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Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized
software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, , , , and involved in creating and maintaining , , or other software components. development involves writing and the , but in a broader sense, it includes all processe ...
model that encourages
open collaborationOpen collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontrib ...
. A main principle of
open-source software developmentOpen-source software development is the process by which open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright Copyright is a type of in ...
is
peer productionPeer production (also known as mass collaboration) is a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such communities, the labor of many people is coordinated towards a shared outcome. Overview Pe ...
, with products such as source code,
blueprint A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing or engineering drawing using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets. Introduced by Sir John Herschel in 1842, the process allowed rapid and accurate production of an unlimited numbe ...

blueprint
s, and documentation freely available to the public. The
open-source movement The open-source-software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses for some or all software, a part of the broader notion of open collaborationOpen collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies ...
in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in
open-source appropriate technology Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) is appropriate technology developed through the principles of the open-design movement. Appropriate technology is technology designed with special consideration to the environmental, ethical, cultural, soci ...
, and open-source drug discovery."Science 2.0 is here as CSIR resorts to open-source drug research for TB" Business Standard, 1 March 2009
/ref> Open source promotes universal access via an
open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwar ...
or
free license A free license or open license is a license agreement A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit). A lice ...
to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint. Before the phrase ''open source'' became widely adopted, developers and producers have used a variety of other terms. ''Open source'' gained hold with the rise of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. The
open-source software movement The open-source-software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses An open-source license is a type of license A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called Un ...
arose to clarify
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
,
licensing A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...

licensing
,
domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a partial function **Domain of holomorphy of a function *Doma ...
, and consumer issues. Generally, open source refers to a
computer program In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a ''computer program'' is a Set (mathematics), set of instructions. A comp ...
in which the
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
is available to the general public for use or modification from its original design. Code is released under the terms of a
software license A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Sk ...
. Depending on the license terms, others may then download, modify, and publish their version (fork) back to the community. Many large formal institutions have sprung up to support the development of the open-source movement, including the
Apache Software Foundation The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is an American (classified as a in the United States) to support a number of open source software projects. The ASF was formed from a group of developers of the , and incorporated on March 25, 1999. As of ...
, which supports community projects such as the open-source framework
Apache Hadoop Apache Hadoop () is a collection of open-source software utilities that facilitates using a network of many computers to solve problems involving massive amounts of data and computation. It provides a software framework In computer programming, a ...
and the open-source
HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application layer An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and Interface (computing), interface methods used by Host (network), hosts in a c ...
server Apache HTTP.


History

The sharing of technical information predates the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
and the personal computer considerably. For instance, in the early years of automobile development a group of capital owned the rights to a
2-cycle A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine that completes a Thermodynamic power cycle, power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution. This is in contrast to ...
gasoline-engine patent originally filed by George B. Selden. By controlling this patent, they were able to monopolize the industry and force car manufacturers to adhere to their demands, or risk a lawsuit. In 1911, independent automaker
Henry Ford Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristically ...

Henry Ford
won a challenge to the Selden patent. The result was that the Selden patent became virtually worthless and a new association (which would eventually become the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association) was formed. The new association instituted a cross-licensing agreement among all US automotive manufacturers: although each company would develop technology and file patents, these patents were shared openly and without the exchange of money among all the manufacturers. By the time the US entered
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, 92 Ford patents and 515 patents from other companies were being shared among these manufacturers, without any exchange of money (or lawsuits). Early instances of the free sharing of source code include
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
's source releases of its
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
s and other programs in the 1950s and 1960s, and the
SHARE Share may refer to: * Share, to make joint use of a resource (such as food, money, or space); see Sharing * Share (finance), a stock or other financial security (such as a mutual fund) * Share, Kwara, a town and LGA in Kwara State, Nigeria Share ma ...
user group that formed to facilitate the exchange of software. IBM unbundled (began charging for) software 23 June 1969Dave Pitts' IBM 7090 support
An example of distributed source: Page contains a link to
IBM 7090/94 IBSYS IBSYS is the discontinued Magnetic tape data storage, tape-based operating system that IBM supplied with its IBM 709, IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 computers. A similar operating system (but with several significant differences), also called IBSYS, was p ...
source, including
COBOL COBOL (; an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguis ...

COBOL
and
FORTRAN Fortran (; formerly FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, compiled language, compiled imperative programming, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numerical analysis, numeric computation and computational science, scientific com ...

FORTRAN
compilers.
Beginning in the 1960s,
ARPANET The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switching In telecommunications, packet switching is a method of grouping data that is transmitted over a digital network into '' packets''. Packets are ...
researchers used an open "
Request for Comments A Request for Comments (RFC) is a publication in a series, from the principal technical development and standards-setting bodies for the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or internet) is the global system of interconn ...
" (RFC) process to encourage feedback in early telecommunication network protocols. This led to the birth of the early Internet in 1969. The sharing of source code on the Internet began when the Internet was relatively primitive, with software distributed via
UUCP UUCP is an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics) ...
,
Usenet Usenet () is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy (UUCP) dial-up Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access Internet access is the ability of ...
,
IRC Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a text-based chat (instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time text, real-time t ...
, and
Gopher Pocket gophers, commonly referred to simply as gophers, are burrowing An Eastern chipmunk at the entrance of its burrow A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular ...
.
BSD The Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) is a discontinued based on , developed and distributed by the (CSRG) at the . The term "BSD" commonly refers to its descendants, including , , , and . BSD was initially called Berkeley Unix because it ...

BSD
, for example, was first widely distributed by posts to comp.os.linux on the Usenet, which is also where its development was discussed.
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...

Linux
followed in this model.


Open source as a term

The term "open source" was first proposed by a group of people in the
free software movement The free software movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popu ...
who were critical of the political agenda and moral philosophy implied in the term "free software" and sought to reframe the discourse to reflect a more commercially minded position. In addition, the ambiguity of the term "free software" was seen as discouraging business adoption. However, the ambiguity of the word "free" exists primarily in English as it can refer to cost. The group included
Christine Peterson Christine Peterson is an American forecaster, and the co-founder of Foresight Institute. She is credited with suggesting the term " open source" when used in connection with software. Peterson holds a bachelor's degree in chemistry from MIT.
, Todd Anderson,
Larry Augustin Larry Augustin (born October 10, 1962) is a VP at Amazon Web Services. He formerly was the chairman The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board, committee, or deliberativ ...
, Jon Hall,
Sam Ockman Sam, SAM or variants may refer to: Places * SAM, IATA airport code for Salamo Airport Salamo Airport is an airfield An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West G ...
, and
Eric S. Raymond Eric Steven Raymond (born December 4, 1957), often referred to as ESR, is an American software developer, open-source software advocate, and author of the 1997 essay and 1999 book ''The Cathedral and the Bazaar''. He wrote a guidebook for the R ...
. Peterson suggested "open source" at a meeting held at
Palo Alto, California Palo Alto (; Spanish language, Spanish for "tall stick") is a charter city located in the northwestern corner of Santa Clara County, California, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. The city is named after a Sequoia sempervirens, coast ...

