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In
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ...

computing
, multi-touch is technology that enables a surface (a
touchpad A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen. Touchp ...

touchpad
or
touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an Information processor, information processing system ...

touchscreen
) to recognize the presence of more than one
point of contact A point of contact (POC) or single point of contact (SPOC) is a person or a department serving as the coordinator or focal point of information concerning an activity or program. A POC is used in many cases where information is time-sensitive and a ...
with the surface at the same time. The origins of multitouch began at
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large la ...
,
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
,
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...

University of Toronto
,
Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence ...
and
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
in the 1970s. CERN started using multi-touch screens as early as 1976 for the controls of the
Super Proton Synchrotron The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel electric charge, charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defin ...
. Capacitive multi-touch displays were popularized by
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
's
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
in 2007. Plural-point awareness may be used to implement additional functionality, such as pinch to zoom or to activate certain
subroutine In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, gener ...
s attached to . Several uses of the term multi-touch resulted from the quick developments in this field, and many companies using the term to market older technology which is called ''
gesture-enhanced single-touchGesture-enhanced single-touch, also known as "dual control", "gesture touch", and often "dual-touch", describes the ability of a touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. ...
'' or several other terms by other companies and researchers. Several other similar or related terms attempt to differentiate between whether a device can exactly determine or only approximate the location of different points of contact to further differentiate between the various technological capabilities, but they are often used as synonyms in marketing. Multi-touch is commonly implemented using
capacitive sensing In electrical engineering, capacitive sensing (sometimes capacitance sensing) is a technology, based on capacitive coupling, that can detect and measure anything that is conductive or has a dielectric A dielectric (or dielectric material) is a ...
technology in
mobile devices A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets ...
and
smart devices A smart device is an electronics, electronic device, generally connected to other devices or networks via different wireless protocols such as Bluetooth, Zigbee, Near field communication, NFC, Wi-Fi, LiFi, 5G, etc., that can operate to some extent ...
. A capacitive touchscreen typically consists of a capacitive touch
sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects events or changes in its environment and s ...

sensor
,
application-specific integrated circuit An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit ...
(ASIC) controller and
digital signal processor A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic i ...
(DSP) fabricated from
CMOS Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS, pronounced "see-moss"), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor The metal–oxide–se ...
(complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology. A more recent alternative approach is optical touch technology, based on
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects e ...
technology.


Definition

In
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ...

computing
, multi-touch is technology which enables a
touchpad A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen. Touchp ...

touchpad
or
touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an Information processor, information processing system ...

touchscreen
to recognize more than one or more than two points of contact with the surface.
Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
popularized the term "multi-touch" in 2007 with which it implemented additional functionality, such as
pinch to zoom Image:Aldea Digital 2013 01.jpg, 250px, Finger touching a multi-touch screen In computing, multi-touch is technology that enables a surface (a touchpad or touchscreen) to recognize the presence of more than one somatosensory system, point of contac ...
or to activate certain
subroutine In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, gener ...
s attached to . The two different uses of the term resulted from the quick developments in this field, and many companies using the term to market older technology which is called ''
gesture-enhanced single-touchGesture-enhanced single-touch, also known as "dual control", "gesture touch", and often "dual-touch", describes the ability of a touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. ...
'' or several other terms by other companies and researchers. Several other similar or related terms attempt to differentiate between whether a device can exactly determine or only approximate the location of different points of contact to further differentiate between the various technological capabilities, but they are often used as synonyms in marketing.


