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A park is an area of naturally occurring, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure ...
or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.
Urban park#REDIRECT Urban park#REDIRECT Urban park {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
s are green spaces set aside for recreation inside towns and cities.
National park (''Capra ibex'') in the Gran Paradiso National Park, Piedmont, Italy. The Ibex population increased tenfold since the area was declared a national park in 1922., 275x275px A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes, created and p ...
s and
country parkA country park is an area designated for people to visit and enjoy recreation in a countryside environment. United Kingdom History In the United Kingdom, the term ''country park'' has a special meaning. There are around 250 recognised country park ...
s are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside.
State park State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use "state" as a political subdivision. State parks are typically established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural ...
s and
provincial parkIschigualasto Provincial Park A provincial park (or territorial park) is a park administered by one of the provinces of a country, as opposed to a national park. They are similar to state parks in other countries. They are typically open to the publ ...
s are administered by sub-national government states and agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks, soil and trees, but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as
monument is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, the Athenian democracy, as well as the symbol of Western Civilization. File:Cristo Rei (36211699613).jpg, The Christ the King, in Almada, Portugal, has become one of the most visited natio ...

monument
s,
fountain A fountain (from the Latin "fons" (genitive "fontis"), a source or spring) is a structure which squirts water into a basin to supply drinking water. It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fount ...
s or
playground A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there. It is typically outdoors. While a playground is usually designed for children, some target other age groups or people with disabilities. ...
structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as
baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hi ...

baseball
and
football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, the word ''football'' normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly call ...

football
, and paved areas for games such as
basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball (approximately in diameter) through the defender's ho ...

basketball
. Many parks have trails for walking, biking and other activities. Some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain
picnic table A picnic table (or picnic bench) is a table with benches (often attached), designed for impromptu outdoor dining. The term is often specifically associated with rectangular tables having an A-frame structure. Such tables may be referred to as "pic ...

picnic table
s and
barbecue Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ in the UK; Barbie in Australia and in South Africa Braai) is a term used with significant regional and national variations to describe various cooking methods which use live fire and smoke to cook the food. ...
grills. The largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands of square kilometers (or square miles), with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers. In many large parks,
camping Camping is an outdoor activity involving overnight stays away from home in a shelter, such as a tent or a recreational vehicle. Typically participants leave developed areas to spend time outdoors in more natural ones in pursuit of activities pro ...
in
tent A tent () is a shelter consisting of sheets of fabric or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting rope. While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents are usually anchor ...
s is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, and users may have to follow restrictions (e.g. rules against open fires or bringing in glass bottles). Large national and sub-national parks are typically overseen by a
park ranger A ranger, park ranger, park warden, or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, state, provincial, or local parks. Description "Parks" may be broadly defined by some systems in this context, and in ...
. Large parks may have areas for
canoeing Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle. Common meanings of the term are limited to when the canoeing is the central purpose of the activity. Broader meanings include when it is combined with other activi ...
and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries,
cross-country skiing Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is widely practiced as a sport and recreationa ...
and
snowshoeing A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink completely into the snow, a quality called "flotation". Snowshoeing is a form of hiki ...
in colder months. There are also amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides, refreshments, and games of chance or skill.


History

English deer parks were used by the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class, the aristocrats. The term derives from the Greek ''aristokratia'', ...
in
medieval In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and transitioned into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages i ...
times for game hunting. They had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals (e.g., stags) in and people out. It was strictly forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks. These game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around
mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word ''mansio'' "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb ''manere'' "to dwell". The English word ''manse'' originally defined a property larg ...

mansion
s and
country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, ...
s from the sixteenth century onward. These may have served as hunting grounds but they also proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these
stately home An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, ...
parks where the
natural landscape A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture. The natural landscape and the cultural landscape are separate parts of the landscape. However, in the 21st century, landscapes that are totally unt ...
was enhanced by
landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning, land planning, planting design, grading, storm water manageme ...
s such as
Capability Brown Lancelot Brown (born c. 1715–16, baptised 30 August 1716 – 6 February 1783), more commonly known as Capability Brown, was an English landscape architect. He is remembered as "the last of the great English 18th-century artists to be acco ...
and
Humphry Repton Humphry Repton (21 April 1752 – 24 March 1818) was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century, often regarded as the successor to Capability Brown; he also sowed the seeds of the more intricate and eclectic styles of t ...

