Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and integer-valued functions. German mathematician

1968 edition

at archive.org * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Volume 1**Volume 2****Volume 3****Volume 4 (1912)**

* For other editions, see Iamblichus#List of editions and translations * This Google books preview of ''Elements of algebra'' lacks Truesdell's intro, which is reprinted (slightly abridged) in the following book: * * * * * *

Number Theory

entry in the

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Carl Friedrich Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and science. Sometimes refer ...

(1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics."German original: "Die Mathematik ist die Königin der Wissenschaften, und die Arithmetik ist die Königin der Mathematik." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical object
A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics.
In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deductive reasoning and mathematical p ...

s made out of integers (for example, rational numbers) or defined as generalizations of the integers (for example, algebraic integer
In algebraic number theory, an algebraic integer is a complex number which is integral over the integers. That is, an algebraic integer is a complex root of some monic polynomial (a polynomial whose leading coefficient is 1) whose coefficients ...

s).
Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations (Diophantine geometry
In mathematics, Diophantine geometry is the study of Diophantine equations by means of powerful methods in algebraic geometry. By the 20th century it became clear for some mathematicians that methods of algebraic geometry are ideal tools to study ...

). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (for example, the Riemann zeta function) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other number-theoretic objects in some fashion ( analytic number theory). One may also study real numbers in relation to rational numbers, for example, as approximated by the latter (Diophantine approximation
In number theory, the study of Diophantine approximation deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. It is named after Diophantus of Alexandria.
The first problem was to know how well a real number can be approximated by r ...

).
The older term for number theory is ''arithmetic''. By the early twentieth century, it had been superseded by "number theory".Already in 1921, T. L. Heath had to explain: "By arithmetic, Plato meant, not arithmetic in our sense, but the science which considers numbers in themselves, in other words, what we mean by the Theory of Numbers." (The word " arithmetic" is used by the general public to mean " elementary calculations"; it has also acquired other meanings in mathematical logic, as in '' Peano arithmetic'', and computer science, as in '' floating-point arithmetic''.) The use of the term ''arithmetic'' for ''number theory'' regained some ground in the second half of the 20th century, arguably in part due to French influence.Take, for example, . In 1952, Davenport still had to specify that he meant ''The Higher Arithmetic''. Hardy and Wright wrote in the introduction to ''An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers
''An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers'' is a classic textbook in the field of number theory, by G. H. Hardy and E. M. Wright.
The book grew out of a series of lectures by Hardy and Wright and was first published in 1938.
The third edition ...

'' (1938): "We proposed at one time to change he titleto ''An introduction to arithmetic'', a more novel and in some ways a more appropriate title; but it was pointed out that this might lead to misunderstandings about the content of the book." In particular, ''arithmetical'' is commonly preferred as an adjective to ''number-theoretic''.
History

Origins

Dawn of arithmetic

The earliest historical find of an arithmetical nature is a fragment of a table: the broken clay tabletPlimpton 322
Plimpton 322 is a Babylonian clay tablet, notable as containing an example of Babylonian mathematics. It has number 322 in the G.A. Plimpton Collection at Columbia University. This tablet, believed to have been written about 1800 BC, has a table ...

( Larsa, Mesopotamia, ca. 1800 BC) contains a list of "Pythagorean triple
A Pythagorean triple consists of three positive integers , , and , such that . Such a triple is commonly written , and a well-known example is . If is a Pythagorean triple, then so is for any positive integer . A primitive Pythagorean triple is ...

s", that is, integers $(a,b,c)$ such that $a^2+b^2=c^2$.
The triples are too many and too large to have been obtained by brute force. The heading over the first column reads: "The ''takiltum'' of the diagonal which has been subtracted such that the width..."
The table's layout suggests that it was constructed by means of what amounts, in modern language, to the identity
:$\backslash left(\backslash frac\; \backslash left(x\; -\; \backslash frac\backslash right)\backslash right)^2\; +\; 1\; =\; \backslash left(\backslash frac\; \backslash left(x\; +\; \backslash frac\; \backslash right)\backslash right)^2,$
which is implicit in routine Old Babylonian
Old Babylonian may refer to:
*the period of the First Babylonian dynasty (20th to 16th centuries BC)
*the historical stage of the Akkadian language
Akkadian (, Akkadian: )John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", ''The Camb ...

exercises. If some other method was used, the triples were first constructed and then reordered by $c/a$, presumably for actual use as a "table", for example, with a view to applications.
It is not known what these applications may have been, or whether there could have been any; Babylonian astronomy, for example, truly came into its own only later. It has been suggested instead that the table was a source of numerical examples for school problems.. This is controversial. See Plimpton 322
Plimpton 322 is a Babylonian clay tablet, notable as containing an example of Babylonian mathematics. It has number 322 in the G.A. Plimpton Collection at Columbia University. This tablet, believed to have been written about 1800 BC, has a table ...

. Robson's article is written polemically with a view to "perhaps ..knocking limpton 322off its pedestal" ; at the same time, it settles to the conclusion that ..the question "how was the tablet calculated?" does not have to have the same answer as the question "what problems does the tablet set?" The first can be answered most satisfactorily by reciprocal pairs, as first suggested half a century ago, and the second by some sort of right-triangle problems .Robson takes issue with the notion that the scribe who produced Plimpton 322 (who had to "work for a living", and would not have belonged to a "leisured middle class") could have been motivated by his own "idle curiosity" in the absence of a "market for new mathematics". While Babylonian number theory—or what survives of

Babylonian mathematics
Babylonian mathematics (also known as ''Assyro-Babylonian mathematics'') are the mathematics developed or practiced by the people of Mesopotamia, from the days of the early Sumerians to the centuries following the fall of Babylon in 539 BC. Babyl ...

that can be called thus—consists of this single, striking fragment, Babylonian algebra (in the secondary-school sense of " algebra") was exceptionally well developed. Late Neoplatonic sources Iamblichus, ''Life of Pythagoras'',(trans., for example, ) cited in . See also Porphyry, ''Life of Pythagoras'', paragraph 6, in
Van der Waerden sustains the view that Thales knew Babylonian mathematics. state that Pythagoras learned mathematics from the Babylonians. Much earlier sourcesHerodotus (II. 81) and Isocrates (''Busiris'' 28), cited in: . On Thales, see Eudemus ap. Proclus, 65.7, (for example, ) cited in: . Proclus was using a work by Eudemus of Rhodes
Eudemus of Rhodes ( grc-gre, Εὔδημος) was an ancient Greek philosopher, considered the first historian of science, who lived from c. 370 BCE until c. 300 BCE. He was one of Aristotle's most important pupils, editing his teacher's work and m ...

(now lost), the ''Catalogue of Geometers''. See also introduction, on Proclus's reliability. state that Thales and Pythagoras traveled and studied in Egypt
Egypt ( ar, مصر , ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Medit ...

