HOME

TheInfoList




A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is spent away from , , , , and , as well as necessary activities such as and ing. Leisure as an experience usuall ...

recreation
or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.
Urban park An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (United Kingdom, UK), is a park in cities and other Municipal corporation, incorporated places that offe ...

Urban park
s are green spaces set aside for recreation inside towns and cities.
National park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

National park
s and
country parkA country park is an area designated for people to visit and enjoy recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human biology and psychology. ...
s are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside.
State park State parks are park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as f ...
s and
provincial park A provincial park (or territorial park) is a administered by one of the s of a country, as opposed to a . They are similar to s in other countries. They are typically open to the public for recreation. Their environment may be more or less strict ...
s are administered by sub-national government states and agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks, soil and trees, but may also contain buildings and other artifacts such as
monument is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end o ...

monument
s,
fountain A fountain, from the "fons" ( "fontis"), meaning source or , is a decorative reservoir for discharging into a basin to supply . It is also a structure that jets water into the air for a decorative or dramatic effect. Fountains were original ...

fountain
s or
playground A playground, playpark, or play area is a place designed to provide an environment for child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human being between the stages of childbirth, birth and puberty, or between the Development of the hu ...

playground
structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as
baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team (baseball), fielding team, called the pi ...

baseball
and
football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson (academic), Leigh Thompson of the Kellogg Sch ...

football
, and paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking, biking and other activities. Some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks often have benches for sitting and may contain
picnic table A picnic table (or picnic bench) is a table Table may refer to: * Table (information) A table is an arrangement of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the qu ...

picnic table
s and
barbecue Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ in the UK; Barbie in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent ...

barbecue
grills. The largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands of square kilometers (or square miles), with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers. In many large parks,
camping Camping is an outdoor activity Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity refers to recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away f ...

camping
in
tent A tent () is a consisting of sheets of or other material draped over, attached to a frame of poles or attached to a supporting . While smaller tents may be free-standing or attached to the ground, large tents are usually anchored using tied t ...

tent
s is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, and users may have to follow restrictions (e.g. rules against open fires or bringing in glass bottles). Large national and sub-national parks are typically overseen by a
park ranger A ranger, park ranger, park warden, or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, state, provincial, or local parks. Description "Parks" may be broadly defined by some systems in this context, and in ...
. Large parks may have areas for
canoeing Canoeing is an activity which involves paddling a canoe with a single-bladed paddle. Common meanings of the term are limited to when the canoeing is the central purpose of the activity. Broader meanings include when it is combined with other activi ...
and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries,
cross-country skiing Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing where skiers rely on their own locomotion to move across snow-covered terrain, rather than using ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Cross-country skiing is widely practiced as a sport and recreati ...

cross-country skiing
and
snowshoeing A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink completely into the snow, a quality called "flotation". Snowshoeing is a form of hiki ...
in colder months. There are also amusement parks that have live shows, fairground rides, refreshments, and games of chance or skill.


History

English deer parks were used by the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Ar ...
in
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
times for game hunting. They had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals (e.g., stags) in and people out. It was strictly forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks. These game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around
mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word ''mansio'' "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb ''manere'' "to dwell". The English word ''manse'' originally defined a property la ...

mansion
s and
country house An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European ...

country house
s from the sixteenth century onward. These may have served as hunting grounds but they also proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these
stately home An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European ...
parks where the
natural landscape A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture. The natural landscape and the cultural landscape are separate parts of the landscape. However, in the 21st century, landscapes that are totally u ...

natural landscape
was enhanced by
landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning A site plan or a plot plan is a type of drawing used by arch ...
s such as
Capability Brown Lancelot Brown (born c. 1715–16, baptised 30 August 1716 – 6 February 1783), more commonly known as Capability Brown, was an English landscape architect. He is remembered as "the last of the great English 18th-century artists to be acc ...
and
Humphry Repton Humphry Repton (21 April 1752 – 24 March 1818) was the last great English landscape designer Landscape design is an independent profession and a design and art tradition, practiced by landscape designers, combining nature and culture. In c ...

