Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics is the study of ''
Toponymy, toponymics, or toponomastics is the study of '' toponyms'' ( proper names of places, also known as place names and geographic names), including their origins, meanings, usage and types. Toponym is the general term for a proper name o ...
A proper noun is a noun that identifies a single entity and is used to refer to that entity ('' Africa'', ''Jupiter'', '' Sarah'', '' Microsoft)'' as distinguished from a common noun, which is a noun that refers to a class of entities (''contine ...
of places, also known as place names and geographic names), including their origins, meanings, usage and types. Toponym is the general term for a proper name of any
A feature (also called an object or entity), in the context of geography and geographic information science, is a discrete phenomenon that exists at a location in the space and scale of relevance to geography; that is, at or near the surface of E ...
, and full scope of the term also includes proper names of all cosmographical
In a more specific sense, the term ''toponymy'' refers to an inventory of toponyms, while the discipline researching such names is referred to as ''toponymics'' or ''toponomastics''. Toponymy is a branch of
Onomastics (or, in older texts, onomatology) is the study of the etymology, history, and use of proper names. An '' orthonym'' is the proper name of the object in question, the object of onomastic study.
Onomastics can be helpful in data mining, ...
, the study of
A proper noun is a noun that identifies a single entity and is used to refer to that entity ('' Africa'', ''Jupiter'', '' Sarah'', '' Microsoft)'' as distinguished from a common noun, which is a noun that refers to a class of entities (''contine ...
of all kinds. A person who studies toponymy is called ''toponymist''.
The term toponymy come from grc, τόπος / , 'place', and / , 'name'.
Oxford English Dictionary
The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the first and foundational historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a co ...
'' records ''toponymy'' (meaning "place name") first appearing in English in 1876. Since then, ''toponym'' has come to replace the term ''place-name'' in professional discourse among
A geographer is a physical scientist, social scientist or humanist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society, including how society and nature interacts. The Greek prefix "geo" means "earth" a ...
Toponyms can be divided in two principal groups:
* geonyms - proper names of all
Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia''. Combination of Greek words ‘Geo’ (The Earth) and ‘Graphien’ (to describe), literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, an ...
features, on planet
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. While large list of largest lakes and seas in the Solar System, volumes of water can be found throughout the Solar System, only water distributi ...
* cosmonyms - proper names of cosmographical
features, outside Earth.
Various types of geographical toponyms (geonyms) include, in alphabetical order:
* agronyms - proper names of fields and plains.
- proper names of regions or countries.
* dromonyms - proper names of roads or any other transport routes by land, water or air.
* drymonyms - proper names of woods and forests.
- proper names of inhabited locations, like houses, villages, towns or cities, including:
** comonyms - proper names of villages.
** astionyms - proper names of towns and cities.
A hydronym (from el, ὕδρω, , "water" and , , "name") is a type of toponym that designates a proper name of a body of water. Hydronyms include the proper names of rivers and streams, lakes and ponds, swamps and marshes, seas and oceans. As ...
- proper names of various bodies of water, including:
** helonyms - proper names of swamps, marshes and bogs.
** limnonyms - proper names of lakes and ponds.
** oceanonyms - proper names of oceans.
** pelagonyms - proper names of seas.
** potamonyms - proper names of rivers and streams.
* insulonyms - proper names of islands.
* oronyms - proper names of
Relief is a sculptural method in which the sculpted pieces are bonded to a solid background of the same material. The term '' relief'' is from the Latin verb ''relevo'', to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that th ...
features, like mountains, hills and valleys, including:
** speleonyms - proper names of caves or some other subterranean features.
** petronyms - proper names of rock climbing routes.
* urbanonyms - proper names of urban elements (streets, squares etc.) in settlements, including:
** agoronyms - proper names of squares and marketplaces.
- proper names of streets and roads.
Various types of cosmographical toponyms (cosmonyms) include:
* asteroidonyms - proper names of asteroids.
* astronyms - proper names of stars and constellations.
* cometonyms - proper names of comets.
* meteoronyms - proper names of meteors.
* planetonyms - proper names of planets and planetary systems.