.
Euclid IX 21–34 is very probably Pythagorean;, cited in: . it is very simple material ("odd times even is even", "if an odd number measures dividesan even number, then it also measures divideshalf of it"), but it is all that is needed to prove that $\backslash sqrt$
is irrational
Irrationality is cognition, thinking, talking, or acting without inclusion of rationality. It is more specifically described as an action or opinion given through inadequate use of reason, or through emotional distress or cognitive deficiency. T ...

. Pythagorean mystics gave great importance to the odd and the even.
The discovery that $\backslash sqrt$ is irrational is credited to the early Pythagoreans (pre- Theodorus).Plato, ''Theaetetus'', p. 147 B, (for example, ), cited
in : "Theodorus was writing out for us something about roots, such as the roots of three or five, showing that they are incommensurable by the unit;..." ''See also'' Spiral of Theodorus. By revealing (in modern terms) that numbers could be irrational, this discovery seems to have provoked the first foundational crisis in mathematical history; its proof or its divulgation are sometimes credited to Hippasus
Hippasus of Metapontum (; grc-gre, Ἵππασος ὁ Μεταποντῖνος, ''Híppasos''; c. 530 – c. 450 BC) was a Greek philosopher and early follower of Pythagoras. Little is known about his life or his beliefs, but he is sometimes c ...

, who was expelled or split from the Pythagorean sect. This forced a distinction between ''numbers'' (integers and the rationals—the subjects of arithmetic), on the one hand, and ''lengths'' and ''proportions'' (which we would identify with real numbers, whether rational or not), on the other hand.
The Pythagorean tradition spoke also of so-called polygonal
In geometry, a polygon () is a plane figure that is described by a finite number of straight line segments connected to form a closed ''polygonal chain'' (or ''polygonal circuit''). The bounded plane region, the bounding circuit, or the two to ...

or figurate numbers
The term figurate number is used by different writers for members of different sets of numbers, generalizing from triangular numbers to different shapes (polygonal numbers) and different dimensions (polyhedral numbers). The term can mean
* polygo ...

. While square numbers, cubic number
In arithmetic and algebra, the cube of a number is its third power, that is, the result of multiplying three instances of together.
The cube of a number or any other mathematical expression is denoted by a superscript 3, for example or .
...

s, etc., are seen now as more natural than triangular numbers, pentagonal number
A pentagonal number is a figurate number that extends the concept of triangular and square numbers to the pentagon, but, unlike the first two, the patterns involved in the construction of pentagonal numbers are not rotationally symmetrical. The ...

s, etc., the study of the sums of triangular and pentagonal numbers would prove fruitful in the early modern period (17th to early 19th century).
We know of no clearly arithmetical material in ancient Egyptian or Vedic sources, though there is some algebra in each. The Chinese remainder theorem appears as an exercise in ''Sunzi Suanjing
''Sunzi Suanjing'' () was a mathematical treatise written during 3rd to 5th centuries AD which was listed as one of the Ten Computational Canons during the Tang dynasty. The specific identity of its author Sunzi (lit. "Master Sun") is still ...

'' (3rd, 4th or 5th century CE).The date of the text has been narrowed down to 220–420 CE (Yan Dunjie) or 280–473 CE (Wang Ling) through internal evidence (= taxation systems assumed in the text). See . (There is one important step glossed over in Sunzi's solution:''Sunzi Suanjing'', Ch. 3, Problem 26,
in :6Now there are an unknown number of things. If we count by threes, there is a remainder 2; if we count by fives, there is a remainder 3; if we count by sevens, there is a remainder 2. Find the number of things. ''Answer'': 23.it is the problem that was later solved by Āryabhaṭa's

''Method'': If we count by threes and there is a remainder 2, put down 140. If we count by fives and there is a remainder 3, put down 63. If we count by sevens and there is a remainder 2, put down 30. Add them to obtain 233 and subtract 210 to get the answer. If we count by threes and there is a remainder 1, put down 70. If we count by fives and there is a remainder 1, put down 21. If we count by sevens and there is a remainder 1, put down 15. When numberexceeds 106, the result is obtained by subtracting 105.

Kuṭṭaka
Kuṭṭaka is an algorithm for finding integer solutions of linear Diophantine equations. A linear Diophantine equation is an equation of the form ''ax'' + ''by'' = ''c'' where ''x'' and ''y'' are unknown quantities and ''a'', ''b'', and ''c'' ar ...

– see below.)
There is also some numerical mysticism in Chinese mathematics,See, for example, ''Sunzi Suanjing'', Ch. 3, Problem 36, in :6Now there is a pregnant woman whose age is 29. If the gestation period is 9 months, determine the sex of the unborn child. ''Answer'': Male.This is the last problem in Sunzi's otherwise matter-of-fact treatise. but, unlike that of the Pythagoreans, it seems to have led nowhere. Like the Pythagoreans' perfect numbers, magic squares have passed from superstition into recreation.

''Method'': Put down 49, add the gestation period and subtract the age. From the remainder take away 1 representing the heaven, 2 the earth, 3 the man, 4 the four seasons, 5 the five phases, 6 the six pitch-pipes, 7 the seven stars f the Dipper 8 the eight winds, and 9 the nine divisions f China under Yu the Great If the remainder is odd, he sexis male and if the remainder is even, he sexis female.

Classical Greece and the early Hellenistic period

Aside from a few fragments, the mathematics of Classical Greece is known to us either through the reports of contemporary non-mathematicians or through mathematical works from the early Hellenistic period. In the case of number theory, this means, by and large, '' Plato'' and ''Euclid'', respectively. While Asian mathematics influenced Greek and Hellenistic learning, it seems to be the case that Greek mathematics is also an indigenous tradition. Eusebius, PE X, chapter 4 mentions of Pythagoras:"In fact the said Pythagoras, while busily studying the wisdom of each nation, visited Babylon, and Egypt, and all Persia, being instructed by the Magi and the priests: and in addition to these he is related to have studied under the Brahmans (these are Indian philosophers); and from some he gathered astrology, from others geometry, and arithmetic and music from others, and different things from different nations, and only from the wise men of Greece did he get nothing, wedded as they were to a poverty and dearth of wisdom: so on the contrary he himself became the author of instruction to the Greeks in the learning which he had procured from abroad."Aristotle claimed that the philosophy of Plato closely followed the teachings of the Pythagoreans, and Cicero repeats this claim: ''Platonem ferunt didicisse Pythagorea omnia'' ("They say Plato learned all things Pythagorean"). Plato had a keen interest in mathematics, and distinguished clearly between arithmetic and calculation. (By ''arithmetic'' he meant, in part, theorising on number, rather than what ''arithmetic'' or ''number theory'' have come to mean.) It is through one of Plato's dialogues—namely, ''Theaetetus''—that we know that Theodorus had proven that $\backslash sqrt,\; \backslash sqrt,\; \backslash dots,\; \backslash sqrt$ are irrational. Theaetetus was, like Plato, a disciple of Theodorus's; he worked on distinguishing different kinds of incommensurables, and was thus arguably a pioneer in the study of

number systems
A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure, and label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be represented in language with number words. More universally, individual numbers can ...