Palo Alto, California
, in reaction to
Netscape Netscape Communications Corporation (originally Mosaic Communications Corporation) was an American independent computer services company with headquarters in Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California ...
's announcement in January 1998 of a source code release for
Navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch ...
.
Linus Torvalds Linus Benedict Torvalds ( , ; born 28 December 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator and, historically, the main developer of the Linux kernel, used by Linux distributions and other operating systems such as Android (o ...
gave his support the following day, and Phil Hughes backed the term in ''
Linux Journal ''Linux Journal'' (''LJ'') is a monthly technology magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published ...
''.
Richard Stallman Richard Matthew Stallman (; born March 16, 1953), also known by his initials, rms, is an American free software movement The free software movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of peo ...

Richard Stallman
, the founder of the free software movement, initially seemed to adopt the term, but later changed his mind. Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and later under the
Mozilla Public License The Mozilla Public License (MPL) is a free and open-source software license developed and maintained by the Mozilla Foundation. It is a weak copyleft license, characterized as a middle ground between permissive software licenses and the GNU Gen ...
. Raymond was especially active in the effort to popularize the new term. He made the first public call to the free software community to adopt it in February 1998. Shortly after, he founded The
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
in collaboration with
Bruce Perens Bruce Perens (born around 1958) is an American computer programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer s ...
. The term gained further visibility through an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher
Tim O'Reilly Tim O'Reilly (born 6 June 1954) is the founder of O'Reilly Media O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American learning company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books, produces tech conferences, and provides an o ...

Tim O'Reilly
. Originally titled the "Freeware Summit" and later known as the "Open Source Summit", the event was attended by the leaders of many of the most important free and open-source projects, including Linus Torvalds,
Larry Wall Larry Arnold Wall (born September 27, 1954) is an American computer programmer and author. He created the Perl programming language. Personal life Wall grew up in Los Angeles and then Bremerton, Washington, before starting higher education at Sea ...
,
Brian Behlendorf Brian Behlendorf (born March 30, 1973) is an American technologist, executive, computer programmer and leading figure in the open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released u ...
,
Eric Allman Eric Paul Allman (born September 2, 1955) is an American computer programmer who developed sendmail and its precursor delivermail in the late 1970s and early 1980s at UC Berkeley. In 1998, Allman and Greg Olson co-founded the company Sendmail, I ...

Eric Allman
, , ,
Paul Vixie Paul Vixie is an American computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a ...
,
Jamie Zawinski Jamie Zawinski (born November 3, 1968), commonly known as jwz, is an American impresario An impresario (from the Italian ''impresa'', "an enterprise or undertaking") is a person who organizes and often finances concerts, plays, or opera O ...
, and Eric Raymond. At that meeting, alternatives to the term "free software" were discussed. Tiemann argued for "sourceware" as a new term, while Raymond argued for "open source". The assembled developers took a vote, and the winner was announced at a press conference the same evening. "Open source" has never managed to entirely supersede the older term "free software", giving rise to the combined term
free and open-source software Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. ...
(FOSS).


Economics

Some economists agree that open-source is an information good or "knowledge good" with original work involving a significant amount of time, money, and effort. The cost of reproducing the work is low enough that additional users may be added at zero or near zero costthis is referred to as the
marginal cost In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods a ...

marginal cost
of a product.
Copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

Copyright
creates a monopoly so that the price charged to consumers can be significantly higher than the marginal cost of production. This allows the author to recoup the cost of making the original work. Copyright thus creates access costs for consumers who value the work more than the marginal cost but less than the initial production cost. Access costs also pose problems for authors who wish to create a
derivative work In copyright law Copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to make copies of a creative work, usually for a limited time. The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical ...
—such as a copy of a software program modified to fix a bug or add a feature, or a
remix A remix is a piece of media which has been altered or contorted from its original state by adding, removing, and/or changing pieces of the item. A song, piece of artwork, book, video, poem, or photograph can all be remixes. The only characteristic ...

remix
of a song—but are unable or unwilling to pay the copyright holder for the right to do so. Being organized as effectively a "
consumers' cooperative Raunds Co-operative Society Limited was a consumer co-operative society based in Raunds, Northamptonshire, founded in 1891 A consumers' co-operative is an enterprise owned by consumers and managed democratically which aims at fulfilling the needs ...
", open source eliminates some of the access costs of consumers and creators of derivative works by reducing the restrictions of copyright. Basic economic theory predicts that lower costs would lead to higher consumption and also more frequent creation of derivative works. Organizations such as
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...

Creative Commons
host websites where individuals can file for alternative "licenses", or levels of restriction, for their works. These self-made protections free the general society of the costs of policing copyright infringement. Others argue that since consumers do not pay for their copies, creators are unable to recoup the initial cost of production and thus have little economic incentive to create in the first place. By this argument, consumers would lose out because some of the goods they would otherwise purchase would not be available. In practice, content producers can choose whether to adopt a proprietary license and charge for copies, or an open license. Some goods which require large amounts of professional research and development, such as the
pharmaceutical industry The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops, produces, and markets drug Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor amount of inert fillers and binders. Aspirin is a pharmaceutical drug A me ...
(which depends largely on
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
s, not copyright for intellectual property protection) are almost exclusively proprietary, although increasingly sophisticated technologies are being developed on open-source principles. There is evidence that open-source development creates enormous value. For example, in the context of
open-source hardware Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifactArtifact, or artefact, may refer to: Science and technology *Artifact (error) In natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scien ...
design, digital designs are shared for free and anyone with access to digital manufacturing technologies (e.g.
RepRap The RepRap project started in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east a ...

RepRap
3D printers) can replicate the product for the cost of materials. The original sharer may receive feedback and potentially improvements on the original design from the
peer productionPeer production (also known as mass collaboration) is a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such communities, the labor of many people is coordinated towards a shared outcome. Overview Pe ...
community. Many open source projects have a high economic value. According to the Battery Open Source Software Index (BOSS), the ten economically most important open source projects are: The rank given is based on the activity regarding projects in online discussions, on GitHub, on search activity in search engines and on the influence on the labour market.