Probably the first toponymists were the storytellers and poets who explained the origin of specific place names as part of their tales; sometimes place-names served as the basis for their etiological
legends. The process of
Folk etymology (also known as popular etymology, analogical reformation, reanalysis, morphological reanalysis or etymological reinterpretation) is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more famili ...
usually took over, whereby a false meaning was extracted from a name based on its structure or sounds. Thus, for example, the toponym of
The Dardanelles (; tr, Çanakkale Boğazı, lit=Strait of Çanakkale, el, Δαρδανέλλια, translit=Dardanéllia), also known as the Strait of Gallipoli from the Gallipoli peninsula or from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (; ...
was explained by Greek poets as being named after Helle
, daughter of
In Greek mythology, Athamas (; grc, Ἀθάμας, Athámas) was a Boeotian king. Apollodorus1.9.1/ref>
Athamas was formerly a Thessalian prince and the son of King Aeolus of Aeolia and Enarete, daughter of Deimachus. He was the br ...
, who drowned there as she crossed it with her brother
In Greek mythology Phrixus (; also spelt Phryxus; el, Φρίξος, ''Phrixos'' means "standing on end, bristling") was the son of Athamas, king of Boeotia, and Nephele (a goddess of clouds). He was the twin brother of Helle and the father o ...
on a flying golden ram. The name, however, is probably derived from an older language, such as
The name Pelasgians ( grc, Πελασγοί, ''Pelasgoí'', singular: Πελασγός, ''Pelasgós'') was used by classical Greek writers to refer either to the predecessors of the Greeks, or to all the inhabitants of Greece before the emergen ...
, which was unknown to those who explained its origin. In his ''Names on the Globe'', George R. Stewart
theorizes that ''Hellespont'' originally meant something like 'narrow Pontus' or 'entrance to Pontus', '' Pontus
'' being an ancient name for the region around the
The Black Sea is a marginal mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia, east of the Balkans, south of the East European Plain, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia. It is bounded by Bulgaria, Georgia, ...
, and by extension, for the sea itself.
Especially in the 19th century, the age of exploration, a lot of toponyms got a different name because of national pride. Thus the famous German cartographer Petermann
thought that the naming of newly discovered physical features was one of the privileges of a map-editor, especially as he was fed up with forever encountering toponyms like 'Victoria', 'Wellington', 'Smith', 'Jones', etc. He writes: "While constructing the new map to specify the detailed topographical portrayal and after consulting with and authorization of messr. v heodor
v[onHeuglin.html"_;"title="n.html"_;"title="heodorv[on">heodorv[onHeuglin">n.html"_;"title="heodorv[on">heodorv[onHeuglin_and_count_:de:Karl_Graf_von_Waldburg-Zeil.html" ;"title="n">heodorv[onHeuglin.html" ;"title="n.html" ;"title="heodorv[on">heodorv[onHeuglin">n.html" ;"title="heodorv[on">heodorv[onHeuglin and count :de:Karl Graf von Waldburg-Zeil">Karl Graf von Waldburg-Zeil I have entered 118 names in the map: partly they are the names derived from celebrities of arctic explorations and discoveries, arctic travellers anyway as well as excellent friends, patrons, and participants of different nationalities in the newest northpolar expeditions, partly eminent German travellers in Africa, Australia, America ...".