. (Book X of Euclid's Elements is described by Pappus as being largely based on Theaetetus's work.)
Euclid devoted part of his ''Elements'' to prime numbers and divisibility, topics that belong unambiguously to number theory and are basic to it (Books VII to IX of Euclid's Elements). In particular, he gave an algorithm for computing the greatest common divisor of two numbers (the Euclidean algorithm; ''Elements'', Prop. VII.2) and the first known proof of the infinitude of primes (''Elements'', Prop. IX.20).
In 1773, Lessing published an epigram he had found in a manuscript during his work as a librarian; it claimed to be a letter sent by Archimedes to Eratosthenes. The epigram proposed what has become known as
Archimedes's cattle problem
Archimedes's cattle problem (or the or ) is a problem in Diophantine analysis, the study of polynomial equations with integer solutions. Attributed to Archimedes, the problem involves computing the number of cattle in a herd of the sun god from ...

; its solution (absent from the manuscript) requires solving an indeterminate quadratic equation (which reduces to what would later be misnamed Pell's equation
Pell's equation, also called the Pell–Fermat equation, is any Diophantine equation of the form x^2 - ny^2 = 1, where ''n'' is a given positive nonsquare integer, and integer solutions are sought for ''x'' and ''y''. In Cartesian coordinates, ...

). As far as we know, such equations were first successfully treated by the Indian school. It is not known whether Archimedes himself had a method of solution.
Diophantus

Very little is known about Diophantus of Alexandria; he probably lived in the third century AD, that is, about five hundred years after Euclid. Six out of the thirteen books of Diophantus's '' Arithmetica'' survive in the original Greek and four more survive in an Arabic translation. The ''Arithmetica'' is a collection of worked-out problems where the task is invariably to find rational solutions to a system of polynomial equations, usually of the form $f(x,y)=z^2$ or $f(x,y,z)=w^2$. Thus, nowadays, we speak of ''Diophantine equations'' when we speak of polynomial equations to which rational or integer solutions must be found. One may say that Diophantus was studyingrational point
In number theory and algebraic geometry, a rational point of an algebraic variety is a point whose coordinates belong to a given field. If the field is not mentioned, the field of rational numbers is generally understood. If the field is the fiel ...

s, that is, points whose coordinates are rational—on curve
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line, but that does not have to be straight.
Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the trace left by a moving point. This is the definition that ...

s and algebraic varieties
Algebraic varieties are the central objects of study in algebraic geometry, a sub-field of mathematics. Classically, an algebraic variety is defined as the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations over the real or complex numbers. ...

; however, unlike the Greeks of the Classical period, who did what we would now call basic algebra in geometrical terms, Diophantus did what we would now call basic algebraic geometry in purely algebraic terms. In modern language, what Diophantus did was to find rational parametrizations of varieties; that is, given an equation of the form (say)
$f(x\_1,x\_2,x\_3)=0$, his aim was to find (in essence) three rational functions
In mathematics, a rational function is any function that can be defined by a rational fraction, which is an algebraic fraction such that both the numerator and the denominator are polynomials. The coefficients of the polynomials need not be rat ...

$g\_1,\; g\_2,\; g\_3$ such that, for all values of $r$ and $s$, setting
$x\_i\; =\; g\_i(r,s)$ for $i=1,2,3$ gives a solution to $f(x\_1,x\_2,x\_3)=0.$
Diophantus also studied the equations of some non-rational curves, for which no rational parametrisation is possible. He managed to find some rational points on these curves ( elliptic curves, as it happens, in what seems to be their first known occurrence) by means of what amounts to a tangent construction: translated into coordinate geometry
(which did not exist in Diophantus's time), his method would be visualised as drawing a tangent to a curve at a known rational point, and then finding the other point of intersection of the tangent with the curve; that other point is a new rational point. (Diophantus also resorted to what could be called a special case of a secant construction.)
While Diophantus was concerned largely with rational solutions, he assumed some results on integer numbers, in particular that every integer is the sum of four squares (though he never stated as much explicitly).
Āryabhaṭa, Brahmagupta, Bhāskara

While Greek astronomy probably influenced Indian learning, to the point of introducing trigonometry, it seems to be the case that Indian mathematics is otherwise an indigenous tradition;Any early contact between Babylonian and Indian mathematics remains conjectural . in particular, there is no evidence that Euclid's Elements reached India before the 18th century. Āryabhaṭa (476–550 AD) showed that pairs of simultaneous congruences $n\backslash equiv\; a\_1\; \backslash bmod\; m\_1$, $n\backslash equiv\; a\_2\; \backslash bmod\; m\_2$ could be solved by a method he called ''kuṭṭaka'', or ''pulveriser''; this is a procedure close to (a generalisation of) the Euclidean algorithm, which was probably discovered independently in India. Āryabhaṭa seems to have had in mind applications to astronomical calculations. Brahmagupta (628 AD) started the systematic study of indefinite quadratic equations—in particular, the misnamedPell equation
Pell's equation, also called the Pell–Fermat equation, is any Diophantine equation of the form x^2 - ny^2 = 1, where ''n'' is a given positive nonsquare integer, and integer solutions are sought for ''x'' and ''y''. In Cartesian coordinates, ...

, in which Archimedes may have first been interested, and which did not start to be solved in the West until the time of Fermat and Euler. Later Sanskrit authors would follow, using Brahmagupta's technical terminology. A general procedure (the chakravala, or "cyclic method") for solving Pell's equation was finally found by Jayadeva (cited in the eleventh century; his work is otherwise lost); the earliest surviving exposition appears in Bhāskara II's Bīja-gaṇita (twelfth century).
Indian mathematics remained largely unknown in Europe until the late eighteenth century; Brahmagupta and Bhāskara's work was translated into English in 1817 by Henry Colebrooke.
Arithmetic in the Islamic golden age

In the early ninth century, the caliph Al-Ma'mun ordered translations of many Greek mathematical works and at least one Sanskrit work (the ''Sindhind'', which may or may not, and , cited in . be Brahmagupta'sBrāhmasphuṭasiddhānta
The ''Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta'' ("Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma", abbreviated BSS)
is the main work of Brahmagupta, written c. 628. This text of mathematical astronomy contains significant mathematical content, including a good underst ...

).
Diophantus's main work, the ''Arithmetica'', was translated into Arabic by Qusta ibn Luqa (820–912).
Part of the treatise ''al-Fakhri'' (by al-Karajī, 953 – ca. 1029) builds on it to some extent. According to Rashed Roshdi, Al-Karajī's contemporary Ibn al-Haytham knew what would later be called Wilson's theorem.
Western Europe in the Middle Ages

Other than a treatise on squares in arithmetic progression byFibonacci
Fibonacci (; also , ; – ), also known as Leonardo Bonacci, Leonardo of Pisa, or Leonardo Bigollo Pisano ('Leonardo the Traveller from Pisa'), was an Italian mathematician from the Republic of Pisa, considered to be "the most talented Wester ...