Humphry Repton
. The
French formal garden in the Gardens of Versailles File:Orangerie.jpg, Parterre of the Versailles Orangerie The French formal garden, also called the ' (literally, "garden in the French manner" in French language, French), is a style of garden based on symmetry and th ...
such as designed by
André Le Nôtre André Le Nôtre (; 12 March 1613 – 15 September 1700), originally rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of la ...

André Le Nôtre
at
Versailles
Versailles
is an earlier and elaborate example. As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. Early opportunities for the creation of urban parks in both Europe and the United States grew out of medieval practice to secure pasture lands within the safe confines of villages and towns. The most famous US example of a city park that evolved from this practice is the Boston Commons in Boston, Massachusetts (1634). With the
Industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding
natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ...

natural
beauty were also set aside as
national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state dec ...

national park
s to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development.


Design

Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a
playground A playground, playpark, or play area is a place designed to provide an environment for child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human being between the stages of childbirth, birth and puberty, or between the Development of the hu ...

playground
. A park primarily intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities. The design of a park may determine who is willing to use it. Walkers might feel unsafe on a mixed-use path that is dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may even affect children's rates of park usage according to gender. Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages, abilities and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can also benefit
pollinators A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen File:Pollen Tube.svg, Pollen Tube Diagram Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are Sporophyte, microsporophytes of spermatophyta, seed plants, which produce male gametes ...
, and some parks (such as Saltdean Oval in
East Sussex East Sussex is a county in South East England on the English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" ( Cotentinais) or (Jèrriais), (Guernésiais), "The Channel"; br, Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; c ...

East Sussex
) have been redesigned to accommodate them better. Some organizations, such as the
Xerces Society The Xerces Society is a non-profit environmental organization An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the Conservation movement, conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environm ...
are also promoting this idea.


Role in city revitalization

City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group that is a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects. They argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.


Design for safety

Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities; Albuquerque, NM, Chapel Hill/Durham, NC, Columbus, OH, and Philadelphia, PA, with 3815 survey participants who lived within a half mile of a park indicated that in addition to safety that park facilities also played a significant role in park utilization and that increasing facilities instead of creating an image of a safe park would increase utilization of the park. There are a number of features that contribute to whether or not a park feels safe. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility (sight lines), and appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement, can also contribute to a feeling of safety. While
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is an agenda for manipulating the built environment to create safer neighborhoods. It originated in America around 1960, when urban renewal strategies were felt to be destroying the social frame ...
(CPTED) has been widely used in facility design, the use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in
Stockholm, Sweden Stockholm is the capital of Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geo ...

Stockholm, Sweden
to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks. Their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the nature of a park, increasing the look of safety can also have
unintended consequences In the social sciences Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to ...

unintended consequences
on the aesthetics of the park. Creating secure areas with bars and locks lower the beauty of the park, as well as the nature of who is in charge of observing the public space and the feeling of being observed.


Active and passive recreation areas

Parks can be divided into active and passive
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is spent away from , , , , and , as well as necessary activities such as and ing. Leisure as an experience usuall ...

recreation
areas. Active recreation is that which has an urban character and requires intensive development. It often involves cooperative or team activity, including
playground A playground, playpark, or play area is a place designed to provide an environment for child Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human being between the stages of childbirth, birth and puberty, or between the Development of the hu ...

playground
s, ball fields, swimming pools, gymnasiums, and
skateparks Image:Portlandskate.jpg, Burnside Skatepark in Portland, Oregon A skatepark, or skate park, is a purpose-built recreational environment made for skateboarding, BMX, scooter, wheelchair, and aggressive inline skating. A skatepark may contain hal ...
. Active recreation such as team sports, due to the need to provide substantial space to congregate, typically involves intensive management, maintenance, and high costs. Passive recreation, also called "low intensity recreation" is that which emphasizes the open-space aspect of a park and allows for the preservation of natural habitat. It usually involves a low level of development, such as rustic picnic areas, benches and trails. Many smaller ''neighborhood parks'' are receiving increased attention and valuation as significant community assets and places of refuge in heavily populated urban areas. Neighborhood groups around the world are joining together to support local parks that have suffered from
urban decay Urban decay (also known as urban rot, urban death and urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Londo ...
and government neglect. Passive recreation typically requires less management which can be provided at lower costs than active recreation. Some open space managers provide trails for physical activity in the form of walking, running, horse riding, mountain biking, snow shoeing, or cross-country skiing; or activities such as observing nature, bird watching, painting, photography, or picnicking. Limiting park or open space use to passive recreation over all or a portion of the park's area eliminates or reduces the burden of managing active recreation facilities and developed infrastructure. Passive recreation amenities require routine upkeep and maintenance to prevent degradation of the environment.