How difficult it was to create a global system of naming toponyms was shown in the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica:
‘Another form of the terminological problem, to which reference was made above, is found in the transliteration of foreign names, and the conversion of the names of foreign places and countries into English equivalents. As regards the latter, there is no English standard which can be said to be universal, though in particular cases there is a convention which it would be absurd to attempt to displace for any reason of supposed superior accuracy. It would be pragmatical in the extreme to force upon the English-speaking world a system of calling all foreign places by their local names, even though it might be thought that each nationality had a right to settle the nomenclature of its country and the towns or districts within it. In general the English conventions must stand. One of these days the world may agree that an international nomenclature is desirable and feasible, but not yet; and the country which its own citizens call Deutschland and the French l'Allemagne still remains Germany to those who use the English language. Similarly Cologne (Köln), Florence (Firenze), or Vienna (Wien) are bound to retain their English names in an English book. But all cases are not so simple. The world abounds in less important places, for which the English names have no standardized spelling; different English newspapers on a single day, or a single newspaper at intervals of a few weeks or months, give them several varieties of form; and in Asia or Africa the latest explorer always seems to have a preference for a new one which is unlike that adopted by rival geographers. When the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica was started, the suggestion was made that the Royal Geographical Society of London — the premier geographical society of the world — might co-operate in an attempt to secure the adoption of a standard English geographical and topographical nomenclature. The Society, indeed, has a system of its own which to some extent aims at fulfilling this requirement, though it has failed to impose it upon general use; but unfortunately the Society's system breaks down by admitting a considerable number of exceptions and by failing to settle a very large number of cases which really themselves constitute the difficulty. The collaboration of the Royal Geographical Society for the purpose of enabling the Encyclopædia Britannica to give prominent literary expression to an authoritative spelling for every place-name included within its articles or maps was found to be impracticable; and it was therefore necessary for the Eleventh Edition to adopt a consistent spelling which would represent its own judgment and authority. It is hoped that by degrees this spelling may recommend itself in other quarters. Where reasonably possible, the local spelling popularized by the usage of post-offices or railways has been preferred to any purely philological system of transliteration, but there are numerous cases where even this test of public convenience breaks down and some form of Anglicization becomes essential to an English gazetteer having an organic unity of its own. Apart from the continuance of English conventions which appeared sufficiently crystallized, the most authoritative spelling of the foreign name has been given its simplest English transliteration, preference being given, in cases of doubt, to the form, for instance in African countries, adopted by the European nation in possession or control. In the absence of any central authority or international agreement, the result is occasionally different in some slight degree from any common English variant, but this cannot well be helped when English variants are so capricious, and none persistent; and the names selected are those which for purposes of reference combine the most accuracy with the least disturbance of familiar usage. Thus the German African colony of Kamerun is here called Cameroon, an English form which follows the common practice of English transliteration in regard to its initial letter, but departs, in deference to the official nomenclature, from the older English Cameroons, a plural no longer justifiable, although most English newspapers and maps still perpetuate it.’.
Toponyms may have different names through time, due to changes and developments in languages, political developments and border adjustments to name but a few. More recently many postcolonial countries revert to their own nomenclature for toponyms that have been named by colonial powers.
Place names provide the most useful geographical reference system in the world. Consistency and accuracy are essential in referring to a place to prevent confusion in everyday business and recreation.
A toponymist, through well-established local principles and procedures developed in cooperation and consultation with the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
(UNGEGN), applies the science of toponymy to establish officially recognized geographical names. A toponymist relies not only on maps and local histories, but interviews with local residents to determine names with established local usage. The exact application of a toponym, its specific language, its pronunciation, and its origins and meaning are all important facts to be recorded during name surveys.
Scholars have found that toponyms provide valuable insight into the historical geography of a particular region. In 1954, F. M. Powicke
said of place-name study that it "uses, enriches and tests the discoveries of archaeology and history and the rules of the philologists
Toponyms not only illustrate ethnic settlement patterns, but they can also help identify discrete periods of immigration.
Toponymists are responsible for the active preservation of their region's culture through its toponymy. They typically ensure the ongoing development of a geographical names database and associated publications, for recording and disseminating authoritative hard-copy and digital toponymic data. This data may be disseminated in a wide variety of formats, including hard-copy topographic maps as well as digital formats such as
geographic information system
A geographic information system (GIS) is a type of database containing geographic data (that is, descriptions of phenomena for which location is relevant), combined with software tools for managing, analyzing, and visualizing those data. In a ...
Google Maps is a web mapping platform and consumer application offered by Google. It offers satellite imagery, aerial photography, street maps, 360° interactive panorama, interactive panoramic views of streets (Google Street View, Street View) ...
, or thesauri like the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
In 2002, the United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names
acknowledged that while common, the practice of naming geographical places after living persons (toponymic commemoration) could be problematic. Therefore, the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
recommends that it be avoided and that national authorities should set their own guidelines as to the time required after a person's death for the use of a commemorative name.