Licensing alternatives

Alternative arrangements have also been shown to result in good creation outside of the proprietary license model. Examples include: *Creation for its own sake – For example,
Wikipedia Wikipedia ( or ) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia An online encyclopedia, also called an Internet encyclopedia, or a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) ...

Wikipedia
editors add content for recreation. Artists have a drive to create. Both communities benefit from free starting material. * Voluntary after-the-fact donations – used by
shareware Shareware is a type of proprietary software which is initially shared by the owner for trial use at little or no cost with usually limited functionality or incomplete documentation but which can be upgraded upon payment. Shareware is often offered ...
,
street performer Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities. In many countries the rewards are generally in the form of money but other gratuities such as food, drink or gifts may be given. Street performance is pra ...

street performer
s, and
public broadcasting Public broadcasting involves , and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is . In many countries of the world, comes from governments, especially via annual s charged on receivers. Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally ...
in the United States. * Patron – For example,
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other access barriers. With open access strictly defined (according to the 2001 definition), or Gratis vers ...

open access
publishing relies on institutional and government funding of research faculty, who also have a professional incentive to publish for reputation and career advancement. Works of the U.S. federal government are automatically released into the
public domain The public domain consists of all the creative work A creative work is a manifestation of creativity, creative effort including Work of art, fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, Sketch (drawing), sketching, performance art), dance, wr ...

public domain
. *
Freemium Freemium, a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage, usually made of leather and opening into two equal parts. Some were large, upright, and hinged at the back and enabl ...
– Give away a limited version for free and charge for a premium version (potentially using a
dual license Multi-licensing is the practice of distributing software under two or more different sets of terms and conditions. This may mean multiple different software licenses or sets of licenses. Prefixes may be used to indicate the number of licenses u ...
). * Give away the product and charge something related – Charge for support of open-source
enterprise software Enterprise software, also known as enterprise application software (EAS), is computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a ...
, give away music but charge for concert admission. * Give away work in order to gain market share – Used by artists, in corporate software to spoil a dominant competitor (for example in the
browser wars A browser war is competition for dominance in the usage share of web browsers The usage share of web browsers is the proportion, often expressed as a percentage, of visitors to a group of that use a particular . Accuracy Measuring bro ...
and the
Android operating system Android is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), ...

Android operating system
). * For own use – Businesses or individual software developers often create software to solve a problem, bearing the full cost of initial creation. They will then open source the solution, and benefit from the improvements others make for their own needs. Communalizing the maintenance burden distributes the cost across more users; free riders can also benefit without undermining the creation process.


Open collaboration

The open-source model is a decentralized
software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, , , , and involved in creating and maintaining , , or other software components. development involves writing and the , but in a broader sense, it includes all processe ...
model that encourages
open collaborationOpen collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontrib ...
, meaning "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." A main principle of
open-source software developmentOpen-source software development is the process by which open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright Copyright is a type of in ...
is
peer productionPeer production (also known as mass collaboration) is a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such communities, the labor of many people is coordinated towards a shared outcome. Overview Pe ...
, with products such as source code,
blueprint A blueprint is a reproduction of a technical drawing or engineering drawing using a contact print process on light-sensitive sheets. Introduced by Sir John Herschel in 1842, the process allowed rapid and accurate production of an unlimited numbe ...

blueprint
s, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in
open-source appropriate technology Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) is appropriate technology developed through the principles of the open-design movement. Appropriate technology is technology designed with special consideration to the environmental, ethical, cultural, soci ...
, and open-source drug discovery. The open-source model for software development inspired the use of the term to refer to other forms of open collaboration, such as in
Internet forum An Internet forum, or message board, is an online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
s,Lakhani, Karim R., & von Hippel, Eric (2003). How Open Source Software Works: Free User to User Assistance. ''Research Policy'', 32, 923–943
mailing list A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. The term is often extended to include the people subscribed to such a list, so the group of subscribers is refe ...
sJarvenpaa, S. L., & Majchrzak, Ann (2008)
Knowledge Collaboration Among Professionals Protecting National Security: Role of Transactive Memories in Ego-Centered Knowledge Networks
''Organization Science'', 19(2), 260-276
and
online communities An online community, also called an internet community or web community, is a community whose members interact with each other primarily via the Internet. Members of the community usually share common interests. For many, online communities may feel ...
.Faraj, S., Jarvenpaa, S. L., & Majchrzak, Ann (2011)
Knowledge Collaboration in Online Communities
''Organization Science'', 22(5), 1224-1239,
Open collaboration is also thought to be the operating principle underlining a gamut of diverse ventures, including
TEDx TED Conferences LLC (Technology, Entertainment, Design) is an American media organization that posts talks online for free distribution under the slogan "ideas worth spreading". TED was conceived by Richard Saul Wurman Richard Saul Wurman (b ...

TEDx
and
Wikipedia Wikipedia ( or ) is a free content, multilingual online encyclopedia An online encyclopedia, also called an Internet encyclopedia, or a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia (British English) ...

Wikipedia
. Open collaboration is the principle underlying
peer productionPeer production (also known as mass collaboration) is a way of producing goods and services that relies on self-organizing communities of individuals. In such communities, the labor of many people is coordinated towards a shared outcome. Overview Pe ...
,
mass collaboration Mass collaboration is a form of collective action Collective action refers to action taken together by a group of people whose goal A goal is an idea of the future or desired result that a person or a group of people envision, Planning, plan ...

mass collaboration
, and
wikinomics ''Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything'' is a book by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, first published in December 2006. It explores how some companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity r ...
. It was observed initially in open source software, but can also be found in many other instances, such as in
Internet forum An Internet forum, or message board, is an online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin ...
s,
mailing list A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. The term is often extended to include the people subscribed to such a list, so the group of subscribers is refe ...
s, Internet
communities A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wor ...

communities
, and many instances of
open content Free content, libre content, or free information is any kind of functional work, work of art, or other creative Content (media and publishing), content that meets the definition of a Definition of Free Cultural Works, free cultural work. De ...

open content
, such as
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...
. It also explains some instances of
crowdsourcing Crowdsourcing is a procurement, sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services, goods or services—including ideas, voting, micro-tasks, and finances—from a large, relatively open, and often rapidly evolving ...

crowdsourcing
,
collaborative consumption Collaborative consumption encompasses the sharing economy In capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system of Production (economics), production, allocation of resources, resource alloc ...
, and
open innovation#REDIRECT Open innovation Open innovation is a term used to promote an information age mindset toward innovation that runs counter to the secrecy#Technology secrecy, secrecy and information silo, silo mentality of traditional corporate research lab ...
. Riehle et al. define open collaboration as collaboration based on three principles of
egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy Philosophy ...
,
meritocracy Meritocracy (''merit'', from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
, and
self-organization Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system A system is a group of Interaction, inte ...