Humphry Repton
. The
French formal garden in the Gardens of Versailles File:Orangerie.jpg">French), is a style of garden based on symmetry and the principle of imposing order on nature. Its epitome is generally considered to be the Gardens of Versailles designed during the 17th cen ...
such as designed by
André Le Nôtre André Le Nôtre (; 12 March 1613 – 15 September 1700), originally rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. He was the landscape architect who designed the gardens ...
at Versailles are an earlier and elaborate example. As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. Early opportunities for the creation of urban parks in both Europe and the United States grew out of medieval practice to secure pasture lands within the safe confines of villages and towns. The most famous US example of a city park evolved from this practice is the Boston Commons in Boston, Massachusetts (1634). With the
Industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machin ...
parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of science. Al ...
beauty were also set aside as
national park (''Capra ibex'') in the Gran Paradiso National Park, Piedmont, Italy. The Ibex population increased tenfold since the area was declared a national park in 1922., 275x275px A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes, created and p ...
s to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development.


Design

Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a
playground A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there. It is typically outdoors. While a playground is usually designed for children, some target other age groups or people with disabilities. ...
. A park primarily intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities. The design of a park may determine who is willing to use it. Walkers might feel unsafe on a
mixed-use path Traditional mixed-use development pattern in a city center: North_Macedonia.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="Bitola,_North_Macedonia">Bitola,_North_Macedonia_ Mixed-use_development_is_a_term_used_for_two_related_ ...
that is dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may even affect children's rates of park usage according to gender. Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages, abilities and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can also benefit
pollinators A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower. This helps to bring about fertilization of the ovules in the flower by the male gametes from the pollen grains. Insect pollinators in ...
, and some parks (such as Saltdean Oval in
East Sussex East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent to the north and east, West Sussex to the west, and Surrey for a short distance to the north-west, as well as the English Channel to the south. History East ...
) have been redesigned to accommodate them better. Some organizations, such as the Xerces Society are also promoting this idea.


Role in city revitalization

City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group that is a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects . They argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.


Design for safety

Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities; Albuquerque, NM, Chapel Hill/Durham, NC, Columbus, OH, and Philadelphia, PA, with 3815 survey participants who lived within a half mile of a park indicated that in addition to safety that park facilities also played a significant role in park utilization and that increasing facilities instead of creating an image of a safe park would increase utilization of the park. There are a number of features that contribute to whether or not a park feels safe. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility (sight lines), and appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement can also contribute to a feeling of safety. While
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is an agenda for manipulating the built environment to create safer neighborhoods. It originated in America around 1960, when urban renewal strategies were felt to be destroying the social frame ...
(CPTED) has been widely used in facility design, use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in
Stockholm, Sweden Stockholm is the capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia. 1 million people live in the municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the urban area, and 2.4 million in the metropolit ...
to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks. Their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the nature of a park, increasing the look of safety can also have
unintended consequences An erosion gully in Australia caused by rabbits, an unintended consequence of their introduction as game animals. In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes of a pu ...
on the aesthetics of the park. Creating secure areas with bars and locks lower the beauty of the park, as well as the nature of who is in charge of observing the public space and the feeling of being observed.


Active and passive recreation areas

Parks can be divided into active and passive
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure ...
areas. Active recreation is that which has an urban character and requires intensive development. It often involves cooperative or team activity, including
playground A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there. It is typically outdoors. While a playground is usually designed for children, some target other age groups or people with disabilities. ...
s, ball fields, swimming pools, gymnasiums, and
skateparks Burnside Skatepark in Portland, Oregon A skatepark, or skate park, is a purpose-built recreational environment made for skateboarding, BMX, scooter, wheelchair, and aggressive inline skating. A skatepark may contain half-pipes, handrails, funbo ...
. Active recreation such as team sports, due to the need to provide substantial space to congregate, typically involves intensive management, maintenance, and high costs. Passive recreation, also called "low intensity recreation" is that which emphasizes the open-space aspect of a park and allows for the preservation of natural habitat. It usually involves a low level of development, such as rustic picnic areas, benches and trails. Many smaller ''neighborhood parks'' are receiving increased attention and valuation as significant community assets and places of refuge in heavily populated urban areas. Neighborhood groups around the world are joining together to support local parks that have suffered from
urban decay Urban decay (also known as urban rot , urban death and urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or ...
and government neglect. Passive recreation typically requires less management which can be provided at lower costs than active recreation. Some open space managers provide trails for physical activity in the form of walking, running, horse riding, mountain biking, snow shoeing, or cross-country skiing; or activities such as observing nature, bird watching, painting, photography, or picnicking. Limiting park or open space use to passive recreation over all or a portion of the park's area eliminates or reduces the burden of managing active recreation facilities and developed infrastructure. Passive recreation amenities require routine upkeep and maintenance to prevent degradation of the environment.