In the same vein, writers Pinchevski and Torgovnik (2002) consider the naming of streets as a political act in which holders of the legitimate monopoly to name aspire to engrave their ideological views in the social space. Similarly, the revisionist
, as both the celebration of triumph and the repudiation of the old regime is another issue of toponymy. Also, in the context of Slavic nationalism
, the name of
Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), i ...
was changed to the more Slavic sounding ''Petrograd'' from 1914 to 1924, then to ''Leningrad'' following the death of
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known as Vladimir Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 19 ...
and back to ''Saint-Peterburg'' in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. After 1830, in the wake of the
Greek War of Independence
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution or the Greek Revolution of 1821, was a successful war of independence by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1829. The Greeks were later assisted b ...
and the establishment of an independent Greek state, Turkish, Slavic and Italian place names were Hellenized, as an effort of "toponymic cleansing." This nationalization of place names can also manifest itself in a postcolonial
In Canada, there have been initiatives in recent years " to restore traditional names to reflect the Indigenous culture wherever possible
". Indigenous mapping
is a process that can include restoring place names by
Indigenous peoples are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original people ...
Frictions sometimes arise between countries because of toponymy, as illustrated by the Macedonia naming dispute
Greece,, or , romanized: ', officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkans, and is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Greece shares land borders ...
has claimed the name '' Macedonia
'', the Sea of Japan naming dispute
Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally , ''Nihonkoku'') is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the nor ...
Korea ( ko, 한국, or , ) is a peninsular region in East Asia. Since 1945, it has been divided at or near the 38th parallel, with North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) comprising its northern half and South Korea (Republic o ...
, as well as the Persian Gulf naming dispute
. On 20 September 1996 a note on the internet reflected a query by a Canadian surfer, who said as follows: 'One producer of maps labeled the water body
"Persian Gulf" on a 1977 map of Iran, and then "Arabian Gulf", also in 1977, in a map which focused on the Gulf States
. I would gather that this is an indication of the "politics of maps", but I would be interested to know if this was done to avoid upsetting users of the Iran map and users of the map showing Arab Gulf States'. This symbolizes a further aspect of the topic, namely the spilling over of the problem from the purely political to the economic sphere.
Geographic names boards
A geographic names board is an official body established by a government to decide on official names for geographical areas and features.
Most countries have such a body, which is commonly (but not always) known under this name. Also, in some countries (especially those organised on a federal basis), subdivisions such as individual states or provinces will have individual boards.
Individual geographic names boards include:
Antarctic Place-names Commission
The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
The Commission approves Bulgarian place names in ...
* Commission nationale de toponymie
(National toponymy commission -
France (), officially the French Republic ( ), is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also comprises of overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area ...
Geographical Names Board of Canada
The Geographical Names Board of Canada (GNBC) is a national committee with a secretariat in Natural Resources Canada, part of the Government of Canada, which authorizes the names used and name changes on official federal government maps of Canada ...
Geographical Names Board of New South Wales
The Geographical Names Board of New South Wales, a statutory authority of the Department of Customer Service in the Government of New South Wales, is the official body for naming and recording details of places and geographical names in the s ...
New Zealand Geographic Board
The New Zealand Geographic Board Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa (NZGB) was established by the New Zealand Geographic Board Act 1946, which has since been replaced by the New Zealand Geographic Board (Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa) Act 2008. Althoug ...
* South African Geographical Names Council
United States Board on Geographic Names
The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a federal body operating under the United States Secretary of the Interior. The purpose of the board is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the federal gover ...
* Marcel Aurousseau
(1891–1983), Australian geographer, geologist, war hero, historian and translator
* Andrew Breeze
(born 1954), English linguist
William O. Bright (August 13, 1928 – October 15, 2006) was an American linguist and toponymist who specialized in Native American and South Asian languages and descriptive linguistics.
Bright earned a bachelor's degree in lingu ...
(1928–2006), American linguist
* Richard Coates
(born 1949), English linguist
Joan Coromines i Vigneaux (; also frequently spelled ''Joan Corominas''; Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico, by Joan Corominas icand José Antonio Pascual, Editorial Gredos, 1989, Madrid, . Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 1 ...
(1905–1997), etymologist, dialectologist, toponymist
* Albert Dauzat
(1877–1955), French linguist
Bror Oscar Eilert Ekwall (born 8 January 1877 in Vallsjö (now in Sävsjö, Jönköpings län), Sweden, died 23 November 1964 in Lund, Skåne län, Sweden), known as Eilert Ekwall, was Professor of English at Sweden's Lund University from 1909 ...