self-organization
. Levine and Prietula define open collaboration as "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and noncontributors alike." This definition captures multiple instances, all joined by similar principles. For example, all of the elements — goods of economic value, open access to contribute and consume, interaction and exchange, purposeful yet loosely coordinated work — are present in an open source software project, in Wikipedia, or in a user forum or community. They can also be present in a commercial website that is based on
user-generated content User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content, such as images, videos, text, and audio, that has been posted by User (computing), users on online platforms such as social media and wikis. I ...
. In all of these instances of open collaboration, anyone can contribute and anyone can freely partake in the fruits of sharing, which are produced by interacting participants who are loosely coordinated. An annual conference dedicated to the research and practice of open collaboration is the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (OpenSym, formerly WikiSym). As per its website, the group defines open collaboration as "collaboration that is egalitarian (everyone can join, no principled or artificial barriers to participation exist), meritocratic (decisions and status are merit-based rather than imposed) and self-organizing (processes adapt to people rather than people adapt to pre-defined processes)."


Open-source license

Open source promotes universal access via an
open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwar ...
or
free license A free license or open license is a license agreement A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit). A lice ...
to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint. Before the phrase ''open source'' became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms. ''Open source'' gained hold in part due to the rise of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. The
open-source software movement The open-source-software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses An open-source license is a type of license A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called Un ...
arose to clarify
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
,
licensing A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...

licensing
,
domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a partial function **Domain of holomorphy of a function *Doma ...
, and consumer issues. An open-source license is a type of
license A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Cur ...
for
computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ...

computer software
and other products that allows the
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
, blueprint or design to be used, modified or shared (with or without modification) under defined terms and conditions. This allows end users and commercial companies to review and modify the source code, blueprint or design for their own customization, curiosity or troubleshooting needs. Open-source licensed software is mostly available
free Free may refer to: Concept * Freedom, having the ability to act or change without constraint * Emancipate, to procure political rights, as for a disenfranchised group * Free will, control exercised by rational agents over their actions and decis ...

free
of charge, though this does not necessarily have to be the case. Licenses which only permit
non-commercial A non-commercial (also spelled noncommercial) activity is an activity that does not, in some sense, involve commerce, at least relative to similar activities that do have a commercial objective or emphasis. For example, advertising-free community ...
redistribution or modification of the source code for personal use only are generally not considered as open-source licenses. However, open-source licenses may have some restrictions, particularly regarding the expression of respect to the origin of software, such as a requirement to preserve the name of the authors and a copyright statement within the code, or a requirement to redistribute the licensed software only under the same license (as in a
copyleft Copyleft is the practice of granting the right to freely distribute and modify with the requirement that the same rights be preserved in derivative works created from that property. Copyleft in the form of s can be used to maintain conditions ...

copyleft
license). One popular set of
open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Co ...
licenses are those approved by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) based on their
Open Source Definition ''The Open Source Definition'' is a document published by the Open Source Initiative, to determine whether a software license can be labeled with the Open-source software, open-source certification mark. The definition was taken from the exact te ...
(OSD).


Applications

Social and political views have been affected by the growth of the concept of open source. Advocates in one field often support the expansion of open source in other fields. But Eric Raymond and other founders of the
open-source movement The open-source-software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses for some or all software, a part of the broader notion of open collaborationOpen collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies ...
have sometimes publicly argued against speculation about applications outside software, saying that strong arguments for software openness should not be weakened by overreaching into areas where the story may be less compelling. The broader impact of the open-source movement, and the extent of its role in the development of new information sharing procedures, remain to be seen. The
open-source movement The open-source-software movement is a movement that supports the use of open-source licenses for some or all software, a part of the broader notion of open collaborationOpen collaboration is "any system of innovation or production that relies ...
has inspired increased
transparency Transparency, transparence or transparent most often refer to transparency and translucency, the physical property of allowing the transmission of light through a material. They may also refer to: Literal uses * Transparency (photography), a sti ...
and liberty in
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Phy ...

biotechnology
research, for example CAMBIA Even the research methodologies themselves can benefit from the application of open-source principles. It has also given rise to the rapidly-expanding
open-source hardware Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifactArtifact, or artefact, may refer to: Science and technology *Artifact (error) In natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scien ...
movement.


Computer software

Open-source software is software which source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees. Open-source code can evolve through community cooperation. These communities are composed of individual programmers as well as large companies. Some of the individual programmers who start an open-source project may end up establishing companies offering products or services incorporating open-source programs. Examples of open-source software products are: *
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...

Linux
(that much of world's server parks are running) *MediaWiki (that Wikipedia is based upon) * Many more: ** List of free and open-source software packages ** List of formerly proprietary software


Electronics

Open-source hardware is hardware which initial specification, usually in a software format, is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties or fees. Open-source hardware evolves through community cooperation. These communities are composed of individual hardware/software developers, hobbyists, as well as very large companies. Examples of open-source hardware initiatives are: * Openmoko: a family of open-source mobile phones, including the hardware specification and the
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
. * OpenRISC: an open-source microprocessor family, with architecture specification licensed under GNU GPL and implementation under LGPL. * Sun Microsystems's OpenSPARC T1 Multicore processor. Sun has released it under GPL. * Arduino, a microcontroller platform for hobbyists, artists and designers. * Simputer, an open hardware handheld computer, designed in India for use in environments where computing devices such as personal computers are deemed inappropriate. * LEON: A family of open-source microprocessors distributed in a library with peripheral IP cores, open SPARC V8 specification, implementation available under GNU GPL. * Tinkerforge: A system of open-source stackable microcontroller building blocks. Allows control of motors and read out sensors with the programming languages C, C++, C#, Object Pascal, Java, PHP, Python and Ruby over a USB or Wifi connection on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. All of the hardware is licensed under CERN Open Hardware License, CERN OHL (CERN Open Hardware License). * Open Compute Project: designs for computer data center including power supply, Intel motherboard, AMD motherboard, chassis, racks, battery cabinet, and aspects of electrical and mechanical design.


