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Natural Landscape
A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human impact on the environment, human culture. The natural landscape and the cultural landscape are separate parts of the landscape. However, in the 21st century, landscapes that are totally untouched by human behavior, human activity no longer exist, so that reference is sometimes now made to degrees of naturalness within a landscape.The European Environment Agency's planned forest naturalness index is an example of an attempt to define one type of natural landscape in Europe. The Agency lists forests in three categories: (1) Plantations; (2) Semi-natural; and (3) Naturally dynamic. The latter are "forests whose structure, composition and function have been shaped by natural dynamics without substantial Human impact on the environment, anthropogenic influence over a long period of time". In ''Silent Spring'' (1962) Rachel Carson describes a roadside verge as it used to look: "Along the roads, l ...
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Landscape
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of Earth's crust, crustal components such a ..., its landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws ...s, and how they integrate with natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and ... or man-made features.''New Oxford American Dictionary''. A landscape includes the physical elements of geophysical Geop ...
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A Sketch Of A Physical Description Of The Universe
A, or a, is the first Letter (alphabet), letter and the first vowel letter of the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''a'' (pronounced ), plural English alphabet#Letter names, ''aes''. It is similar in shape to the Greek_alphabet#History, Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The Letter case, uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type. In the English grammar, "English articles, a", and its variant "English articles#Indefinite article, an", are Article (grammar)#Indefinite article, indefinite articles. History The earliest certain ancestor of "A" is aleph (also w ...
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Holistic
Holism (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ... ''holos'' "all, whole, entire") is the idea that various system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is essential in the concept of interaction, as opposed to a one-way causal e ...s (e.g. physical, biological, social) should be viewed as wholes, not merely as a collection of parts. The term "holism" was coined by Jan Smuts Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts, (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a South African statesman, military leader, and philosopher. In addition to holding various military and cabinet posts, he served as Prime Minister of South Africa, prime m ... in his 1 ...
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Appeal To Nature
An appeal to nature is an argument In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, lab ... or rhetorical tactic in which it is proposed that "a thing is good ''because'' it is 'natural', or bad ''because'' it is 'unnatural. It is generally considered to be a bad argument because the implicit (unstated) primary premise "What is ''natural'' is ''good''" is typically irrelevant, having no cogent meaning in practice, or is an opinion instead of a fact. In some philosophical frameworks where ''natural'' and ''good'' are clearly defined within a specific context, the appeal to nature might be valid and cogent. Forms General form of this type of argument: In some contexts, the use of the terms of "nature Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or uni ...
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Cartesian Dualism
Cartesian means of or relating to the French philosopher René Descartes—from his Latinized name ''Cartesius''. It may refer to: Mathematics *Cartesian closed category, a closed category in category theory *Cartesian coordinate system, modern rectangular coordinate system *Cartesian diagram, a construction in category theory *Cartesian geometry, now more commonly called analytic geometry *Fibred category#Cartesian morphisms and functors, Cartesian morphism, formalisation of ''pull-back'' operation in category theory *Cartesian oval, a curve *Cartesian product, a direct product of two sets *Cartesian product of graphs, a binary operation on graphs *Cartesian tree, a binary tree in computer science Philosophy *Cartesian anxiety, a hope that studying the world will give us unchangeable knowledge of ourselves and the world *Cartesian circle, a potential mistake in reasoning *Cartesian doubt, a form of methodical skepticism as a basis for philosophical rigor *Cartesian dualism, the ...
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Garden Of Eden
In Abrahamic religions The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of -originated s that claim descent from the of the ancient and the worship of the . The Abrahamic religions are , with the t ..., the Garden of Eden (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...: – ''gan-ʿĒḏen'') or Garden of God ( – ''gan-YHWH The Tetragrammaton (; ), or Tetragram, is the four-letter Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as ...''), also called the Terrestrial Paradise, is the biblical The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek ...
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The Fall Of Man
The fall of man, the fall of Adam, or simply the Fall, is a term used in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ... to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ... to a state of guilty disobedience. The doctrine of the Fall comes from a biblical interpretation Biblical hermeneutics is the study of the principles of interpretation concerning the books of the Bible. It is part of the broader field of hermeneutics, which involves the study of principles of inte ...
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Western Culture
Western culture, also known as Western civilization, Occidental culture, or Western society, is the heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are conside ... of social norms Social norms are shared standards of acceptance, acceptable behavior by groups. Social norms can both be informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society, as well as be codified into wikt:rule, rules and laws. Social norm ..., ethical value In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ...s, traditional customs, belief systems A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: ...
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Dualism (philosophy Of Mind)
Dualism most commonly refers to: * Mind–body dualism In the philosophy of mind, mind–body dualism denotes either the view that mind, mental phenomena are non-physical entity, non-physical,W. D. Hart, Hart, W. D. 1996. "Dualism." Pp. 265–67 in ''A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind'', edited by ..., a philosophical view which holds that mental phenomena are, at least in certain respects, not physical phenomena, or that the mind and the body are distinct and separable from one another ** Property dualism Property dualism: the exemplification of two kinds of property by one kind of substance Property dualism describes a category of positions in the philosophy of mind which hold that, although the world is composed of just one kind of substance the ..., a view in the philosophy of mind and metaphysics which holds that, although the world is composed of just one kind of substance—the physical kind—there exist two distinct kinds of properties: physical properties and ment ...
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Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin (; ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classif ..., geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processes that shape them. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chem ... and biologist A biologist is a professional who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, understanding the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of biological systems within fields such as health, technology and the Biophysical environm ..., best known for his contributions to the science of evolution Evolution is change in the heritable ...
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Climatology
Climatology (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ... , ''klima'', "place, zone"; and , ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''-logia''). The earliest English examples were anglicizations of the French ''wiktionary:-logie, -logie'', which was in turn inherit ...'') or climate science is the scientific study of Earth's climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a la ..., typically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of at least 30 years. This modern fi ...
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Geological
Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ... γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is a branch of Earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Ta ... concerned with both the liquid and solid EarthSolid earth refers to "the earth beneath our feet" or '' terra firma'', the planet's solid surface and its interior. It contrasts with the Earth's fluid envelopes, the atmosphere and hydrosphere (but includes the ocean basin), as well as the bio ..., the rocks In geology Geology (f ...
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