—who traveled and studied in north Africa and Constantinople—no number theory to speak of was done in western Europe during the Middle Ages. Matters started to change in Europe in the late Renaissance
The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period in European history
The history of Europe is traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe (prior to about 800 BC), classical antiquity (800 BC to AD ...

, thanks to a renewed study of the works of Greek antiquity. A catalyst was the textual emendation and translation into Latin of Diophantus' ''Arithmetica''.
Early modern number theory

Fermat

Pierre de Fermat (1607–1665) never published his writings; in particular, his work on number theory is contained almost entirely in letters to mathematicians and in private marginal notes. In his notes and letters, he scarcely wrote any proofs - he had no models in the area. Over his lifetime, Fermat made the following contributions to the field: * One of Fermat's first interests was perfect numbers (which appear in Euclid, ''Elements'' IX) andamicable numbers
Amicable numbers are two different natural numbers related in such a way that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number. That is, σ(''a'')=''b'' and σ(''b'')=''a'', where σ(''n'') is equal to the sum of positive di ...

;Perfect and especially amicable numbers are of little or no interest nowadays. The same was not true in medieval times—whether in the West or the Arab-speaking world—due in part to the importance given to them by the Neopythagorean (and hence mystical) Nicomachus (ca. 100 CE), who wrote a primitive but influential " Introduction to Arithmetic". See . these topics led him to work on integer divisors, which were from the beginning among the subjects of the correspondence (1636 onwards) that put him in touch with the mathematical community of the day.
* In 1638, Fermat claimed, without proof, that all whole numbers can be expressed as the sum of four squares or fewer.
* Fermat's little theorem (1640): if ''a'' is not divisible by a prime ''p'', then $a^\; \backslash equiv\; 1\; \backslash bmod\; p.$Here, as usual, given two integers ''a'' and ''b'' and a non-zero integer ''m'', we write $a\; \backslash equiv\; b\; \backslash bmod\; m$ (read "''a'' is congruent to ''b'' modulo ''m''") to mean that ''m'' divides ''a'' − ''b'', or, what is the same, ''a'' and ''b'' leave the same residue when divided by ''m''. This notation is actually much later than Fermat's; it first appears in section 1 of Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (; german: Gauß ; la, Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields in mathematics and science. Sometimes refer ...

's Disquisitiones Arithmeticae
The (Latin for "Arithmetical Investigations") is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24. It is notable for having had a revolutionary impact on th ...

. Fermat's little theorem is a consequence of the fact that the order of an element of a group divides the order of the group. The modern proof would have been within Fermat's means (and was indeed given later by Euler), even though the modern concept of a group came long after Fermat or Euler. (It helps to know that inverses exist modulo ''p'', that is, given ''a'' not divisible by a prime ''p'', there is an integer ''x'' such that $x\; a\; \backslash equiv\; 1\; \backslash bmod\; p$); this fact (which, in modern language, makes the residues mod ''p'' into a group, and which was already known to Āryabhaṭa; see above) was familiar to Fermat thanks to its rediscovery by Bachet . Weil goes on to say that Fermat would have recognised that Bachet's argument is essentially Euclid's algorithm.
* If ''a'' and ''b'' are coprime
In mathematics, two integers and are coprime, relatively prime or mutually prime if the only positive integer that is a divisor of both of them is 1. Consequently, any prime number that divides does not divide , and vice versa. This is equivale ...

, then $a^2\; +\; b^2$ is not divisible by any prime congruent to −1 modulo 4; and every prime congruent to 1 modulo 4 can be written in the form $a^2\; +\; b^2$. These two statements also date from 1640; in 1659, Fermat stated to Huygens that he had proven the latter statement by the method of infinite descent.
* In 1657, Fermat posed the problem of solving $x^2\; -\; N\; y^2\; =\; 1$ as a challenge to English mathematicians. The problem was solved in a few months by Wallis and Brouncker. Fermat considered their solution valid, but pointed out they had provided an algorithm without a proof (as had Jayadeva and Bhaskara, though Fermat was not aware of this). He stated that a proof could be found by infinite descent.
* Fermat stated and proved (by infinite descent) in the appendix to ''Observations on Diophantus'' (Obs. XLV) that $x^\; +\; y^\; =\; z^$ has no non-trivial solutions in the integers. Fermat also mentioned to his correspondents that $x^3\; +\; y^3\; =\; z^3$ has no non-trivial solutions, and that this could also be proven by infinite descent. The first known proof is due to Euler (1753; indeed by infinite descent).
* Fermat claimed (Fermat's Last Theorem
In number theory, Fermat's Last Theorem (sometimes called Fermat's conjecture, especially in older texts) states that no three positive integers , , and satisfy the equation for any integer value of greater than 2. The cases and have been ...

) to have shown there are no solutions to $x^n\; +\; y^n\; =\; z^n$ for all $n\backslash geq\; 3$; this claim appears in his annotations in the margins of his copy of Diophantus.
Euler

The interest of Leonhard Euler (1707–1783) in number theory was first spurred in 1729, when a friend of his, the amateurUp to the second half of the seventeenth century, academic positions were very rare, and most mathematicians and scientists earned their living in some other way . (There were already some recognisable features of professional ''practice'', viz., seeking correspondents, visiting foreign colleagues, building private libraries . Matters started to shift in the late 17th century ; scientific academies were founded in England (the Royal Society, 1662) and France (the Académie des sciences, 1666) and Russia (1724). Euler was offered a position at this last one in 1726; he accepted, arriving in St. Petersburg in 1727 ( and ). In this context, the term ''amateur'' usually applied to Goldbach is well-defined and makes some sense: he has been described as a man of letters who earned a living as a spy ; cited in ). Notice, however, that Goldbach published some works on mathematics and sometimes held academic positions. Goldbach, pointed him towards some of Fermat's work on the subject. This has been called the "rebirth" of modern number theory, after Fermat's relative lack of success in getting his contemporaries' attention for the subject. Euler's work on number theory includes the following: *''Proofs for Fermat's statements.'' This includes Fermat's little theorem (generalised by Euler to non-prime moduli); the fact that $p\; =\; x^2\; +\; y^2$ if and only if $p\backslash equiv\; 1\; \backslash bmod\; 4$; initial work towards a proof that every integer is the sum of four squares (the first complete proof is by Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1770), soon improved by Euler himself); the lack of non-zero integer solutions to $x^4\; +\; y^4\; =\; z^2$ (implying the case ''n=4'' of Fermat's last theorem, the case ''n=3'' of which Euler also proved by a related method). *''Pell's equation
Pell's equation, also called the Pell–Fermat equation, is any Diophantine equation of the form x^2 - ny^2 = 1, where ''n'' is a given positive nonsquare integer, and integer solutions are sought for ''x'' and ''y''. In Cartesian coordinates, ...