Food and beverages

Some publishers of open-access journals have argued that Open data, data from food science and gastronomy studies should be freely available to aid reproducibility. A number of people have published creative commons licensed recipe books. * Open-source colas – cola soft drinks, similar to Coca-Cola and Pepsi, whose recipe is open source and developed by volunteers. The taste is said to be comparable to that of the standard beverages. Most corporations producing beverages hold their formulas as closely guarded secrets. * Free Beer (originally ''Vores Øl'') – is an open-source beer created by students at the IT University of Copenhagen, IT-University in Copenhagen together with Superflex, an artist collective, to illustrate how open-source concepts might be applied outside the digital world.


Digital content

* Open-content projects organized by the Wikimedia Foundation – Sites such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary have embraced the open-content
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...

Creative Commons
content licenses. These licenses were designed to adhere to principles similar to various open-source software development licenses. Many of these licenses ensure that content remains free for re-use, that source documents are made readily available to interested parties, and that changes to content are accepted easily back into the system. Important sites embracing open-source-like ideals are Project Gutenberg and Wikisource, both of which post many books on which the copyright has expired and are thus in the
public domain The public domain consists of all the creative work A creative work is a manifestation of creativity, creative effort including Work of art, fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, Sketch (drawing), sketching, performance art), dance, wr ...

public domain
, ensuring that anyone has free, unlimited access to that content. * Open ICEcat is an open catalog for the IT, CE and Lighting sectors with product data-sheets based on Open Content License agreement. The digital content are distributed in XML and URL formats. *Google Sketchup's 3D Warehouse is an open-source design community centered around the use of proprietary software that's free. * The University of Waterloo Stratford Campus invites students every year to use its three-storey Christie MicroTiles wall as a digital canvas for their creative work.


Medicine

* Pharmaceuticals – There have been several proposals for open-source pharmaceutical development, which led to the establishment of the Tropical Disease Initiative and the Open Source Drug Discovery for Malaria Consortium. * Genomics – The term "open-source genomics" refers to the combination of rapid release of sequence data (especially raw reads) and crowdsourced analyses from bioinformaticians around the world that characterised the analysis of the 2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak. * OpenEMR – OpenEMR is an ONC-ATB Ambulatory EHR 2011-2012 certified electronic health records and medical practice management application. It features fully integrated electronic health, records, practice management, scheduling, electronic billing, and is the base for many EHR programs.


Science and engineering

* Research – The Science Commons was created as an alternative to the expensive legal costs of sharing and reusing scientific works in journals etc. * Research – The Open Solar Outdoors Test Field (OSOTF) is a grid-connected photovoltaic test system, which continuously monitors the output of a number of photovoltaic modules and correlates their performance to a long list of highly accurate meteorological readings. The OSOTF is organized under open-source principles – All data and analysis is to be made freely available to the entire photovoltaic community and the general public. * Engineering – Hyperloop, a form of high-speed transport proposed by entrepreneur Elon Musk, which he describes as "an elevated, reduced-pressure tube that contains pressurized capsules driven within the tube by a number of linear electric motors". * Construction – WikiHouse is an open-source project for designing and building houses. * Energy research - The Open Energy Modelling Initiative promotes open-source models and open data in energy research and policy advice.


Robotics

An open-source robot is a robot whose blueprints, schematics, or source code are released under an open-source model


Other

* Open-source principles can be applied to technical areas such as digital communication protocols and data storage formats. * Open-design movement, Open-design – which involves applying open-source methodologies to the design of artifacts and systems in the physical world. It is very nascent but has huge potential. * Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) refers to technologies that are designed in the same fashion as
free and open-source software Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. ...
.A. J. Buitenhuis, I. Zelenika and J. M. Pearce,
Open Design-Based Strategies to Enhance Appropriate Technology Development
, ''Proceedings of the 14th Annual National Collegiate Inventors and Innovators Alliance Conference : Open'', 25–27 March 2010, pp. 1-12.
These technologies must be "appropriate technology" (AT) – meaning technology that is designed with special consideration to the environmental, ethical, cultural, social, political, and economic aspects of the community it is intended for. An example of this application is the use of open-source 3D printers like the
RepRap The RepRap project started in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east a ...

RepRap
to manufacture appropriate technology. * Open-source learning, Teaching – which involves applying the concepts of open source to instruction using a shared web space as a platform to improve upon learning, organizational, and management challenges. An example of an Open-source courseware is the Java Education & Development Initiative (JEDI). Other examples include Khan Academy and wikiversity. At the university level, the use of Open-source appropriate technology, open-source-appropriate technology classroom projects has been shown to be successful in forging the connection between science/engineering and social benefit: This approach has the potential to use university students' access to resources and testing equipment in furthering the development of appropriate technology. Similarly OSAT has been used as a tool for improving service learning. * There are few examples of business information (methodologies, advice, guidance, practices) using the open-source model, although this is another case where the potential is enormous. ITIL is close to open source. It uses the The Cathedral and the Bazaar, Cathedral model (no mechanism exists for user contribution) and the content must be bought for a fee that is small by business consulting standards (hundreds of British pounds). Various checklists are published by government, banks or accounting firms. * An open-source group emerged in 2012 that is attempting to design a firearm that may be downloaded from the internet and "printed" on a 3D printing, 3D Printer. Calling itself Defense Distributed, the group wants to facilitate "a working plastic gun that could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D printer". * Agrecol, a German NGO has developed an open-source licence for seeds operating with
copyleft Copyleft is the practice of granting the right to freely distribute and modify with the requirement that the same rights be preserved in derivative works created from that property. Copyleft in the form of s can be used to maintain conditions ...

copyleft
and created OpenSourceSeeds as a respective service provider. Breeders that apply the license to their new invented material prevent it from the threat of privatisation and help to establish a commons-based breeding sector as an alternative to the commercial sector. * Open Source Ecology, farm equipment and global village construction kit.


"Open" versus "free" versus "free and open"

Free and open-source software (FOSS) or Free and open-source software#Overview, Free/Libre and open-source software (FLOSS) is openly shared source code that is licensed without any restrictions on usage, modification, or distribution. Confusion persists about this definition because the "Free", also known as "Libre", refers to the freedom of the product not the price, expense, cost, or charge. For example, "being free to speak" is not the same as "free beer". Conversely, Richard Stallman argues the ''obvious meaning'' of term "open source" is that the source code is public/accessible for inspection, without necessarily any other rights granted, although the proponents of the term say the conditions in the
Open Source Definition ''The Open Source Definition'' is a document published by the Open Source Initiative, to determine whether a software license can be labeled with the Open-source software, open-source certification mark. The definition was taken from the exact te ...
must be fulfilled. "Free and open" should not be confused with public ownership (state ownership), deprivatization (nationalization), anti-privatization (anti-corporate activism), or Transparency (behavior), transparent behavior. * GNU ** GNU Manifesto **
Richard Stallman Richard Matthew Stallman (; born March 16, 1953), also known by his initials, rms, is an American free software movement The free software movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of peo ...