History


1960–2000

The use of
touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an Information processor, information processing system ...

touchscreen
technology predates both multi-touch technology and the personal computer. Early synthesizer and electronic instrument builders like
Hugh Le Caine Hugh may refer to: *Hugh (given name) Hugh is the English-language variant of the masculine given name ', itself the variant of ', a short form of beginning in the element ' "mind, spirit" ( '). The Germanic name is on record beginning in ...
and
Robert Moog Robert Arthur Moog ( ; May 23, 1934 – August 21, 2005) was an American engineering physicist and pioneer of electronic music. He was the founder of Moog Music and the inventor of the first commercial synthesizer, the Moog synthesizer, which deb ...
experimented with using touch-sensitive capacitance sensors to control the sounds made by their instruments.Buxton, Bill
"Multitouch Overview"
/ref>
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
began building the first touch screens in the late 1960s. In 1972,
Control Data Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer used primarily by large organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing (such as the census A census ...
released the
PLATO Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...
IV computer, an infrared terminal used for educational purposes, which employed single-touch points in a 16×16 array user interface. These early touchscreens only registered one point of touch at a time. On-screen keyboards (a well-known feature today) were thus awkward to use, because key-rollover and holding down a shift key while typing another were not possible. Exceptions to these were a "cross-wire" multi-touch reconfigurable touchscreen keyboard/display developed at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, aft ...

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in the early 1970s and the 16 button capacitive multi-touch screen developed at
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large la ...
in 1972 for the controls of the
Super Proton Synchrotron The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel electric charge, charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defin ...
that were under construction. During the year 1976, a new x-y capacative screen, based on the capacitance touch screens developed in 1972 by Danish electronics engineer
Bent Stumpe Bent Stumpe (born 12 September, 1938, Copenhagen Copenhagen ( da, København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of 1 January 2021, the city had a population of 799,033 (638,117 in Copenhagen Municipality, 103,677 in Fred ...

Bent Stumpe
, was developed at
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large la ...
. This technology, allowing an exact location of the different touch points, was used to develop a new type of
human machine interface Image:Reactable Multitouch.jpg, 300px, The Reactable, an example of a tangible user interface In the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, a user interface (UI) is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. ...
(HMI) for the control room of the
Super Proton Synchrotron The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel electric charge, charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to contain them in well-defin ...
particle accelerator. In a handwritten note dated 11 March 1972, Stumpe presented his proposed solution – a capacitive touch screen with a fixed number of programmable buttons presented on a display. The screen was to consist of a set of capacitors etched into a film of copper on a sheet of glass, each capacitor being constructed so that a nearby flat conductor, such as the surface of a finger, would increase the capacitance by a significant amount. The capacitors were to consist of fine lines etched in copper on a sheet of glass – fine enough (80 μm) and sufficiently far apart (80 μm) to be invisible. In the final device, a simple lacquer coating prevented the fingers from actually touching the capacitors. In the same year,
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...
described a keyboard with variable graphics capable of multi-touch detection. In the early 1980s, The
University of Toronto The University of Toronto (U of T or UToronto) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organ ...

University of Toronto
's Input Research Group were among the earliest to explore the software side of multi-touch input systems. A 1982 system at the University of Toronto used a frosted-glass panel with a camera placed behind the glass. When a finger or several fingers pressed on the glass, the camera would detect the action as one or more black spots on an otherwise white background, allowing it to be registered as an input. Since the size of a dot was dependent on pressure (how hard the person was pressing on the glass), the system was somewhat pressure-sensitive as well. Of note, this system was input only and not able to display graphics. In 1983,
Bell Labs Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named Bell Labs Innovations (1996–2007), AT&T Bell Laboratories (1984–1996) and Bell Telephone Laboratories (1925–1984)) is an American industrial research and scientific development company A company, ab ...
at Murray Hill published a comprehensive discussion of touch-screen based interfaces, though it makes no mention of multiple fingers. In the same year, the video-based Video Place/Video Desk system of Myron Krueger was influential in development of multi-touch gestures such as pinch-to-zoom, though this system had no touch interaction itself. By 1984, both Bell Labs and
Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence ...
had working multi-touch-screen prototypes – both input and graphics – that could respond interactively in response to multiple finger inputs. The Bell Labs system was based on capacitive coupling of fingers, whereas the CMU system was optical. In 1985, the canonical multitouch pinch-to-zoom gesture was demonstrated, with coordinated graphics, on CMU's system. In October 1985,
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ...