'', first misnamed by Euler.. Euler was generous in giving credit to others , not always correctly. He wrote on the link between continued fractions and Pell's equation.
*''First steps towards analytic number theory.'' In his work of sums of four squares, partitions, pentagonal numbers, and the distribution of prime numbers, Euler pioneered the use of what can be seen as analysis (in particular, infinite series) in number theory. Since he lived before the development of complex analysis, most of his work is restricted to the formal manipulation of power series. He did, however, do some very notable (though not fully rigorous) early work on what would later be called the Riemann zeta function.
*''Quadratic forms''. Following Fermat's lead, Euler did further research on the question of which primes can be expressed in the form $x^2\; +\; N\; y^2$, some of it prefiguring quadratic reciprocity
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. Due to its subtlety, it has many formulations, but the most standard st ...

.
*''Diophantine equations''. Euler worked on some Diophantine equations of genus 0 and 1. In particular, he studied Diophantus's work; he tried to systematise it, but the time was not yet ripe for such an endeavour—algebraic geometry was still in its infancy. He did notice there was a connection between Diophantine problems and elliptic integral
In integral calculus, an elliptic integral is one of a number of related functions defined as the value of certain integrals, which were first studied by Giulio Fagnano and Leonhard Euler (). Their name originates from their originally arising in ...

s, whose study he had himself initiated.
Lagrange, Legendre, and Gauss

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813) was the first to give full proofs of some of Fermat's and Euler's work and observations—for instance, the four-square theorem and the basic theory of the misnamed "Pell's equation" (for which an algorithmic solution was found by Fermat and his contemporaries, and also by Jayadeva and Bhaskara II before them.) He also studied quadratic forms in full generality (as opposed to $m\; X^2\; +\; n\; Y^2$)—defining their equivalence relation, showing how to put them in reduced form, etc.Adrien-Marie Legendre
Adrien-Marie Legendre (; ; 18 September 1752 – 9 January 1833) was a French mathematician who made numerous contributions to mathematics. Well-known and important concepts such as the Legendre polynomials and Legendre transformation are name ...

(1752–1833) was the first to state the law of quadratic reciprocity. He also
conjectured what amounts to the prime number theorem and Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions. He gave a full treatment of the equation $a\; x^2\; +\; b\; y^2\; +\; c\; z^2\; =\; 0$ and worked on quadratic forms along the lines later developed fully by Gauss. In his old age, he was the first to prove Fermat's Last Theorem for $n=5$ (completing work by Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet
Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (; 13 February 1805 – 5 May 1859) was a German mathematician who made deep contributions to number theory (including creating the field of analytic number theory), and to the theory of Fourier series and ...

, and crediting both him and Sophie Germain
Marie-Sophie Germain (; 1 April 1776 – 27 June 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher. Despite initial opposition from her parents and difficulties presented by society, she gained education from books in her father's lib ...

).
In his ''Disquisitiones Arithmeticae'' (1798), Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) proved the law of quadratic reciprocity
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. Due to its subtlety, it has many formulations, but the most standard st ...

and developed the theory of quadratic forms (in particular, defining their composition). He also introduced some basic notation (congruences
In abstract algebra, a congruence relation (or simply congruence) is an equivalence relation on an algebraic structure (such as a group, ring, or vector space) that is compatible with the structure in the sense that algebraic operations done wi ...

) and devoted a section to computational matters, including primality tests. The last section of the ''Disquisitiones'' established a link between roots of unity
In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that yields 1 when raised to some positive integer power . Roots of unity are used in many branches of mathematics, and are especially important in ...

and number theory:
The theory of the division of the circle...which is treated in sec. 7 does not belong by itself to arithmetic, but its principles can only be drawn from higher arithmetic.In this way, Gauss arguably made a first foray towards both Évariste Galois's work and algebraic number theory.

Maturity and division into subfields

Starting early in the nineteenth century, the following developments gradually took place: * The rise to self-consciousness of number theory (or ''higher arithmetic'') as a field of study. * The development of much of modern mathematics necessary for basic modern number theory: complex analysis,group theory
In abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as group (mathematics), groups.
The concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other well-known algebraic structures, such as ring (mathematics), rings, field ...

, Galois theory
In mathematics, Galois theory, originally introduced by Évariste Galois, provides a connection between field theory and group theory. This connection, the fundamental theorem of Galois theory, allows reducing certain problems in field theory to ...

—accompanied by greater rigor in analysis and abstraction in algebra.
* The rough subdivision of number theory into its modern subfields—in particular, analytic and algebraic number theory.
Algebraic number theory may be said to start with the study of reciprocity and cyclotomy, but truly came into its own with the development of abstract algebra and early ideal theory and valuation theory; see below. A conventional starting point for analytic number theory is Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions (1837), whose proof introduced L-functions and involved some asymptotic analysis and a limiting process on a real variable. The first use of analytic ideas in number theory actually
goes back to Euler (1730s), who used formal power series and non-rigorous (or implicit) limiting arguments. The use of ''complex'' analysis in number theory comes later: the work of Bernhard Riemann (1859) on the zeta function is the canonical starting point; Jacobi's four-square theorem
Jacobi's four-square theorem gives a formula for the number of ways that a given positive integer ''n'' can be represented as the sum of four squares.
History
The theorem was proved in 1834 by Carl Gustav Jakob Jacobi.
Theorem
Two representati ...

(1839), which predates it, belongs to an initially different strand that has by now taken a leading role in analytic number theory ( modular forms).
The history of each subfield is briefly addressed in its own section below; see the main article of each subfield for fuller treatments. Many of the most interesting questions in each area remain open and are being actively worked on.
Main subdivisions

Elementary number theory

The term ''elementary
Elementary may refer to:
Arts, entertainment, and media Music
* ''Elementary'' (Cindy Morgan album), 2001
* ''Elementary'' (The End album), 2007
* ''Elementary'', a Melvin "Wah-Wah Watson" Ragin album, 1977
Other uses in arts, entertainment, a ...

'' generally denotes a method that does not use complex analysis. For example, the prime number theorem was first proven using complex analysis in 1896, but an elementary proof was found only in 1949 by Erdős and Selberg. The term is somewhat ambiguous: for example, proofs based on complex Tauberian theorem In mathematics, Abelian and Tauberian theorems are theorems giving conditions for two methods of summing divergent series to give the same result, named after Niels Henrik Abel and Alfred Tauber. The original examples are Abel's theorem showing th ...

s (for example, Wiener–Ikehara) are often seen as quite enlightening but not elementary, in spite of using Fourier analysis, rather than complex analysis as such. Here as elsewhere, an ''elementary'' proof may be longer and more difficult for most readers than a non-elementary one.
Number theory has the reputation of being a field many of whose results can be stated to the layperson. At the same time, the proofs of these results are not particularly accessible, in part because the range of tools they use is, if anything, unusually broad within mathematics.
Analytic number theory

''Analytic number theory'' may be defined * in terms of its tools, as the study of the integers by means of tools fromreal
Real may refer to:
Currencies
* Brazilian real (R$)
* Central American Republic real
* Mexican real
* Portuguese real
* Spanish real
* Spanish colonial real
Music Albums
* ''Real'' (L'Arc-en-Ciel album) (2000)
* ''Real'' (Bright album) (2010) ...

and complex
Complex commonly refers to:
* Complexity, the behaviour of a system whose components interact in multiple ways so possible interactions are difficult to describe
** Complex system, a system composed of many components which may interact with each ...

analysis; or
* in terms of its concerns, as the study within number theory of estimates on size and density, as opposed to identities.
Some subjects generally considered to be part of analytic number theory, for example, sieve theory
Sieve theory is a set of general techniques in number theory, designed to count, or more realistically to estimate the size of, sifted sets of integers. The prototypical example of a sifted set is the set of prime numbers up to some prescribed lim ...