Richard Stallman
* Gratis versus libre (no cost vs no restriction)


Software

Generally, open source refers to a
computer program In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a ''computer program'' is a Set (mathematics), set of instructions. A comp ...
in which the
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
is available to the general public for use for any (including commercial) purpose, or modification from its original design. Open-source code is meant to be a collaborative effort, where programmers improve upon the source code and share the changes within the community. Code is released under the terms of a
software license A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Sk ...
. Depending on the license terms, others may then download, modify, and publish their version (fork) back to the community. :* List of free and open-source software packages * Open-source license, a copyright license that makes the source code available with a product ** ''The Open Source Definition'', as used by the
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
for open source software * Open-source model, a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration * Open-source software, software which permits the use and modification of its source code * History of free and open-source software * Open-source software advocacy * Open-source software development * Open-source-software movement * Open-source video games ** List of open-source video games * Business models for open-source software * Comparison of open-source and closed-source software * Diversity in open-source software * MapGuide Open Source, a web-based Cartography, map-making platform to develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services (not to be confused with OpenStreetMap (OSM), a virtual community, collaborative project to create a free content, free editable map of the world).


Agriculture, economy, manufacturing and production

* Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT), is designed for environmental, ethical, cultural, social, political, economic, and community aspects * Open-design movement, development of physical products, machines and systems via publicly shared design information, including
free and open-source software Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. ...
and
open-source hardware Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifactArtifact, or artefact, may refer to: Science and technology *Artifact (error) In natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scien ...
, among many others: ** Open Architecture Network, improving global living conditions through innovative sustainable design ** OpenCores, a community developing Digital data, digital electronic
open-source hardware Open-source hardware (OSH) consists of physical artifactArtifact, or artefact, may refer to: Science and technology *Artifact (error) In natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scien ...
** Open Design Alliance, develops Teigha, a software development platform to create engineering applications including Computer-aided design, CAD software ** Open Hardware and Design Alliance (OHANDA), sharing open hardware and designs via free online services ** Open Source Ecology (OSE), a network of farmers, engineers, architects and supporters striving to manufacture the Global Village Construction Set (GVCS) ** OpenStructures (OSP), a modular design, modular construction model where everyone designs on the basis of one shared geometrical OS grid * Open manufacturing or "Open Production" or "Design Global, Manufacture Local", a new socioeconomic production model to openly and collaboratively produce and distribute physical objects * Open-source architecture (OSArc), emerging procedures in imagination and formation of virtual and real spaces within an inclusive universal infrastructure * Open-source cola, cola soft drinks made to open-sourced recipes * Open-source hardware, or open hardware, computer hardware, such as microprocessors, that is designed in the same fashion as open source software ** List of open-source hardware projects * Open-source product development (OSPD), collaborative product and process openness of open-source hardware for any interested participants * Open-source robotics, physical artifacts of the subject are offered by the open design movement * Open Source Seed Initiative, open source varieties of crop seeds, as an alternative to patent-protected seeds sold by large agriculture companies.


Science and medicine

* Open science, the movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or professional ** Open science data, a type of open data focused on publishing observations and results of scientific activities available for anyone to analyze and reuse ** Open Science Framework and the Center for Open Science ** Open Source Lab (disambiguation), several laboratories ** Open-Source Lab (book), ''Open-Source Lab'' (book), a 2014 book by Joshua M. Pearce *: ''See also: The antithesis of open science is Scientism, a blind faith in profit driven proprietary (closed) science and marketing (ie. proprietary software, proprietary protocols, fields of private biomedical engineering, biological patents, chemical patents (drugs), minimal sufficiency of disclosure, etc.).'' * Open-notebook science, the practice of making the entire primary record of a research project publicly available online as it is recorded * Open Source Physics (OSP), a National Science Foundation and Davidson College project to spread the use of open source code libraries that take care of much of the heavy lifting for physics * Open Source Geospatial Foundation * NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA), an Open Source Initiative, OSI-approved
software license A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law A contract is a legally binding agreement that defines and governs the rights and duties between or among its parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Sk ...
* List of open-source software for mathematics * List of open-source bioinformatics software * List of open-source health software * List of open-source health hardware


Media

* Open-source film, open source movies ** List of open-source films ** Open Source Cinema, a collaborative website to produce a documentary film * Open-source journalism, commonly describes a spectrum on online publications, forms of innovative publishing of online journalism, and content voting, rather than the sourcing of news stories by "professional" journalists ** Open-source investigation *: ''See also: Crowdsourcing, crowdsourced journalism, crowdsourced investigation, truther (disambiguation), trutherism, and historical revisionism considered "fringe" by corporate media.'' * Open-source record label, open source music * "Open Source", a 1960s rock song performed by The Magic Mushrooms * Open Source (radio show), ''Open Source'' (radio show), a radio show using open content information gathering methods hosted by Christopher Lydon * Open textbook, an open copyright licensed textbook made freely available online for students, teachers, and the public


Organizations

*
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
(OSI), an organization dedicated to promote open source * Open Source Software Institute * Journal of Open Source Software * Open Source Day, the dated varies from year to year for an international conference for fans of open solutions from Central and Eastern Europe * Open Source Developers' Conference * Open Source Development Labs (OSDL), a non-profit corporation that provides space for open-source project * Open Source Drug Discovery, a collaborative drug discovery platform for neglected tropical diseases * Geeknet#SourceForge and OSDN, Open Source Technology Group (OSTG), news, forums, and other SourceForge resources for IT * Open source in Kosovo * Open Source University Meetup * New Zealand Open Source Awards


Procedures

* Open security, application of open source philosophies to computer security * Open Source Information System, the former name of an American unclassified Computer network, network serving the United States Intelligence Community, U.S. intelligence community with open source intelligence, since mid-2006 the content of OSIS is now known as Intelink-U while the network portion is known as DNI-U * Open-source intelligence, an intelligence gathering discipline based on information collected from open sources (not to be confused with open-source artificial intelligence such as Mycroft (software)).


Society

The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension between creative practices that involve require access to content that is often
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
ed, and restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. The two main ways in which intellectual property laws became more restrictive in the 20th century were extensions to the term of copyright (particularly in the United States) and penalties, such as those articulated in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), placed on attempts to circumvent anti-piracy technologies. Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair use, fair-use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners. Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what some call a "Chilling effect (term), chilling effect" among cultural practitioners. The idea of an "open-source" culture runs parallel to "Free Culture movement, Free Culture," but is substantively different. ''Free culture'' is a term derived from the
free software movement The free software movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting popu ...
, and in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of open-source culture (OSC) maintain that some intellectual property law needs to exist to protect cultural producers. Yet they propose a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought. Instead of seeing intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules intended to uphold either natural rights or desirable outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods (as in "the Good life") and ends. Sites such as ccMixter offer up free web space for anyone willing to license their work under a
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...