Parks owned or operated by government


National parks

A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always declared and owned by a national
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
, protected from most human development and pollution. Although this may be so, it is not likely that the government of a specific area owns it, rather the community itself. National parks are a
protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabl ...
of
International Union for Conservation of Nature International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * ''International'' (New Order album), 2002 * ''International'' (The Three ...
Category II. This implies that they are wilderness areas, but unlike pure nature reserves, they are established with the expectation of a certain degree of human visitation and supporting infrastructure. While this type of national park had been proposed previously, the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people",
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...
, in 1872, although Yellowstone was not gazetted as a national park. The first officially designated national park was
Mackinac Island Mackinac Island ( ; french: Île Mackinac) is an island and resort area, covering in land area, in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is located in Lake Huron, at the eastern end of the Straits of Mackinac, between the state's Upper and Lower Penin ...
, gazetted in 1875.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
's
Royal National Park The Royal National Park is a protected national park that is located in Sutherland Shire in the Australian state of New South Wales, just south of Sydney and is situated on Dharawal country. The national park is about south of the Sydney centr ...
, established in 1879, was the world's second officially established national park. The largest national park in the world is the
Northeast Greenland National Park Northeast Greenland National Park ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaanni nuna eqqissisimatitaq, da, Grønlands Nationalpark) is the world's largest national park and the 9th largest protected area (the only larger protected areas all consist mostly of sea). Esta ...
, which was established in 1974 and currently protects .


Sub-national parks

In some , many parks are managed by the sub-national levels of government. In
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 millio ...
, the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
, and some states in
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...
, as well as in the Australian state of Victoria, these are known as state parks, whereas in
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by ...
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
and
South Korea South Korea (Korean: /, RR: ''Hanguk''; literally /, RR: ''Namhan'', or /, MR: ''Namchosŏn'' in North Korean usage), officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: /, RR: ''Daehan Minguk''), is a country in East Asia, constituting the ...
, they are known as provincial or territorial parks. In the United States, it is also common for individual
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
to run parks, these are known as county parks.


Urban parks

A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use, usually owned and maintained by a local government. Parks commonly resemble
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland-grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support an unbroken herb ...
s or open
woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade (see di ...
s, the types of
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms, and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.''New Oxford American Dictionary''. A landscape includes the physical elements of geophysically defined landforms su ...