,Sieve theory figures as one of the main subareas of analytic number theory in many standard treatments; see, for instance, or are better covered by the second rather than the first definition: some of sieve theory, for instance, uses little analysis,This is the case for small sieves (in particular, some combinatorial sieves such as the Brun sieve In the field of number theory, the Brun sieve (also called Brun's pure sieve) is a technique for estimating the size of "sifted sets" of positive integers which satisfy a set of conditions which are expressed by congruences. It was developed by Vi ...

) rather than for large sieves; the study of the latter now includes ideas from harmonic and functional analysis. yet it does belong to analytic number theory.
The following are examples of problems in analytic number theory: the prime number theorem, the Goldbach conjecture (or the twin prime conjecture
A twin prime is a prime number that is either 2 less or 2 more than another prime number—for example, either member of the twin prime pair (41, 43). In other words, a twin prime is a prime that has a prime gap of two. Sometimes the term ''twin pr ...

, or the Hardy–Littlewood conjecture
A twin prime is a prime number that is either 2 less or 2 more than another prime number—for example, either member of the twin prime pair (41, 43). In other words, a twin prime is a prime that has a prime gap of two. Sometimes the term ''twin pr ...

s), the Waring problem and the Riemann hypothesis. Some of the most important tools of analytic number theory are the circle method, sieve methods and L-functions (or, rather, the study of their properties). The theory of modular forms (and, more generally, automorphic forms
In harmonic analysis and number theory, an automorphic form is a well-behaved function from a topological group ''G'' to the complex numbers (or complex vector space) which is invariant under the action of a discrete subgroup \Gamma \subset G o ...

) also occupies an increasingly central place in the toolbox of analytic number theory.
One may ask analytic questions about algebraic numbers, and use analytic means to answer such questions; it is thus that algebraic and analytic number theory intersect. For example, one may define prime ideals (generalizations of prime numbers in the field of algebraic numbers) and ask how many prime ideals there are up to a certain size. This question can be answered by means of an examination of Dedekind zeta function
In mathematics, the Dedekind zeta function of an algebraic number field ''K'', generally denoted ζ''K''(''s''), is a generalization of the Riemann zeta function (which is obtained in the case where ''K'' is the field of rational numbers Q). It ca ...

s, which are generalizations of the Riemann zeta function, a key analytic object at the roots of the subject. This is an example of a general procedure in analytic number theory: deriving information about the distribution of a sequence (here, prime ideals or prime numbers) from the analytic behavior of an appropriately constructed complex-valued function.
Algebraic number theory

An ''algebraic number'' is any complex number that is a solution to some polynomial equation $f(x)=0$ with rational coefficients; for example, every solution $x$ of $x^5\; +\; (11/2)\; x^3\; -\; 7\; x^2\; +\; 9\; =\; 0$ (say) is an algebraic number. Fields of algebraic numbers are also called '' algebraic number fields'', or shortly ''number field
In mathematics, an algebraic number field (or simply number field) is an extension field K of the field of rational numbers such that the field extension K / \mathbb has finite degree (and hence is an algebraic field extension).
Thus K is a f ...

s''. Algebraic number theory studies algebraic number fields. Thus, analytic and algebraic number theory can and do overlap: the former is defined by its methods, the latter by its objects of study.
It could be argued that the simplest kind of number fields (viz., quadratic fields) were already studied by Gauss, as the discussion of quadratic forms in ''Disquisitiones arithmeticae'' can be restated in terms of ideals and
norms in quadratic fields. (A ''quadratic field'' consists of all
numbers of the form $a\; +\; b\; \backslash sqrt$, where
$a$ and $b$ are rational numbers and $d$
is a fixed rational number whose square root is not rational.)
For that matter, the 11th-century chakravala method
The ''chakravala'' method ( sa, चक्रवाल विधि) is a cyclic algorithm to solve indeterminate quadratic equations, including Pell's equation. It is commonly attributed to Bhāskara II, (c. 1114 – 1185 CE)Hoiberg & Ramchandani ...

amounts—in modern terms—to an algorithm for finding the units of a real quadratic number field. However, neither Bhāskara nor Gauss knew of number fields as such.
The grounds of the subject as we know it were set in the late nineteenth century, when ''ideal numbers'', the ''theory of ideals'' and ''valuation theory'' were developed; these are three complementary ways of dealing with the lack of unique factorisation in algebraic number fields. (For example, in the field generated by the rationals
and $\backslash sqrt$, the number $6$ can be factorised both as $6\; =\; 2\; \backslash cdot\; 3$ and
$6\; =\; (1\; +\; \backslash sqrt)\; (\; 1\; -\; \backslash sqrt)$; all of $2$, $3$, $1\; +\; \backslash sqrt$ and
$1\; -\; \backslash sqrt$
are irreducible, and thus, in a naïve sense, analogous to primes among the integers.) The initial impetus for the development of ideal numbers (by Kummer) seems to have come from the study of higher reciprocity laws, that is, generalisations of quadratic reciprocity
In number theory, the law of quadratic reciprocity is a theorem about modular arithmetic that gives conditions for the solvability of quadratic equations modulo prime numbers. Due to its subtlety, it has many formulations, but the most standard st ...

.
Number fields are often studied as extensions of smaller number fields: a field ''L'' is said to be an ''extension'' of a field ''K'' if ''L'' contains ''K''.
(For example, the complex numbers ''C'' are an extension of the reals ''R'', and the reals ''R'' are an extension of the rationals ''Q''.)
Classifying the possible extensions of a given number field is a difficult and partially open problem. Abelian extensions—that is, extensions ''L'' of ''K'' such that the Galois group
In mathematics, in the area of abstract algebra known as Galois theory, the Galois group of a certain type of field extension is a specific group associated with the field extension. The study of field extensions and their relationship to the po ...