Parks owned or operated by government


National parks

A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always declared and owned by a national
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...

government
, protected from most human development and pollution. Although this may be so, it is not likely that the government of a specific area owns it, rather the community itself. National parks are a
protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the ena ...
of
International Union for Conservation of Nature The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization An international organization (also known as an international institut ...
Category II. This implies that they are wilderness areas, but unlike pure nature reserves, they are established with the expectation of a certain degree of human visitation and supporting infrastructure. While this type of national park had been proposed previously, the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people",
Yellowstone National Park Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in the western United States, largely in the northwest corner of Wyoming and extending into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by ...

Yellowstone National Park
, in 1872, although Yellowstone was not gazetted as a national park. The first officially designated national park was
Mackinac Island Mackinac Island ( ; french: Île Mackinac) is an island and resort area, covering in land area, in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a s ...
, gazetted in 1875.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
's
Royal National Park The Royal National Park is a protected national park#REDIRECT National park A national park is a park in use for Conservation (ethic), conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, ...
, established in 1879, was the world's second officially established national park. The largest national park in the world is the
Northeast Greenland National Park Northeast Greenland National Park ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaanni nuna eqqissisimatitaq, da, Grønlands Nationalpark) is the world's largest national park and the 9th List of largest protected areas in the world, largest protected area (the only larger ...
, which was established in 1974 and currently protects .


Sub-national parks

In some , many parks are managed by the sub-national levels of government. In
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, and some states in
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
, as well as in the Australian state of Victoria, these are known as state parks, whereas in
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es, link=no, República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

Argentina
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
and
South Korea South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korea, Korean Peninsula and sharing a Korean Demilitarized Zone, land border with North Korea. Its western border is for ...

South Korea
, they are known as provincial or territorial parks. In the United States, it is also common for individual
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
to run parks, these are known as county parks.


Urban parks

A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use, usually owned and maintained by a local government. Parks commonly resemble
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...

savanna
s or open
woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plu ...

woodland
s, the types of
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) an ...

landscape
that human beings find most relaxing.
Grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain ...

Grass
is typically kept short to discourage
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
pests and to allow for the enjoyment of
picnic A picnic is a meal A meal is an eating Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ' ...

picnic
s and sporting activities. Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade. Some early parks include the la Alameda de Hércules, in
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
, a promenaded public mall, urban garden and park built in 1574, within the historic center of Seville; the
City Park An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (United Kingdom, UK), is a park in cities and other Municipal corporation, incorporated places that offe ...
, in Budapest, Hungary, which was property of the Batthyány family and was later made public. An early purpose built public park was
Derby Arboretum Derby Arboretum is a public park and arboretum in the city of Derby, England, located about south of the city centre in the Rose Hill, Derby, Rose Hill area. It was opened in 1840, following the donation of the land by local philanthropist Joseph ...
which was opened in 1840 by Joseph Strutt for the mill workers and people of the city. This was closely followed by
Princes ParkPrinces Park may refer to: * Prince's Park, a park in Burntwood, Staffordshire, England * Princes Park (Dartford), a football stadium in Kent, England * Princes Park (Liverpool ward), a Liverpool City Council Ward * Princes Park, Carlton, a park in ...

Princes Park
in the
Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the List of English districts by population, tenth largest English district by population, and its ...

Liverpool
suburb of
Toxteth Toxteth is an inner-city area of Liverpool in the historic county of Lancashire and the ceremonial county of Merseyside. Toxteth is located to the south of Liverpool city centre, bordered by Aigburth, Canning, Liverpool, Canning, Dingle, Liverpoo ...
, laid out to the designs of
Joseph Paxton Sir Joseph Paxton (3 August 1803 – 8 June 1865) was an English gardener A gardener is someone who practices gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultiva ...