Henry Gannett (August 24, 1846 – November 5, 1914) was an American geographer who is described as the "father of mapmaking in America."Evans, Richard Tranter; Frye, Helen M. (2009).History of the Topographic Branch (Division) (PDF). ''U.S. Geo ...
(1846–1914), American geographer
* Margaret Gelling
(1924–2009), English toponymist
Michel Grosclaude (; oc, Miquèu; 1926–2002) was a philosopher and French linguist, and an author of works on grammar, lexicography and Occitan onomastics.
Born on 8 July 1926 in Nancy at (Meurthe-et-Moselle). He was the
son of ...
(1926–2002), philosopher and French linguist
* Erwin Gustav Gudde
* Ernest Nègre
(1907–2000), French toponymist
* W. F. H. Nicolaisen
(1927–2016), folklorist, linguist, medievalist
* Oliver Padel
(born 1948), English medievalist and toponymist
* Robert L. Ramsay
(1880–1953), American linguist
* Adrian Room
(1933–2010), British toponymist and onomastician
* Charles Rostaing
(1904–1999), French linguist
* Henry Schoolcraft
(1793–1864), American geographer, geologist and ethnologist
* Jan Paul Strid
(1947–2018), Swedish toponymist
* Walter Skeat
(1835–1912), British philologist
Albert Hugh Smith
Albert Hugh Smith OBE (24 February 1903 – 11 May 1967) was a scholar of Old English and Scandinavian languages and played a major part in the study and publication of English place-names.
Hugh Smith was the son of Albert John Smith, a butler ...
(1903–1967), scholar of Old English and Scandinavian languages
* Frank Stenton
(1880–1967), historian of Anglo-Saxon England
* George R. Stewart
(1895–1980), American historian, toponymist and novelist
* Isaac Taylor
(1829–1901), philologist, toponymist and Anglican canon of York
* James Hammond Trumbull
(1821–1897), American scholar and philologist
* William J. Watson
(1865–1948), Scottish scholar
Anthroponymy (also anthroponymics or anthroponomastics, from Ancient Greek ἄνθρωπος ''anthrōpos'' / 'human', and ὄνομα ''onoma'' / 'name') is the study of ''anthroponyms'', the proper names of human beings, both individual and c ...
A demonym (; ) or gentilic () is a word that identifies a group of people (inhabitants, residents, natives) in relation to a particular place. Demonyms are usually derived from the name of the place (hamlet, village, town, city, region, province, ...
An ethnonym () is a name applied to a given ethnic group. Ethnonyms can be divided into two categories: exonyms (whose name of the ethnic group has been created by another group of people) and autonyms, or endonyms (whose name is created and ...
Exonym and endonym
An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, ''native'' name for a geographical place, group of people, individual person, language or dialect, meaning that it is used inside that particular place, group, o ...
A gazetteer is a geographical index or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.Aurousseau, 61. It typically contains information concerning the geographical makeup, social statistics and physical features of a country, region, or c ...
* Lists of places
A toponymic surname or topographic surname is a surname derived from a place name.
Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is a system of uniquely identifying features on the surface of a planet or natural satellite so that the features can be easily located, described, and discussed. Since the invention of the tel ...
* Latin names of European rivers
* Latin names of rivers
* List of river name etymologies
* Old European hydronymy
* Biblical toponyms in the United States
* German toponymy
* Germanic toponymy
* Historical African place names
* Japanese place names
* Korean toponymy and list of place names
* List of English exonyms for German toponyms
* List of French exonyms for Dutch toponyms
* List of French exonyms for German toponyms
* List of French exonyms for Italian toponyms
* List of Latin place names in Europe
* List of modern names for biblical place names
* List of renamed places in the United States
* List of U.S. place names connected to Sweden
* List of U.S. state name etymologies
* List of U.S. state nicknames
* Maghreb toponymy
* Names of European cities in different languages
* New Zealand place names
* Oikonyms in Western and South Asia
* Place names of Palestine
** Hebraization of Palestinian place names
* Place names in Sri Lanka
* Roman place names
Toponyms of Finland The toponyms of Finland result mainly from the legacy left by three linguistic heritages: the Finnish language (spoken as first language by about 93% of the population), the Swedish language (about 5.5%) and Sami languages (about 0.03%). Finland’ ...