The Galois group of an extension ''L/K'' consists of the operations ( isomorphisms) that send elements of L to other elements of L while leaving all elements of K fixed.
Thus, for instance, ''Gal(C/R)'' consists of two elements: the identity element
(taking every element ''x'' + ''iy'' of ''C'' to itself) and complex conjugation
(the map taking each element ''x'' + ''iy'' to ''x'' − ''iy'').
The Galois group of an extension tells us many of its crucial properties. The study of Galois groups started with Évariste Galois; in modern language, the main outcome of his work is that an equation ''f''(''x'') = 0 can be solved by radicals
(that is, ''x'' can be expressed in terms of the four basic operations together
with square roots, cubic roots, etc.) if and only if the extension of the rationals by the roots of the equation ''f''(''x'') = 0 has a Galois group that is solvable
in the sense of group theory. ("Solvable", in the sense of group theory, is a simple property that can be checked easily for finite groups.) Gal(''L''/''K'') of ''L'' over ''K'' is an abelian group—are relatively well understood.
Their classification was the object of the programme of class field theory, which was initiated in the late 19th century (partly by Kronecker and Eisenstein) and carried out largely in 1900–1950.
An example of an active area of research in algebraic number theory is Iwasawa theory
In number theory, Iwasawa theory is the study of objects of arithmetic interest over infinite towers of number fields. It began as a Galois module theory of ideal class groups, initiated by (), as part of the theory of cyclotomic fields. In th ...

. The Langlands program
In representation theory and algebraic number theory, the Langlands program is a web of far-reaching and influential conjectures about connections between number theory and geometry. Proposed by , it seeks to relate Galois groups in algebraic num ...

, one of the main current large-scale research plans in mathematics, is sometimes described as an attempt to generalise class field theory to non-abelian extensions of number fields.
Diophantine geometry

The central problem of ''Diophantine geometry'' is to determine when a Diophantine equation has solutions, and if it does, how many. The approach taken is to think of the solutions of an equation as a geometric object. For example, an equation in two variables defines a curve in the plane. More generally, an equation, or system of equations, in two or more variables defines acurve
In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line, but that does not have to be straight.
Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the trace left by a moving point. This is the definition that ...

, a surface
A surface, as the term is most generally used, is the outermost or uppermost layer of a physical object or space. It is the portion or region of the object that can first be perceived by an observer using the senses of sight and touch, and is ...

or some other such object in ''n''-dimensional space. In Diophantine geometry, one asks whether there are any ''rational points'' (points all of whose coordinates are rationals) or
''integral points'' (points all of whose coordinates are integers) on the curve or surface. If there are any such points, the next step is to ask how many there are and how they are distributed. A basic question in this direction is if there are finitely
or infinitely many rational points on a given curve (or surface).
In the Pythagorean equation $x^2+y^2\; =\; 1,$
we would like to study its rational solutions, that is, its solutions
$(x,y)$ such that
''x'' and ''y'' are both rational. This is the same as asking for all integer solutions
to $a^2\; +\; b^2\; =\; c^2$; any solution to the latter equation gives
us a solution $x\; =\; a/c$, $y\; =\; b/c$ to the former. It is also the
same as asking for all points with rational coordinates on the curve
described by $x^2\; +\; y^2\; =\; 1$. (This curve happens to be a circle of radius 1 around the origin.)
The rephrasing of questions on equations in terms of points on curves turns out to be felicitous. The finiteness or not of the number of rational or integer points on an algebraic curve—that is, rational or integer solutions to an equation $f(x,y)=0$, where $f$ is a polynomial in two variables—turns out to depend crucially on the ''genus'' of the curve. The ''genus'' can be defined as follows:If we want to study the curve $y^2\; =\; x^3\; +\; 7$. We allow ''x'' and ''y'' to be complex numbers: $(a\; +\; b\; i)^2\; =\; (c\; +\; d\; i)^3\; +\; 7$. This is, in effect, a set of two equations on four variables, since both the real
and the imaginary part on each side must match. As a result, we get a surface (two-dimensional) in four-dimensional space. After we choose a convenient hyperplane on which to project the surface (meaning that, say, we choose to ignore the coordinate ''a''), we can
plot the resulting projection, which is a surface in ordinary three-dimensional space. It
then becomes clear that the result is a torus, loosely speaking, the surface of a doughnut (somewhat
stretched). A doughnut has one hole; hence the genus is 1. allow the variables in $f(x,y)=0$ to be complex numbers; then $f(x,y)=0$ defines a 2-dimensional surface in (projective) 4-dimensional space (since two complex variables can be decomposed into four real variables, that is, four dimensions). If we count the number of (doughnut) holes in the surface; we call this number the ''genus'' of $f(x,y)=0$. Other geometrical notions turn out to be just as crucial.
There is also the closely linked area of Diophantine approximations
In number theory, the study of Diophantine approximation deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. It is named after Diophantus of Alexandria.
The first problem was to know how well a real number can be approximated by r ...

: given a number $x$, then finding how well can it be approximated by rationals. (We are looking for approximations that are good relative to the amount of space that it takes to write the rational: call $a/q$ (with $\backslash gcd(a,q)=1$) a good approximation to $x$ if $,\; x-a/q,\; <\backslash frac$, where $c$ is large.) This question is of special interest if $x$ is an algebraic number. If $x$ cannot be well approximated, then some equations do not have integer or rational solutions. Moreover, several concepts (especially that of height) turn out to be critical both in Diophantine geometry and in the study of Diophantine approximations. This question is also of special interest in transcendental number theory
Transcendental number theory is a branch of number theory that investigates transcendental numbers (numbers that are not solutions of any polynomial equation with rational coefficients), in both qualitative and quantitative ways.
Transcendence
...

: if a number can be better approximated than any algebraic number, then it is a transcendental number. It is by this argument that and e have been shown to be transcendental.
Diophantine geometry should not be confused with the geometry of numbers, which is a collection of graphical methods for answering certain questions in algebraic number theory. ''Arithmetic geometry'', however, is a contemporary term
for much the same domain as that covered by the term ''Diophantine geometry''. The term ''arithmetic geometry'' is arguably used
most often when one wishes to emphasise the connections to modern algebraic geometry (as in, for instance, Faltings's theorem
In arithmetic geometry, the Mordell conjecture is the conjecture made by Louis Mordell that a curve of genus greater than 1 over the field Q of rational numbers has only finitely many rational points. In 1983 it was proved by Gerd Faltings, and ...

) rather than to techniques in Diophantine approximations.
Other subfields

The areas below date from no earlier than the mid-twentieth century, even if they are based on older material. For example, as is explained below, the matter of algorithms in number theory is very old, in some sense older than the concept of proof; at the same time, the modern study of computability dates only from the 1930s and 1940s, and computational complexity theory from the 1970s.Probabilistic number theory

Much of probabilistic number theory can be seen as an important special case of the study of variables that are almost, but not quite, mutually independent. For example, the event that a random integer between one and a million be divisible by two and the event that it be divisible by three are almost independent, but not quite. It is sometimes said that probabilistic combinatorics uses the fact that whatever happens with probability greater than $0$ must happen sometimes; one may say with equal justice that many applications of probabilistic number theory hinge on the fact that whatever is unusual must be rare. If certain algebraic objects (say, rational or integer solutions to certain equations) can be shown to be in the tail of certain sensibly defined distributions, it follows that there must be few of them; this is a very concrete non-probabilistic statement following from a probabilistic one. At times, a non-rigorous, probabilistic approach leads to a number of heuristic algorithms and open problems, notablyCramér's conjecture In number theory, Cramér's conjecture, formulated by the Swedish mathematician Harald Cramér in 1936, is an estimate for the size of gaps between consecutive prime numbers: intuitively, that gaps between consecutive primes are always small, and t ...

