuilding * Global Peace Index * Grey-zone (international relations) * Group on International Perspectives on Governmental Aggression and Peace (GIPGAP) * Human overpopulation#Warfare and conflict over dwindling resources * International Day of Peace * List of peace activists * List of places named after peace, List of places named Peace * List of peace prizes * Moral syncretism * Peace education * Peace in Islamic philosophy * Peace Journalism * Peace makers * Peace One Day * Peace Palace * Peace symbol * Peacekeeping * Peacemaking * Perpetual peace * Prayer for Peace (disambiguation), Prayer for Peace * Structural violence * Sulh * War resister * World peace


References


Notes

*Sir Norman Angell. ''The Great Illusion''. 1909 *Raymond Aron, ''Peace and War''. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966 *Hedley Bull. ''The Anarchical Society''. Macmillan, 1977 *Sir Herbert Butterfield. ''Christianity, Diplomacy and War''. 1952 *Martin Ceadel. ''Pacifism in Britain, 1914–1945: The Defining of a Faith''. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980 *Martin Ceadel. ''Semi-Detached Idealists: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1854–1945''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. *Martin Ceadel. ''The Origins of War Prevention: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1730–1854''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996 *Martin Ceadel. ''Thinking about Peace and War''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 *Inis L. Claude, Jr. ''Swords into Ploughshares: The Problems and Progress of International Organization''. 1971 *Michael W. Doyle. ''Ways of War and Peace: Realism, Liberalism, and Socialism''. W.W. Norton, 1997 *Sir Harry Hinsley. ''Power and the Pursuit of Peace''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1962 *Andrew Hurrell. ''On Global Order''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008 *Immanuel Kant. ''Perpetual Peace''. 1795 *Donald Markwell. ''John Maynard Keynes and International Relations: Economic Paths to War and Peace''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. *Donald Markwell. ''"Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education''. Connor Court, 2013 *Hans Morgenthau. ''Politics Among Nations''. 1948 *Steven Pinker. ''The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined''. Viking, 2011 *Sir
Alfred Eckhard Zimmern Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern (1879–1957) was an English classical scholar, historian, and political scientist writing on international relations. His book ''The Third British Empire'' was among the first to apply the expression "Commonwealth of N ...
. ''The
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
and the Rule of Law''. Macmillan, 1936 *Kenneth Waltz. ''Man, the State and War''. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978 *Michael Walzer. ''Just and Unjust War''. Basic Books, 1977 *J. Whalan. ''How Peace Operations Work''. Oxford University Press, 2013 *Martin Wight. ''Power Politics''. 1946 (2nd edition, 1978)
Letter from Birmingham Jail
by Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. *"Pennsylvania, A History of the Commonwealth," esp. pg. 109, edited by Randall M. Miller and William Pencak, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002
Peaceful Societies, Alternatives to Violence and War
Short profiles on 25 peaceful societies. *''The Path to Peace,'' by Laure Paquette *''Prefaces to Peace: a Symposium [i.e. anthology]'', Consisting of [works by] Wendell L. Willkie, Herbert Hoover and Hugh Gibson, Henry A. Wallace, [and] Sumner Welles. "Cooperatively published by Simon and Schuster; Doubleday, Doran, and Co.; Reynal & Hitchcock; [and] Columbia University Press", [194-]. xii, 437 p.


External links


Carnegie Endowment for International Peace


accessed 16 October 2012
Research Guide on Peace by the United Nations Library at Geneva

PeaceWiki

Peace Monuments Around the World
*
Working Group on Peace and Development (FriEnt)

Answers to: "How do we achieve world peace?"

World Alliance of Religions Peace Summit (WARP Summit)
{{Authority control Peace, Nonviolence Pacifism Ethical principles Political concepts Social concepts Virtue Fruit of the Holy Spirit