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Minister of State is a title borne by
politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

politician
s or officials in certain countries governed under a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ...
. In some countries a 'Minister of State' is a junior
minister Minister may refer to: * Minister (Christianity)Image:LutheranClergy.JPG, upA Lutheran minister wearing a Geneva gown and Bands (neckwear), bands. In many churches, ministers wear distinctive clothing, called vestments, when presiding over service ...
, who is assigned to assist a specific
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
minister. In other countries a 'Minister of State' is a holder of a more senior position, such as a cabinet minister or even a
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
.


High government ranks

In several national traditions, the title "Minister of State" is reserved for government members of
cabinet rank The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a group of the most senior Minister of the Crown, ministers of the crown in the government of the United Kingdom. A committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Privy Council, it is chaired by the P ...
, often a formal distinction within it, or even its chief. *
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both and . At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the ...
: Minister of State ( pt, Ministro de Estado) is the title borne by all members of the Federal Cabinet. *
Kenya ) , national_anthem = " Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"() , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Nairobi Nairobi () is the Capital city, capital a ...
: A Minister of State generically refers to a more senior minister by virtue of the revenue power, or security implications of their ministry. For instance, ministries housed under the Office of the President, Office of the Deputy President and Office of the Prime Minister are titled as "Ministries of State for". Actual examples include Ministry of State for Internal Security and Provincial Administration; Ministry of State for Immigration; and Ministry of State for Public Service. *
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the and from the to the and the ; overseas territories include in , in the N ...
: Under the Fifth Republic, Minister of State (''Ministre d'État'' in French) is an honorific title bestowed upon nomination as a Minister. Ministres d'État, in the protocol, rank after the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
and before the other Ministers but enjoy no other specific prerogatives. Initially, the title of Ministres d'État didn't explicitly include a portfolio (a practice common under previous regimes), although in time both the title and a specific portfolio have since normally been conferred together. As under previous regimes, a series of Ministres d'État in the same cabinet may also reflect a balance between the different political trends in the ruling party (or within the ruling coalition). A Ministre d'État is not to be confused with a
Secretary of State
Secretary of State
(''Secrétaire d'État''), a Junior minister assisting a Minister and who may only attend cabinet meeting if the topic discussed touches his responsibilities. Former Ministres d'État include former
French President The president of France, officially the president of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state ( ...
Nicolas Sarkozy Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa (; ; born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as the 23th President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la ...

Nicolas Sarkozy
. *
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Japan is a part of the , and spans of coveri ...
: Minister of State is the title borne by all members of the Japanese Cabinet. *
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...
: Minister of State (French: ''Ministre d'État''; Luxembourgish and German: ''Staatsminister'') is an additional title borne by the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpar ...
. Unlike the title 'Prime Minister' (French: ''Premier ministre''; Luxembourgish: ''Premier''; German: ''Premierminister''), which was instituted only in 1989, that of ''Minister of State'' has been held by the head of government since 1848. As Minister of State, his role is to control and coordinate the activities of the other Ministers. *
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The ...
: The Minister of State of Monaco is the
Principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political le ...
's head of government, appointed by and subordinate to the
Prince of Monaco The Sovereign Prince (french: Prince de Monaco) or Princess of Monaco (french: princesse de Monaco) is the reigning monarch and head of state of the Monaco, Principality of Monaco. All reigning princes and princesses have officially taken the name ...
and responsible for enforcing its laws. *
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...
: Minister of State (''Ministro de Estado'') is a member of the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
who holds a more distinct position within the cabinet, roughly equivalent to Deputy prime minister. *
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
: When
Adolfo Suárez Adolfo Suárez González, 1st Duke of Suárez (; 25 September 1932 – 23 March 2014) was a Spanish lawyer and politician. Suárez was Spain's first democratically elected Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister since the Second Spanish Republic ...
was
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, Ministers of State were created who held a more distinct position within the
Government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Departmen ...
. However, this initiative did not last since his successors did not follow this path. *
Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to , , and , sometimes more narrowly to the , or more broadly to include , th ...

Scandinavia
n states: The equivalent title ''statsminister'' is used for the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred ...
(i.e. the
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
), and compound titles of which ''-minister'' is a part may be used for major-portfolio Ministers. For details on ''statsminister'', see
Prime Minister of Sweden The prime minister ( sv, statsminister ; literally "Minister of State") is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a ...
,
Prime Minister of Denmark The prime minister of Denmark ( da, Danmarks statsminister, fo, Forsætisráðharri, kl, Naalagaaffiup Siulittaasuunera) is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive b ...
,
Prime Minister of Norway The prime minister of Norway ( no, statsminister, which directly translates to "minister of state") is the head of government and chief executive of Norway. The prime minister and Cabinet of Norway, Cabinet (consisting of all the most senior gove ...
, and
Prime Minister of Finland The prime minister of Finland ( fi, Suomen pääministeri; ) is the head of the Finnish Government. The prime minister is Finland's head of government and is formally Finnish order of precedence, ranked third in the protocol after the president ...
. *
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...
: A
Minister of State Minister of State is a title borne by politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or ...
( tr, Devlet Bakanı) was a post in Turkish cabinets between 1946 and 2011. It was possible to have more than one Minister of State in a single cabinet, responsible for different policy areas. *
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...
: Normally a mid-level government role (see next section) but
Lord Beaverbrook William Maxwell Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook, Privy Council of the United Kingdom, PC, Order of New Brunswick, ONB (25 May 1879 – 9 June 1964), generally known as Lord Beaverbrook, was a Canadian-British newspaper publisher and backstage poli ...
was nominally Minister of State from 1 May 1941 to 29 June 1941 while a member of the war cabinet. Senior Ministers of State can be invited to attend cabinet on a regular basis at the Prime Minister's discretion, though they are not technically full members.