Joseph Paxton
from 1842 and opened in 1843. The land on which the Princes park was built was purchased by Richard Vaughan Yates, an iron merchant and philanthropist, in 1841 for £50,000. The creation of Princes Park showed great foresight and introduced a number of highly influential ideas. First and foremost was the provision of open space for the benefit of townspeople and local residents within an area that was being rapidly built up. Secondly it took the concept of the designed landscape as a setting for the suburban domicile, an idea pioneered by
John NashJohn Nash may refer to: Arts and entertainment *John Nash (architect) (1752–1835), Anglo-Welsh architect *John Nash Round, English architect active in the mid-19th-century Kent *"Jolly" John Nash (1828–1901), English music hall entertainer *Joh ...
at
Regent's Park Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. It occupies high ground in north-west Inner London, administratively split between the City of Westminster and the London Borough of Camden, Borough of Camden (and ...

Regent's Park
, and re-fashioned it for the provincial town in a most original way. Nash's remodeling of St James's Park from 1827 and the sequence of processional routes he created to link The Mall with Regent's Park completely transformed the appearance of London's West End. With the establishment of Princes Park in 1842, Joseph Paxton did something similar for the benefit of a provincial town, albeit one of international stature by virtue of its flourishing mercantile contingent. Liverpool had a burgeoning presence on the scene of global maritime trade before 1800 and during the Victorian era its wealth rivalled that of London itself. The form and layout of Paxton's ornamental grounds, structured about an informal lake within the confines of a serpentine carriageway, put in place the essential elements of his much imitated design for
Birkenhead Park Birkenhead Park is a major public park located in the centre of Birkenhead, Merseyside, England. It was designed by Joseph Paxton and opened on 5 April 1847. It is generally acknowledged as the first publicly funded civic park in the world. Th ...

Birkenhead Park
. The latter was commenced in 1843 with the help of public finance and deployed the ideas he pioneered at Princes Park on a more expansive scale.
Frederick Law Olmsted Frederick Law Olmsted (April 26, 1822August 28, 1903) was an American landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysi ...

Frederick Law Olmsted
visited Birkenhead Park in 1850 and praised its qualities. Indeed, Paxton is widely credited as having been one of the principal influences on Olmsted and Calvert's design for New York's Central Park of 1857. There are around an estimated 27,000 public parks in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, with around 2.6 billion visits to parks each year. Many are of cultural and historical interest, with 300 registered by
Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England) is an executive non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as th ...
as of national importance. Most public parks have been provided and run by local authorities over the past hundred and seventy years, but these authorities have no statutory duty to fund or maintain these public parks. In 2016 the
Heritage Lottery Fund The National Lottery Heritage Fund, formerly the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF), distributes a share of National Lottery funding, supporting a wide range of heritage projects across the United Kingdom. History The fund's predecessor bodies were ...
’s ''State of UK Public Parks'' reported that “92 per cent of park managers report their maintenance budgets have reduced in the past three years and 95 per cent expect their funding will continue to reduce”. Another early public park is the
Peel Park, Salford Peel Park is a public urban park in Salford, Greater Manchester Salford () is a city in the City of Salford, Metropolitan Borough of Salford in Greater Manchester, England. In 2011, Salford had a population of 103,886, Salford is located in ...

Peel Park, Salford
, England opened on August 22, 1846. Another possible claimant for status as the world's first public park is Boston Common (Boston, Massachusetts, USA), set aside in 1634, whose first recreational promenade, Tremont Mall, dates from 1728. True park status for the entire common seems to have emerged no later than 1830, when the grazing of cows was ended and renaming the Common as Washington Park was proposed (renaming the bordering Sentry Street to Park Street in 1808 already acknowledged the reality).


Linear parks

A
linear park A linear park is a type of park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experien ...

linear park
is a park that has a much greater length than width. A typical example of a linear park is a section of a former railway that has been converted into a park called a
rail trail A rail trail is the conversion of a disused railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people o ...
or greenway (i.e. the tracks removed, vegetation allowed to grow back). Parks are sometimes made out of oddly shaped areas of land, much like the vacant lots that often become city neighborhood parks. Linked parks may form a
greenbelt A green belt is a policy and land use zone designation used in land use planning Land-use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done in an effort to promote more desirable social and envi ...

greenbelt
.