Creative Commons
license. The resulting cultural product is then available to download free (generally accessible) to anyone with an Internet connection. Older analog technologies such as the telephone or television have limitations on the kind of interaction users can have. Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs, cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks to distribute their products. As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. Technologies such as BitTorrent (protocol), BitTorrent and Gnutella take advantage of various characteristics of the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) in an attempt to totally decentralize file distribution.


Government

* Open politics (sometimes known as ''Open-source politics'') is a political process that uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback mechanism between political organizations and their supporters. There is also an alternative conception of the term ''Open-source politics'' which relates to the development of public policy under a set of rules and processes similar to the open-source software movement. * Open-source governance is similar to open-source politics, but it applies more to the democratic process and promotes the freedom of information. * Open-source political campaigns refer specifically to political campaigns. * The South Korean government wants to increase its use of free and open-source software, in order to decrease its dependence on proprietary software solutions. It plans to make open standards a requirement, to allow the government to choose between multiple operating systems and web browsers. Korea's Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning is also preparing ten pilots on using open-source software distributions.


Ethics

Open-source ethics is split into two strands: * Open-source ethics as an ethical school – Charles Ess and David Berry are researching whether ethics can learn anything from an open-source approach. Ess famously even defined the Association of Internet Researchers, AoIR Research Guidelines as an example of open-source ethics. * Open-source ethics as a professional body of rules – This is based principally on the computer ethics school, studying the questions of ethics and professionalism in the computer industry in general and software development in particular.


Religion

Irish philosopher Richard Kearney has used the term "open-source Hinduism" to refer to the way historical figures such as Mohandas Gandhi and Swami Vivekananda worked upon this ancient tradition.


Media

Open-source journalism formerly referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, reflecting ''open-source intelligence'', a similar term used in military intelligence circles. Now, ''open-source journalism'' commonly refers to forms of innovative publishing of online journalism, rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist. In the 25 December 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user generated content, user created content and listed alongside more traditional open-source projects such as OpenSolaris and
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...

Linux
. Blog, Weblogs, or blogs, are another significant platform for open-source culture. Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required. While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing. Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress, utilize open-source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes. Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional websites made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes "open sourcing" even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere. Messageboards are another platform for open-source culture. Messageboards (also known as discussion boards or forums), are places online where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to. Messageboards sometimes have moderators who enforce community standards of etiquette such as banning spamming, spammers. Other common board features are private messages (where users can send messages to one another) as well as chat (a way to have a real time conversation online) and image uploading. Some messageboards use phpBB, which is a free open-source package. Where blogs are more about individual expression and tend to revolve around their authors, messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly. Messageboards are a way to remove intermediaries from everyday life—for instance, instead of relying on commercials and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas. OpenDocument is an open format, open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents such as text documents (including memos, reports, and books), spreadsheets, charts, and presentations. Organizations and individuals that store their data in an open format such as OpenDocument avoid being Vendor lock-in, locked into a single software vendor, leaving them free to switch software if their current vendor goes out of business, raises their prices, changes their software, or changes their software license, licensing terms to something less favorable. Open-source film, Open-source movie production is either an open call system in which a changing crew and cast collaborate in movie production, a system in which the result is made available for re-use by others or in which exclusively open-source products are used in the production. The 2006 movie Elephants Dream is said to be the "world's first open movie", created entirely using open-source technology. An open-source documentary film has a production process allowing the open contributions of archival material footage, and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form, similar to crowdsourcing. By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development. The first open-source documentary film is the non-profit ''WBCN and the American Revolution'', which went into development in 2006, and will examine the role media played in the cultural, social and political changes from 1968 to 1974 through the story of radio station WBCN-FM in Boston. The film is being produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media and the non-profit Center for Independent Documentary. Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Open-source film, Open-source film-making refers to a form of film-making that takes a method of idea formation from open-source software, but in this case the 'source' for a filmmaker is raw unedited footage rather than programming code. It can also refer to a method of film-making where the process of creation is 'open' i.e. a disparate group of contributors, at different times contribute to the final piece. Open-IPTV is IPTV that is not limited to one recording studio, production studio, or cast. Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show.


Education

Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the "intellectual commons" (analogous to the
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Creative Commons
). Proponents of this view have hailed the OpenStax CNX, Connexions Project at Rice University, MIT OpenCourseWare, OpenCourseWare project at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "open-source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database", Salman Khan (educator), Salman Khan's Khan Academy and
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Wikipedia
as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software. Open-source curriculum, Open-source curricula are instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified. Another strand to the academic community is in the area of research. Many funded research projects produce software as part of their work. There is an increasing interest in making the outputs of such projects available under an open-source license. In the UK the Jisc, Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) has developed a policy on open-source software. JISC also funds a development service called OSS Watch which acts as an advisory service for higher and further education institutions wishing to use, contribute to and develop open-source software. On 30 March 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, which included $2 billion over four years to fund the TAACCCT, TAACCCT program, which is described as "the largest OER (open education resources) initiative in the world and uniquely focused on creating curricula in partnership with industry for credentials in vocational industry sectors like manufacturing, health, energy, transportation, and IT".


Innovation communities

The principle of sharing pre-dates the open-source movement; for example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century. Open-source principles have always been part of the scientific community. The sociologist Robert K. Merton described the four basic elements of the community—universalism (an international perspective), communalism (sharing information), objectivity (removing one's personal views from the scientific inquiry) and organized skepticism (requirements of proof and review) that describe the (idealised) scientific community. These principles are, in part, complemented by US law's focus on protecting expression and method but not the ideas themselves. There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community instead of keeping all such knowledge proprietary. One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been Open access (publishing), open access—the idea that research should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public. There are currently many open access journals where the information is available free online, however most journals do charge a fee (either to users or libraries for access). The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available free on the Internet. The National Institutes of Health has recently proposed a policy on "Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information". This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication. The NIH's move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research. Many of the questions have yet to be answered—the balancing of profit vs. public access, and ensuring that desirable standards and incentives do not diminish with a shift to open access. Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove, bifocals, and the lightning rod to the public domain. New NGO communities are starting to use the open-source technology as a tool. One example is the Open Source Youth Network started in 2007 in Lisboa by ISCA members. Open innovation is also a new emerging concept which advocate putting R&D in a common pool. The Eclipse (software), Eclipse platform is openly presenting itself as an Open innovation network.