Steve Jobs
signed a non-disclosure agreement to tour CMU's Sensor Frame multi-touch lab. In 1990, Sears et al. published a review of academic research on single and multi-touch touchscreen
human–computer interaction Human–computer interaction (HCI) is research in the design and the use of Computing, computer technology, which focuses on the Interface (computing), interfaces between people (user (computing), users) and computers. HCI researchers observe th ...
of the time, describing single touch gestures such as rotating knobs, swiping the screen to activate a switch (or a U-shaped gesture for a toggle switch), and touchscreen keyboards (including a study that showed that users could type at 25 words per minute for a touchscreen keyboard compared with 58 words per minute for a standard keyboard, with multi-touch hypothesized to improve data entry rate); multi-touch gestures such as selecting a range of a line, connecting objects, and a "tap-click" gesture to select while maintaining location with another finger are also described. In 1991, Pierre Wellner advanced the topic publishing about his multi-touch "Digital Desk", which supported multi-finger and pinching motions. Various companies expanded upon these inventions in the beginning of the twenty-first century.


2000 – present day

Between 1999 and 2005, the company
Fingerworks FingerWorks was a gesture recognition company based in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North Am ...
developed various multi-touch technologies, including Touchstream keyboards and the iGesture Pad. in the early 2000s Alan Hedge, professor of human factors and ergonomics at
Cornell University Cornell University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
published several studies about this technology. In 2005, Apple acquired Fingerworks and its multi-touch technology. In 2004, french start-up JazzMutant developed the
Lemur Input Device The Lemur Input Device is a highly customizable multi-touch device from France, French companJazzMutant which serves as a controller for musical devices such as synthesizers and mixing consoles, as well as for other media applications such as VJ (vi ...
, a music controller that became in 2005 the first commercial product to feature a proprietary transparent multi-touch screen, allowing direct, ten-finger manipulation on the display. In January 2007, multi-touch technology became mainstream with the
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
, and in its iPhone announcement Apple even stated it "invented multi touch", however both the function and the term predate the announcement or patent requests, except for the area of capacitive mobile screens, which did not exist before Fingerworks/Apple's technology (Fingerworks filed patents in 2001–2005, subsequent multi-touch refinements were patented by Apple). However, the U.S. Patent and Trademark office declared that the "pinch-to-zoom" functionality was predicted by U.S. Patent # 7,844,915 relating to gestures on touch screens, filed by
Bran Ferren Bran Ferren (born January 16, 1953), is an American technologist, artist, architectural designer, vehicle designer, engineer, lighting and sound designer, visual effects artist, scientist, lecturer, photographer, entrepreneur, and a prolific inv ...
and
Daniel Hillis William Daniel "Danny" Hillis Jr. (born September 25, 1956) is an American inventor, entrepreneur, and scientist, who pioneered parallel computers and their use in artificial intelligence. He founded Thinking Machines Corporation Thinking Machi ...
in 2005, as was inertial scrolling, thus invalidated a key claims of Apple's patent. In 2001, Microsoft's table-top touch platform,
Microsoft PixelSense Microsoft PixelSense (formerly called Microsoft Surface) is an interactive surface computing platform that allows one or more people to use and touch real-world objects, and share digital content at the same time. The PixelSense platform consists o ...
(formerly Surface) started development, which interacts with both the user's touch and their electronic devices and became commercial on May 29, 2007. Similarly, in 2001, Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratories (MERL) began development of a multi-touch, multi-user system called DiamondTouch. In 2008, the Diamondtouch became a commercial product and is also based on capacitance, but able to differentiate between multiple simultaneous users or rather, the chairs in which each user is seated or the floorpad on which the user is standing. In 2007, NORTD labs
Open Source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product. The open-source model is a decentralized softwa ...
system offered its CUBIT (multi-touch). Small-scale touch devices rapidly became commonplace in 2008. The number of touch screen telephones was expected to increase from 200,000 shipped in 2006 to 21 million in 2012. In May 2015, Apple was granted a patent for a "fusion keyboard", which turns individual physical keys into multi-touch buttons.