landscape
that human beings find most relaxing.
Grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture. ...
is typically kept short to discourage
insect Insects or Insecta (from Latin ') are pancrustacean hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; usually, insects comprise a class within the Arthropoda. As used here, the term ...
pests and to allow for the enjoyment of
picnic A picnic is a meal taken outdoors (''al fresco'') as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an ...
s and sporting activities. Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade. Some early parks include the la Alameda de Hércules, in
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spanish autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situated on the lower reaches of the River Guadalq ...
, a promenaded public mall, urban garden and park built in 1574, within the historic center of Seville; the
City Park#REDIRECT Urban park {{R from other capitalisation ...
, in Budapest, Hungary, which was property of the Batthyány family and was later made public. An early purpose built public park was
Derby Arboretum Derby Arboretum is a public park and arboretum in the city of Derby, England, located about south of the city centre in the Rose Hill area. It was opened in 1840, following the donation of the land by local philanthropist Joseph Strutt, and to de ...
which was opened in 1840 by Joseph Strutt for the mill workers and people of the city. This was closely followed by Princes Park in the
Liverpool Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. Its population in 2019 was approximately , making it the tenth-largest English district by population. Liverpool's metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the United Kin ...
suburb of
Toxteth Toxteth is an inner-city area of Liverpool in the historic county of Lancashire and the ceremonial county of Merseyside. Toxteth is located to the south of Liverpool city centre, bordered by Aigburth, Canning, Dingle, and Edge Hill. The area was ...
, laid out to the designs of
Joseph Paxton Sir Joseph Paxton (3 August 1803 – 8 June 1865) was an English gardener, architect, engineer and Member of Parliament, best known for designing the Crystal Palace and for cultivating the Cavendish banana, the most consumed banana in the Weste ...
from 1842 and opened in 1843. The land on which the Princes park was built was purchased by Richard Vaughan Yates, an iron merchant and philanthropist, in 1841 for £50,000. The creation of Princes Park showed great foresight and introduced a number of highly influential ideas. First and foremost was the provision of open space for the benefit of townspeople and local residents within an area that was being rapidly built up. Secondly it took the concept of the designed landscape as a setting for the suburban domicile, an idea pioneered by John Nash at
Regent's Park Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. It occupies high ground in north-west Inner London, administratively split between the City of Westminster and the Borough of Camden (and historically between Maryl ...
, and re-fashioned it for the provincial town in a most original way. Nash's remodeling of St James's Park from 1827 and the sequence of processional routes he created to link The Mall with Regent's Park completely transformed the appearance of London's West End. With the establishment of Princes Park in 1842, Joseph Paxton did something similar for the benefit of a provincial town, albeit one of international stature by virtue of its flourishing mercantile contingent. Liverpool had a burgeoning presence on the scene of global maritime trade before 1800 and during the Victorian era its wealth rivalled that of London itself. The form and layout of Paxton's ornamental grounds, structured about an informal lake within the confines of a serpentine carriageway, put in place the essential elements of his much imitated design for
Birkenhead Park Birkenhead Park is a major public park located in the centre of Birkenhead, Merseyside, England. It was designed by Joseph Paxton and opened on 5 April 1847. It is generally acknowledged as the first publicly funded civic park in the world. Th ...

Birkenhead Park
. The latter was commenced in 1843 with the help of public finance and deployed the ideas he pioneered at Princes Park on a more expansive scale.
Frederick Law Olmsted Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822August 28, 1903) was an American landscape architect, journalist, social critic, and public administrator. He was the father of American landscape architecture. Olmsted was famous for co-designing many well-k ...

Frederick Law Olmsted
visited Birkenhead Park in 1850 and praised its qualities. Indeed, Paxton is widely credited as having been one of the principal influences on Olmsted and Calvert's design for New York's Central Park of 1857. There are around an estimated 27,000 public parks in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
, with around 2.6 billion visits to parks each year. Many are of cultural and historical interest, with 300 registered by
Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. It is tasked with ...
as of national importance. Most public parks have been provided and run by local authorities over the past hundred and seventy years, but these authorities have no statutory duty to fund or maintain these public parks. In 2016 the
Heritage Lottery Fund The National Lottery Heritage Fund, formerly the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF), distributes a share of National Lottery funding, supporting a wide range of heritage projects across the United Kingdom. History The fund's predecessor bodies were the ...
’s ''State of UK Public Parks'' reported that “92 per cent of park managers report their maintenance budgets have reduced in the past three years and 95 per cent expect their funding will continue to reduce”. Another early public park is the
Peel Park, Salford Peel Park is a public urban park in Salford, Greater Manchester, England, located on the flood plain of the River Irwell below Salford Crescent and adjacent to the University of Salford. It was the first of three public parks to be opened on 22 A ...
, England opened on August 22, 1846. Another possible claimant for status as the world's first public park is Boston Common (Boston, Massachusetts, USA), set aside in 1634, whose first recreational promenade, Tremont Mall, dates from 1728. True park status for the entire common seems to have emerged no later than 1830, when the grazing of cows was ended and renaming the Common as Washington Park was proposed (renaming the bordering Sentry Street to Park Street in 1808 already acknowledged the reality).


Linear parks

A
linear park, a 4.7 km (2.9 mi) elevated linear park built on top of obsolete railway infrastructure in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, France. , Boston, US, in 1894 A linear park is a park in an urban or suburban setting that is substantially longe ...

linear park
is a park that has a much greater length than width. A typical example of a linear park is a section of a former railway that has been converted into a park called a
rail trail signage in Victoria, Australia indicating the shared trail usage A rail trail is the conversion of a disused Rail transport, railway track into a multi-use path, typically for walking, cycling and sometimes horse riding and snowmobiling. The charact ...
or greenway (i.e. the tracks removed, vegetation allowed to grow back). Parks are sometimes made out of oddly shaped areas of land, much like the vacant lots that often become city neighborhood parks. Linked parks may form a
greenbelt A green belt is a policy and land use zone designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighboring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a ...
.