Arts and recreation

Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities. Some groups have attempted to remove copyright from such practices. In 2012, Russian music composer, scientist and Russian Pirate Party member :ru:Complex Numbers (музыкальная группа), Victor Argonov presented detailed raw files of his electronic opera "2032" under free license CC-BY-NC, CC-BY-NC 3.0 (later relicensed under CC-BY-SA, CC-BY-SA 4.0). This opera was originally composed and published in 2007 by Russian label MC Entertainment as a commercial product, but then the author changed its status to free. In his blog he said that he decided to open raw files (including wav, midi and other used formats) to the public in order to support worldwide pirate actions against SOPA and Personal Information Protection Act, PIPA. Several Internet resources called "2032" the first open-source musical opera in history.


Other related movements

The following are events and applications that have been developed via the Open-source community, open source community, and echo the ideologies of the open source movement. OpenCourseWare, Open Education Consortium — an organization composed of various colleges that support open source and share some of their material online. This organization, headed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was established to aid in the exchange of open source educational materials.
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Wikipedia
 — user-generated Internet encyclopedia project, online encyclopedia with sister projects in academic areas, such as Wikiversity — a community dedicated to the creation and exchange of learning materialsWarger, T. (2002)
The Open Source Movement
. Retrieved 22 November 2009, from Education Resources Information Center
Project Gutenberg — prior to the existence of Google Scholar Beta, this was the first supplier of E-book, electronic books and the very first free library project Synthetic Biology- This new technology is potentially important because it promises to enable cheap, lifesaving new drugs as well as helping to yield biofuels that may help to solve our energy problem. Although synthetic biology has not yet come out of its "lab" stage, it has potential to become industrialized in the near future. In order to industrialize open source science, there are some scientists who are trying to build their own brand of it.


Ideologically-related movements

The open access, open-access movement is a movement that is similar in ideology to the open source movement. Members of this movement maintain that academic material should be readily available to provide help with "future research, assist in teaching and aid in academic purposes." The Open access movement aims to eliminate subscription fees and licensing restrictions of academic materialsHarnad, S. (14 November 2009)
Zine & Articles: Open Access Movement and Its Implications for the Future of Academic Writing
Retrieved 22 November 2009.
The free-culture movement is a movement that seeks to achieve a culture that engages in collective freedom via freedom of expression, free public access to knowledge and information, full demonstration of creativity and innovation in various arenas and promotion of citizen liberties.Students For Free Culture. (2009)
Main Page
Retrieved 22 November 2009, from free culture.org
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...

Creative Commons
is an organization that "develops, supports, and stewards legal and technical infrastructure that maximizes digital creativity, sharing, and innovation." It encourages the use of protected properties online for research, education, and creative purposes in pursuit of a universal access. Creative Commons provides an infrastructure through a set of copyright licenses and tools that creates a better balance within the realm of "all rights reserved" properties. The Creative Commons license offers a slightly more lenient alternative to "all rights reserved" copyrights for those who do not wish to exclude the use of their material. The Zeitgeist Movement is an international social movement that advocates a transition into a sustainability, sustainable "resource-based economy" based on collaboration in which monetary incentives are replaced by commons-based ones with everyone sharing economy, having access to everything (from code to products) as in "open source everything". While its activism and events are typically focused on media and education, TZM is a major supporter of open source projects worldwide since they allow for uninhibited advancement of science and technology, independent of constraints posed by institutions of patenting and capitalist investment. P2P Foundation is an "international organization focused on studying, researching, documenting and promoting Social peer-to-peer processes, peer to peer practices in a very broad sense". Its objectives incorporate those of the open source movement, whose principles are integrated in a larger socio-economic model.


See also

* Access to Knowledge movement (A2K) * Cooperative * Decentralization * Decentralized computing ** Distributed data storage ** Distributed file systems ** Internet privacy ** Privacy software * Free Beer * Free-culture movement * Free Knowledge Foundation * Freedom of contract * OpenBTS * Open catalogue * Open Compute Project * Open Data Institute * Open education ** Open educational resources * Open format * Open Knowledge International * Open copyright license * Open publishing * Open research * Open-source curriculum (OSC) * Open-source governance ** Open politics * Open-source religion * Open-source unionism * Open standard * Paywall * Peer-to-peer * Radical transparency * Sharing economy * Social collaboration * Solidarity economy * Tactical Technology Collective * Voluntary association * Voluntaryism or Agorism


Terms based on open source

* Open implementation * Open security * Open-source record label * Open standard


Other

* ''Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution'' (book) * Commons-based peer production * Digital rights * Diseconomies of scale * Free content * Gift economy * :wikt:Appendix:Glossary of legal terms in technology, Glossary of legal terms in technology * Mass collaboration * Network effect *
Open Source Initiative The Open Source Initiative (OSI) is the steward of the Open Source definition, Open Source Definition, the set of rules that define Open Source Software, open source software. It is a California public-benefit nonprofit corporation, with 501(c)(3 ...
* Openness * Proprietary software


References


Further reading

* * * Karl Fogel
Producing Open Source Software
(How to run a successful free-software project). Free PDF version available. * *
(wiki)
* Nettingsmeier, Jörn. "So What? I Don't Hack!

(September 2009). Montréal: Canadian Electroacoustic Community, CEC. * * * Various authors
''eContact! 11.3Logiciels audio " open source " / Open Source for Audio Application''
(September 2009). Montréal: Canadian Electroacoustic Community, CEC. * Various authors.
Open Source Travel Guide [wiki
/nowiki>]"
''eContact! 11.3Logiciels audio " open source " / Open Source for Audio Application''
(September 2009). Montréal: Canadian Electroacoustic Community, CEC. * *


Literature on legal and economic aspects

* * * * * v. Engelhardt, S. (2008)
"Intellectual Property Rights and Ex-Post Transaction Costs: the Case of Open and Closed Source Software", Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-047
(PDF) * * European Commission. (2006)
Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies sector in the EU
Brussels. * *
(wiki)
* *
earlier revision (PDF)
* * * * * * * *
earlier revision
* * *


External links

{{Use dmy dates, date=November 2018 Academic publishing Business models Collaborative software Computer law Data publishing Free culture movement Intellectual property law Open access (publishing) Open content projects Open educational resources Open formats Open hardware electronic devices Open hardware organizations and companies Open science Open-source hardware, Open-source movement Scholarly communication Articles containing video clips