Brands and manufacturers

Apple An apple is an edible fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this fie ...
has retailed and distributed numerous products using multi-touch technology, most prominently including its
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
smartphone and
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequenc ...

iPad
tablet. Additionally, Apple also holds several
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
s related to the implementation of multi-touch in user interfaces, however the legitimacy of some patents has been disputed. Apple additionally attempted to register "Multi-touch" as a
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ...

trademark
in the United Stateshowever its request was denied by the
United States Patent and Trademark Office The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patent A patent is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using ...
because it considered the term
generic Generic or generics may refer to: In business * Generic term, a common name used for a range or class of similar things not protected by trademark * Generic brand, a brand for a product that does not have an associated brand or trademark, other t ...
. Multi-touch sensing and processing occurs via an
ASIC An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC ) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit b ...

ASIC
sensor that is attached to the touch surface. Usually, separate companies make the ASIC and screen that combine into a touch screen; conversely, a touchpad's surface and ASIC are usually manufactured by the same company. There have been large companies in recent years that have expanded into the growing multi-touch industry, with systems designed for everything from the casual user to multinational organizations. It is now common for laptop manufacturers to include multi-touch
touchpad A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen. Touchp ...

touchpad
s on their laptops, and
tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...
s respond to touch input rather than traditional stylus input and it is supported by many recent
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
s. A few companies are focusing on large-scale surface computing rather than personal electronics, either large multi-touch tables or wall surfaces. These systems are generally used by government organizations, museums, and companies as a means of information or exhibit display. Large scale multi-touch surfaces are manufactured by Finnish compan
MultiTaction
on their 55" MT Cells (55" screens) who also have office locations in London, California and Singapore. MultiTaction also buil
unique collaboration software
especially designed for multi-touch screens such a
MT Canvus
an
MT Showcase


Implementations

Multi-touch has been implemented in several different ways, depending on the size and type of interface. The most popular form are mobile devices, tablets, touchtables and walls. Both touchtables and touch walls project an image through acrylic or glass, and then back-light the image with LEDs. Touch surfaces can also be made pressure-sensitive by the addition of a pressure-sensitive coating that flexes differently depending on how firmly it is pressed, altering the reflection. Handheld technologies use a panel that carries an electrical charge. When a finger touches the screen, the touch disrupts the panel's electrical field. The disruption is registered as a computer event (gesture) and may be sent to the software, which may then initiate a response to the gesture event. In the past few years, several companies have released products that use multi-touch. In an attempt to make the expensive technology more accessible, hobbyists have also published methods of constructing
DIY "Do it yourself" ("DIY") is the method of building, modifying, or repair The technical meaning of maintenance involves functional checks, servicing, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, equipment, machinery, building infrastruc ...

DIY
touchscreens.


Capacitive

Capacitive technologies include:Knowledge base:Multitouch technologies. Digest author: Gennadi Blindmann
/ref> * Surface Capacitive Technology or Near Field Imaging (NFI) * Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) ** Mutual capacitance **
Self-capacitance Capacitance is the ratio of the amount of electric charge stored on a conductor to a difference in electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: ''self capacitance'' and ''mutual capacitance''. Any object that can be ...
*In-cell Capacitive


Resistive

Resistive technologies include: * Analog Resistive *Digital Resistive or In-Cell Resistive


Optical

Optical touch technology is based on
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects e ...
technology. It functions when a finger or an object touches the surface, causing the light to scatter, the reflection of which is caught with sensors or cameras that send the data to software that dictates response to the touch, depending on the type of reflection measured.
Optical technologies Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of optical instruments, instruments that use or Photodetector, detect it. Optics usually describes the ...
include: *
Optical Imaging Medical optical imaging is the use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as ha ...