* Toponymy in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Celtic toponymy is the study of place names wholly or partially of Celtic origin. These names are found throughout continental Europe, Britain, Ireland, Anatolia and, latterly, through various other parts of the globe not originally occupied by ...
** List of British places with Latin names
** List of generic forms in British place names
** List of places in the United Kingdom
** List of Roman place names in Britain
** Place names in Irish
** Welsh place names
In the United Kingdom, a territorial designation follows modern peerage titles, linking them to a specific place or places. It is also an integral part of all baronetcies. Within Scotland, a territorial designation proclaims a relationship with ...
** Toponymical list of counties of the United Kingdom
* Labeling (map design)
* List of adjectival forms of place names
* List of double placenames
* List of long place names
* List of names in English with counterintuitive pronunciations
* List of places named after peace
List of places named after Lenin
This is a list of places which are named or renamed after Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by his alias Lenin. Some or all of the locations in former Soviet republics and satellites were renamed (frequently reverting to pre-Soviet names) aft ...
* List of places named after Stalin
* List of places named for their main products
* List of political entities named after people
List of short place names
This is a list of short place names, natively in Latin characters or romanized, with one or two letters.
One-letter place names
* A, a former village in Kami-Amakusa city, Kumamoto, Japan
*Á, a farm in Dalabyggð municipality, Dalasýsla, ...
List of tautological place names
A place name is tautological if two differently sounding parts of it are synonymous. This often occurs when a name from one language is imported into another and a standard descriptor is added on from the second language. Thus, for example, New ...
* List of words derived from toponyms
* Lists of things named after places
List of geographic acronyms and initialisms
This is a list of geographic acronyms and initialisms. That is, it's a list of the names of cities, towns, lakes, and other geographic places that are derived from acronyms. Acronyms are abbreviations formed by the initial letter or letters of the ...
List of geographic portmanteaus
This is a list of geographic portmanteaus. Portmanteaus (also called blends) are names constructed by combining elements of two, or occasionally more, other names.
For the most part, the geographic names in this list were derived from two other n ...
* List of geographic anagrams and ananyms
* United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
* UNGEGN Toponymic Guidelines
* Berg, Lawrence D. and Jani Vuolteenaho. 2009. ''Critical Toponymies (Re-Materialising Cultural Geography)''.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom). It was established in 1967 and specialised in the social sciences, arts, humanities and professional practice. It had an American office in ...
* Cablitz, Gabriele H. 2008. "When 'what' is 'where': A linguistic analysis of landscape terms, place names and body part terms in Marquesan (Oceanic, French Polynesia)." '' Language Sciences
* Desjardins, Louis-Hébert. 1973. ''Les nons géographiques: lexique polyglotte, suivi d'un glossaire de 500 mots''. Leméac.
* Hargitai, Henrik I. 2006.Planetary Maps: Visualization and Nomenclature
" '' Cartographica
*Hargitai, Henrik I., Hugh S. Greqorv, Jan Osburq, and Dennis Hands. 2007.Development of a Local Toponym System at the Mars Desert Research Station
" ''Cartographica'' 42(2):179–87.
* Hercus, Luise, Flavia Hodges, and Jane Simpson. 2009. ''The Land is a Map: Placenames of Indigenous Origin in Australia''. Pandanus Books.
* Kadmon, Naftali. 2000. ''Toponymy: the lore, laws, and language of geographical names.'' Vantage Press.
Who Was Who in North American Name StudyForgotten Toponymy Board (German)The origins of British place namesAn Index to the Historical Place Names of CornwallThe Doukhobor Gazetteer
Doukhobor Heritage website, by Jonathan Kalmakoff.
*O'Brien Jr., Francis J. (Moondancer“Indian Place Names—Aquidneck Indian Council”Ghana Place NamesIndex Anatolicus: Toponyms of Turkey
University of Nottingham
The University of Nottingham is a public university, public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham in 1881, and was granted a royal charter in 1948. The University of Nottingham belongs t ...
'sKey to English Place-names
searchable map. The Etymology of Mars crater names