Virtual parks

A virtual park can exist anywhere and at any time. They are great for anyone looking to get away from their everyday routine.


Country parks

In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, ''country parks'' are areas designated for recreation, and managed by
local authorities Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geograp ...
. They are often located near urban populations, but they provide recreational facilities typical of the countryside rather than the town.


Military parks

In 2021, following the
2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war The 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war was an armed conflict between Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eu ...

2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war
, a Military Trophy Park was opened in
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
's capital
Baku Baku (, ; az, Bakı, ) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located below sea level, which makes it the List of capital cities by altitu ...

Baku
, showcasing seized military equipment, as well as the helmets and wax mannequins of Armenian troops. The helmets were reported by international media to belong to dead Armenian soldiers. Several international journalists have called the park "barbaric".
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
strongly condemned it, accusing Baku of "dishonoring the memory of victims of the war, missing persons and prisoners of war and violating the rights and dignity of their families". Armenia's ombudsman called it a "clear manifestation of fascism", saying that it is a "proof of Azerbaijani genocidal policy and state supported Armenophobia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan stated that such museums are a widely accepted international practice, and the country has a right to commemorate its victory through parades, parks, museums and other means. Azerbaijani authorities claimed that the helmets were left behind by retreating Armenian soldiers. When Azerbaijani historian Dr Altay Goyushov, one of the leaders of liberal democratic opposition, criticised the helmets corridor, he was rebuffed by local journalists and bloggers who justified demonstrating the helmets, one of them going as far as inviting "all who does not feel well looking at them to go and drown in Caspian sea".


Private parks

Private parks are owned by individuals or businesses and are used at the discretion of the owner. There are a few types of private parks, and some which once were privately maintained and used have now been made open to the public. ''Hunting parks'' were originally areas maintained as open space where residences, industry and farming were not allowed, often originally so that nobility might have a place to hunt – see
medieval deer park In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
. These were known for instance, as ''deer parks'' (deer being originally a term meaning any wild animal). Many
country house An English country house is a large house or mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European ...

country house
s in Great Britain and Ireland still have parks of this sort, which since the 18th century have often been landscaped for aesthetic effect. They are usually a mixture of open grassland with scattered trees and sections of woodland, and are often enclosed by a high wall. The area immediately around the house is the garden. In some cases this will also feature sweeping lawns and scattered trees; the basic difference between a ''country house's park'' and its garden is that the park is grazed by animals, but they are excluded from the garden.


Other park types

Dog parks Dogs playing in Milwaukee Area Dog Parks A dog park is a park for dogs to exercise and play off-leash in a controlled environment under the supervision of their owners. Description Dog parks have varying features, although they typically offer ...
permit dogs to run off-leash. Parks have differing rules regarding whether dogs can be brought into a park: some parks prohibit dogs; some parks allow them with restrictions (e.g., use of a leash).
Amusement park Wonder Mountain at Canada's Wonderland An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its struc ...
s have live shows, fairground rides, refreshments, and games of chance/skill. Forest parks are large areas of attractive country with marked paths and special areas for camping.


See also

*
10-Minute Walk The 10-Minute Walk, also known as the 10-Minute Walk to a Park, refers to a grassroots A grassroots movement is one that uses the people in a given district, region or community as the basis for a political or economic movement. Grassroots move ...
*
Landscape architecture Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor areas, landmarks, and structures to achieve environmental, social-behavioural, or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic design and general engineering of various structures for constructio ...
*
Parklet A parklet is a sidewalk A sidewalk ( North American English), pavement (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spo ...
*
Pocket park A pocket park (also known as a parkette, mini-park, vest-pocket park or vesty park) is a small park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activity of leisu ...
*
Public open space A public open space is defined as an open piece of land both green space or hard space to which there is public access. Public open space is often referred to by urban planners and landscape architects by the acronym 'POS'. Varied interpretations o ...
*
Royal forest A royal forest, occasionally "Kingswood" (), is an area of land with different definitions in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the ...
*
Urban open space In land-use planning Land use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done to promote more desirable social and environmental outcomes as well as a more efficient use of resources. More ...


References


External links

* {{Authority control Landscape Protected areas Recreation