Optical Imaging
or Infrared technology *Rear Diffused Illumination (DI) *Infrared Grid Technology (opto-matrix) or Digital Waveguide Touch (DWT) or Infrared Optical Waveguide *
Frustrated Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection (TIR) is the optical phenomenon in which waves arriving at the interface (matter), interface (boundary) from one optical medium, medium to another (e.g., from water to air) are not refraction, refracted into the second ...

Frustrated Total Internal Reflection
(FTIR) *Diffused Surface Illumination (DSI) *Laser Light Plane (LLP) *In-Cell Optical


Wave

Acoustic and radio-frequency wave-based technologies include: *
Surface Acoustic Wave A surface acoustic wave (SAW) is an acoustic wave traveling along the surface of a material exhibiting elastic (solid mechanics), elasticity, with an amplitude that typically decays exponentially with depth into the material. Discovery SAWs were ...
(SAW) *Bending Wave Touch (BWT) ** Dispersive Signal Touch (DST) ** Acoustic Pulse Recognition (APR) * Force-Sensing Touch Technology


Multi-touch gestures

Multi-touch touchscreen gestures enable predefined motions to interact with the device and software. An increasing number of devices like
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
s,
tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...
s,
laptop A laptop, laptop computer, or notebook computer is a small, portable personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are ...

laptop
s or
desktop computer A desktop computer is a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use. Personal computers are intended to be operated directly by an end user, ...
s have functions that are triggered by multi-touch gestures.


Popular culture


Before 2007

Years before it was a viable consumer product, popular culture portrayed potential uses of multi-touch technology in the future, including in several installments of the ''
Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction media franchise created by Gene Roddenberry, which began with the Star Trek: The Original Series, eponymous 1960s series and quickly became a worldwide Popular culture, pop-culture Cultural influ ...

Star Trek
'' franchise. In the 1982 Disney
sci-fi Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, Parall ...

sci-fi
film ''
Tron ''Tron'' (styled as ''TRON'') is a 1982 American science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as a ...

Tron
'' a device similar to the Microsoft Surface was shown. It took up an executive's entire desk and was used to communicate with the Master Control computer. In the 2002 film '' Minority Report'', Tom Cruise uses a set of gloves that resemble a multi-touch interface to browse through information. In the 2005 film '' The Island'', another form of a multi-touch computer was seen where the professor, played by
Sean Bean Shaun Mark "Sean" Bean (born 17 April 1959) is an English actor. After graduating from the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Bean made his professional debut in a theatre production of ''Romeo and Juliet'' in 1983. Retaining his Yorkshire accent, h ...
, has a multi-touch desktop to organize files, based on an early version of
Microsoft Surface Microsoft Surface is a series of touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an inf ...
(not be confused with the
tablet computers A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...

tablet computers
which now bear that name). In 2007, the television series ''
CSI: Miami ''CSI: Miami'' (''Crime Scene Investigation: Miami'') is an American police procedural drama television series that premiered on September 23, 2002, on CBS. Starring David Caruso as Lieutenant Horatio Caine, Emily Procter as Detective Calleigh D ...
'' introduced both surface and wall multi-touch displays in its sixth season.