Country parks

In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, ''country parks'' are areas designated for recreation, and managed by
local authorities Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers specifically to a level of administration that is both geographically-locali ...
. They are often located near urban populations, but they provide recreational facilities typical of the countryside rather than the town.


Military parks

In 2021, following the
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war The 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war was an armed conflict between Azerbaijan, supported by Turkey, and the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh together with Armenia, in the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding territories. It was th ...

2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
, a military park was opened in
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is bounded by the Caspia ...
's capital
Baku Baku (, ; az, Bakı, ) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and a ...
, showcasing seized military equipment, as well as the helmets of dead Armenian troops and wax mannequins of them.
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.The UNbr>classification of world regions places Armenia in Western Asia; the ...
strongely condemed it accusing Baku of "dishonoring the memory of victims of the war, missing persons and prisoners of war and violating the rights and dignity of their families". Armenia'a ombudsman called it a "clear manifestation of fascism", saying that it is a "proof of Azerbaijani genocidal policy and state supported Armenophobia".


Private parks

Private parks are owned by individuals or businesses and are used at the discretion of the owner. There are a few types of private parks, and some which once were privately maintained and used have now been made open to the public. ''Hunting parks'' were originally areas maintained as open space where residences, industry and farming were not allowed, often originally so that nobility might have a place to hunt – see
medieval deer park In medieval and Early Modern England, Wales and Ireland, a deer park () was an enclosed area containing deer. It was bounded by a ditch and bank with a wooden park pale on top of the bank, or by a stone or brick wall. The ditch was on the inside ...
. These were known for instance, as ''deer parks'' (deer being originally a term meaning any wild animal). Many
country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the city—hence, for these people, ...
s in Great Britain and Ireland still have parks of this sort, which since the 18th century have often been landscaped for aesthetic effect. They are usually a mixture of open grassland with scattered trees and sections of woodland, and are often enclosed by a high wall. The area immediately around the house is the garden. In some cases this will also feature sweeping lawns and scattered trees; the basic difference between a ''country house's park'' and its garden is that the park is grazed by animals, but they are excluded from the garden.


Other park types

Dog parks Dogs playing in Milwaukee Area Dog Parks A dog park is a park for dogs to exercise and play off-leash in a controlled environment under the supervision of their owners. Description Dog parks have varying features, although they typically offer ...
permit dogs to run off-leash. Parks have differing rules regarding whether dogs can be brought into a park: some parks prohibit dogs; some parks allow them with restrictions (e.g., use of a leash).
Amusement park Wonder Mountain at Canada's Wonderland An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its struct ...
s have live shows, fairground rides, refreshments, and games of chance/skill. Forest park : usually large areas of attractive country with marked paths and special areas for camping.


See also

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10-Minute Walk The 10-Minute Walk, also known as the 10-Minute Walk to a Park, refers to a grassroots parks-advocacy movement to ensure that everyone in the United States lives within a ten-minute walk to a high-quality park or green space. The effort was adopted ...
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Landscape architecture#REDIRECT Landscape architecture#REDIRECT Landscape architecture {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
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Parklet A parklet is a sidewalk extension that provides more space and amenities for people using the street. Usually parklets are installed on parking lanes and use several parking spaces. Parklets typically extend out from the sidewalk at the level of ...
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Pocket park A pocket park (also known as a parkette, mini-park, vest-pocket park or vesty park) is a small park accessible to the general public. Pocket parks are frequently created on small, irregular pieces of land, in vacant building lots, along the center ...
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Public open space A public open space is defined as an open piece of land both green space or hard space to which there is public access. Public open space is often referred to by urban planners and landscape architects by the acronym 'POS'. Varied interpretations o ...
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Royal forest#REDIRECT Royal forest {{R from other capitalisation ...
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Urban open space Asramam Maidan in Kollam city, India">Kollam.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Asramam Maidan in Kollam">Asramam Maidan in Kollam city, India. It is the largest open space available in any of the city limits i ...


References


External links

* {{Authority control Landscape
Protected areas {{Commons category, Protected areas Environmental conservation Environmental protection Tourist attractions ...
Recreation Recreation is a form of entertainment derived from physical activities, without artificial rules. Recreational is the use of time in a non-profitable way, in many ways also a therapeutic refreshment of one's body or mind. While leisure is more lik ...