.
Arithmetic combinatorics

If we begin from a fairly "thick"infinite set
In set theory, an infinite set is a set that is not a finite set. Infinite sets may be countable or uncountable.
Properties
The set of natural numbers (whose existence is postulated by the axiom of infinity) is infinite. It is the only s ...

$A$, does it contain many elements in arithmetic progression: $a$,
$a+b,\; a+2\; b,\; a+3\; b,\; \backslash ldots,\; a+10b$, say? Should it be possible to write large integers as sums of elements of $A$?
These questions are characteristic of ''arithmetic combinatorics''. This is a presently coalescing field; it subsumes ''additive number theory
Additive number theory is the subfield of number theory concerning the study of subsets of integers and their behavior under addition. More abstractly, the field of additive number theory includes the study of abelian groups and commutative semigr ...

'' (which concerns itself with certain very specific sets $A$ of arithmetic significance, such as the primes or the squares) and, arguably, some of the ''geometry of numbers'',
together with some rapidly developing new material. Its focus on issues of growth and distribution accounts in part for its developing links with ergodic theory, finite group theory
Finite is the opposite of infinite. It may refer to:
* Finite number (disambiguation)
* Finite set, a set whose cardinality (number of elements) is some natural number
* Finite verb, a verb form that has a subject, usually being inflected or marked ...

, model theory, and other fields. The term ''additive combinatorics'' is also used; however, the sets $A$ being studied need not be sets of integers, but rather subsets of non-commutative groups, for which the multiplication symbol, not the addition symbol, is traditionally used; they can also be subsets of rings
Ring may refer to:
* Ring (jewellery), a round band, usually made of metal, worn as ornamental jewelry
* To make a sound with a bell, and the sound made by a bell
:(hence) to initiate a telephone connection
Arts, entertainment and media Film and ...

, in which case the growth of $A+A$ and $A$·$A$ may be
compared.
Computational number theory

While the word ''algorithm'' goes back only to certain readers of al-Khwārizmī, careful descriptions of methods of solution are older than proofs: such methods (that is, algorithms) are as old as any recognisable mathematics—ancient Egyptian, Babylonian, Vedic, Chinese—whereas proofs appeared only with the Greeks of the classical period. An early case is that of what we now call the Euclidean algorithm. In its basic form (namely, as an algorithm for computing thegreatest common divisor
In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two or more integers, which are not all zero, is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers. For two integers ''x'', ''y'', the greatest common divisor of ''x'' and ''y'' is ...

) it appears as Proposition 2 of Book VII in ''Elements'', together with a proof of correctness. However, in the form that is often used in number theory (namely, as an algorithm for finding integer solutions to an equation $a\; x\; +\; b\; y\; =\; c$,
or, what is the same, for finding the quantities whose existence is assured by the Chinese remainder theorem) it first appears in the works of Āryabhaṭa (5th–6th century CE) as an algorithm called
''kuṭṭaka'' ("pulveriser"), without a proof of correctness.
There are two main questions: "Can we compute this?" and "Can we compute it rapidly?" Anyone can test whether a number is prime or, if it is not, split it into prime factors; doing so rapidly is another matter. We now know fast algorithms for testing primality, but, in spite of much work (both theoretical and practical), no truly fast algorithm for factoring.
The difficulty of a computation can be useful: modern protocols for encrypting messages (for example, RSA) depend on functions that are known to all, but whose inverses are known only to a chosen few, and would take one too long a time to figure out on one's own. For example, these functions can be such that their inverses can be computed only if certain large integers are factorized. While many difficult computational problems outside number theory are known, most working encryption protocols nowadays are based on the difficulty of a few number-theoretical problems.
Some things may not be computable at all; in fact, this can be proven in some instances. For instance, in 1970, it was proven, as a solution to Hilbert's 10th problem, that there is no Turing machine which can solve all Diophantine equations. In particular, this means that, given a computably enumerable
In computability theory, a set ''S'' of natural numbers is called computably enumerable (c.e.), recursively enumerable (r.e.), semidecidable, partially decidable, listable, provable or Turing-recognizable if:
*There is an algorithm such that the ...

set of axioms, there are Diophantine equations for which there is no proof, starting from the axioms, of whether the set of equations has or does not have integer solutions. (We would necessarily be speaking of Diophantine equations for which there are no integer solutions, since, given a Diophantine equation with at least one solution, the solution itself provides a proof of the fact that a solution exists. We cannot prove that a particular Diophantine equation is of this kind, since this would imply that it has no solutions.)
Applications

The number-theoristLeonard Dickson
Leonard Eugene Dickson (January 22, 1874 – January 17, 1954) was an American mathematician. He was one of the first American researchers in abstract algebra, in particular the theory of finite fields and classical groups, and is also reme ...

(1874–1954) said "Thank God that number theory is unsullied by any application". Such a view is no longer applicable to number theory. In 1974, Donald Knuth
Donald Ervin Knuth ( ; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize of computer sc ...

said "...virtually every theorem in elementary number theory arises in a natural, motivated way in connection with the problem of making computers do high-speed numerical calculations".
Elementary number theory is taught in discrete mathematics courses for computer scientists; on the other hand, number theory also has applications to the continuous in numerical analysis. As well as the well-known applications to cryptography, there are also applications to many other areas of mathematics.
Prizes

The American Mathematical Society awards the '' Cole Prize in Number Theory''. Moreover, number theory is one of the three mathematical subdisciplines rewarded by the ''Fermat Prize
The Fermat prize of mathematical research biennially rewards research works in fields where the contributions of Pierre de Fermat have been decisive:
* Statements of variational principles
* Foundations of probability and analytic geometry
* Numbe ...

''.
See also

*Algebraic function field
In mathematics, an algebraic function field (often abbreviated as function field) of ''n'' variables over a field ''k'' is a finitely generated field extension ''K''/''k'' which has transcendence degree ''n'' over ''k''. Equivalently, an algebrai ...

* Finite field
* p-adic number
In mathematics, the -adic number system for any prime number extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a different way from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems. The extensi ...

Notes

References

Sources

* * (Subscription needed) * *1968 edition

at archive.org * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Volume 1

* For other editions, see Iamblichus#List of editions and translations * This Google books preview of ''Elements of algebra'' lacks Truesdell's intro, which is reprinted (slightly abridged) in the following book: * * * * * *

Further reading

Two of the most popular introductions to the subject are: * * Hardy and Wright's book is a comprehensive classic, though its clarity sometimes suffers due to the authors' insistence on elementary methods ( Apostol n.d.). Vinogradov's main attraction consists in its set of problems, which quickly lead to Vinogradov's own research interests; the text itself is very basic and close to minimal. Other popular first introductions are: * * Popular choices for a second textbook include: * *External links

*Number Theory

entry in the

Encyclopedia of Mathematics
The ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'' (also ''EOM'' and formerly ''Encyclopaedia of Mathematics'') is a large reference work in mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structu ...

Number Theory Web

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