After 2007

Multi-touch technology can be seen in the 2008
James Bond The ''James Bond'' series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain ...
film ''
Quantum of Solace ''Quantum of Solace'' is a 2008 spy film The spy film genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. In popular usag ...
'', where MI6 uses a touch interface to browse information about the criminal Dominic Greene. In the 2008 film ''
The Day the Earth Stood Still ''The Day the Earth Stood Still'' (a.k.a. ''Farewell to the Master'' and ''Journey to the World'') is a 1951 American science fiction film from 20th Century Fox, produced by Julian Blaustein and directed by Robert Wise. The film stars Michael R ...
'', Microsoft's Surface was used . The television series '' NCIS: Los Angeles'', which premiered 2009, makes use of multi-touch surfaces and wall panels as an initiative to go digital. In a 2008,
an episode An may refer to: Science and technology * ''An'', in mathematics, a root system and its Dynkin diagram * ''An'', in mathematics, conventional notation for the alternating group * Actinide (An), informal symbol for a series of chemical elements * ...
of the television series ''
The Simpsons ''The Simpsons'' is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of American life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer Simpson, Homer, Marge Si ...
'',
Lisa Simpson Lisa Marie Simpson is a fictional character in the animated television series ''The Simpsons''. She is the middle child and most accomplished of the Simpson family. Voiced by Yeardley Smith, Lisa was born as a character in ''The Tracey Ullman Sh ...
travels to the underwater headquarters of Mapple to visit Steve Mobbs, who is shown to be performing multiple multi-touch hand gestures on a large touch wall. In the 2009, the film ''
District 9 ''District 9'' is a 2009 science fiction film, science fiction action film directed by Neill Blomkamp in his feature film debut, written by Blomkamp and Terri Tatchell, and produced by Peter Jackson and Carolynne Cunningham. It is a co-product ...

District 9
'' the interface used to control the alien ship features similar technology.


10/GUI

10/GUI is a proposed new
user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...
paradigm. Created in 2009 by R. Clayton Miller, it combines multi-touch input with a new windowing manager. It splits the touch surface away from the screen, so that user fatigue is reduced and the users' hands don't obstruct the display. Instead of placing windows all over the screen, the windowing manager, Con10uum, uses a linear paradigm, with multi-touch used to navigate between and arrange the windows. An area at the right side of the touch screen brings up a global context menu, and a similar strip at the left side brings up application-specific menus. An open source community preview of the Con10uum window manager was made available in November, 2009.


See also

*
Gesture-enhanced single-touchGesture-enhanced single-touch, also known as "dual control", "gesture touch", and often "dual-touch", describes the ability of a touchscreen A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. ...
*
Lemur Input Device The Lemur Input Device is a highly customizable multi-touch device from France, French companJazzMutant which serves as a controller for musical devices such as synthesizers and mixing consoles, as well as for other media applications such as VJ (vi ...
*
Gesture recognition A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, gro ...

Gesture recognition
* Human-Computer Interaction * Natural User Interface *
Pen computing Pen computing refers to any computer user-interface using a pen or stylus A stylus (plural styli or styluses) is a writing utensil A writing implement or writing instrument is an object used to produce writing. Writing consists of different f ...
*
Reactable The Reactable is an electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics, electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an electrical, electronic or digita ...
* Sensacell * Sketch recognition *
Surface ComputingSurface computing is the use of a specialized computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as C ...
*
Tenori-on The Yamaha Tenori-on is an electronic musical instrument designed and created by the Japanese artist Toshio Iwai and Yu Nishibori of the Music and Human Interface Group at the Yamaha (manufacturer), Yamaha Center for Advanced Sound Technology. ...

Tenori-on
*
Touchpad A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system that is made output to the screen. Touchp ...

Touchpad
*
Touch user interface A touch user interface (TUI) is a computer-pointing technology based upon the sense of touch ( haptics). Whereas a graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user ...


References


External links


Multi-Touch Systems that I Have Known and Loved
– An overview by researcher Bill Buxton of Microsoft Research, formerly at University of Toronto and Xerox PARC.

contains a history of pen computing, including touch and gesture technology, from approximately 1917 to 1992.



* * ttp://cs.nyu.edu/~jhan/ftirtouch/ Multi-Touch Interaction Research @ NYUbr>Camera-based multi-touch for wall-sized displaysDavid Wessel MultitouchJeff Han's Multi Touch Screen's chronology archive
De
Force-Sensing, Multi-Touch, User Interaction TechnologyLCD In-Cell Touch by Geoff Walker and Mark FihnTouch technologies for large-format applications by Geoff Walker
* * *{{YouTube, JVRuDY4X88M, Video: Introduction to mTouch Capacitive Touch Sensing Touchscreens Articles containing video clips CERN