Minor government ranks

In various nations, especially in former members of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, "Minister of State" is a junior ministerial rank, often subordinated to a
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
member. *
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...
: A Minister of State is senior to a Secretary of State but junior to a
Minister of the Crown Minister of the Crown is a formal constitutional term used in Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignt ...
(ordinary portfolio minister). *
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
: Minister of State (''Staatsminister'' in German) is the title given to a parliamentary state secretary (a member of parliament serving as a political aide to a cabinet minister) serving in the
Foreign Office Foreign may refer to: Government * Foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its websit ...
or the
Chancellor's Office The German Chancellery (german: Bundeskanzleramt, , more faithfully translated as ''Federal Chancellery'') is an Federal agency (Germany), agency serving the executive office of the Chancellor of Germany, the head of the Government of Germany, fede ...
. Accordingly, Minister of State ranks between a
State Secretary
State Secretary
and a Federal Minister. It is also used as the title of cabinet ministers of certain German
states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

states
. Historically, the same title was used (sometimes alternating with other styles), notably as head of government in certain of the many constituent monarchies of pre-reunion Germany, e.g. in
Hesse-Darmstadt The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Darmstadt) was a State State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The St ...

Hesse-Darmstadt
,
Hesse-Kassel The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was imperial immediacy, directly subject to the Emperor. The state was created in ...

Hesse-Kassel
(or Hesse-Cassel),
Lippe Lippe () is a ''Kreis'' (district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . By c ...
,
Schaumburg-Lippe Schaumburg-Lippe, also Lippe-Schaumburg, was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918, and was until 1946 a small state in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital ...
, in
Hannover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in Germa ...
,
Mecklenburg-Strelitz The Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a duchy A duchy is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of ...
, Reuss-Schleiz-Gera and
Principality of Reuss-Greiz The Principality of Reuss-Greiz (german: Fürstentum Reuß-Greiz), called the Principality of the Reuss Elder Line (german: Fürstentum Reuß älterer Linie) after 1848, was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is re ...
,
Kingdom of Saxony The Kingdom of Saxony (german: Königreich Sachsen), lasting from 1806 to 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in French period, Napoleonic through German Confederation, post-Napoleonic Germany. The kingdom was ...
,
Saxe-Altenburg Saxe-Altenburg (german: Sachsen-Altenburg, links=no) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine duchies, Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in present-day Thuringia. It was one of the smallest of the German states with an area of 132 ...
,
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an ErnestineErnestine is a feminine given name. Ernest is the male counterpart of this name. Notable people with the name include: * Ernestine Anderson (19 ...
,
Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuring ...
,
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (german: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was a historical German state, created as a duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a , territory, , or domain ruled by a or , a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the or ...
,
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt was a small historic state in present-day Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State ...
and
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a small principality in Germany, in the present day state of Thuringia, with its capital at Sondershausen. History Schwarzburg-Sondershausen was a Graf, county until 1697. In that year, it became a principality, whi ...
. *
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
: A
Minister of State Minister of State is a title borne by politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or ...
is a junior minister in the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
in the Union Government who may assist a cabinet minister or have independent charge of a ministry. The
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...

Constitution of India
restricts the number of ministers of state in the federal government. A Minister of State with independent charge is a minister without an overseeing Cabinet Minister in the State or Union Government of India. He himself is in charge of his ministry, unlike Minister of State who is also a Minister but assists a
cabinet minister A minister is a politician who heads a ministry (government department), ministry, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some jurisdictions the head of government is also a minister and is desig ...
. Moreover, such ministers can take part in cabinet meetings on important issues unlike Ministers of state who does not take any part in any cabinet meetings. *
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
: A Minister of State is junior to a Minister of a ''Department of State'' (portfolio minister) and of similar standing to a
Parliamentary Secretary A parliamentary secretary is a member of Parliament in the Westminster system who assists a more senior political minister, minister with their duties. In several countries, the position has been re-designated as assistant minister. In the parliam ...
. *
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...
: A Minister of State is a junior Minister in the Nigerian Cabinet and is normally the principal deputy or one of the deputies to the Minister in a Federal Ministry. The Minister of State may in some cases be the head of a special department in the President's Office. By law, both senior Ministers and Ministers of State are regarded as Ministers of the Government of the
Federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, ...

Federation
. *
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...
: Like in other former British colonies, a Minister of State in Pakistan is a junior Minister in the national Government who may assist a cabinet minister or have independent charge of a ministry. *
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...
: A
Minister of State Minister of State is a title borne by politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or ...
(or State Minister) is a non-cabinet minister of the executive branch of the
Government of Sri Lanka The Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) ( si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා රජය, Śrī Lankā Rajaya) is a semi-presidential system determined by the Constitution of Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan Constitution. It administers the island from both its comm ...
, as such is junior to a
Cabinet Minister A minister is a politician who heads a ministry (government department), ministry, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers. In some jurisdictions the head of government is also a minister and is desig ...
but senior to a Deputy Minister. *
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
: Ministers of State and Senior Ministers of State are members of the executive branch of the
Government of Singapore The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of Singapore The Constitution of the Republic of Singapore is the supreme law of Singapore. A constitution#Written versus unwritten; codified versus uncodified, written constitution ...
, senior in rank to Parliamentary Secretaries and Senior Parliamentary Secretaries, but junior to full Cabinet Ministers. *
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...
: A Minister of State is a member of
Her Majesty's Government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, comm ...
, junior only to a Secretary of State but senior to a
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State Parliamentary Under Secretaries of State (also called Parliamentary Secretaries, when not under a Secretary of State) is the lowest of three tiers of government minister A minister is a politician who heads a ministry (government departmen ...
and
Parliamentary Private Secretaries A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with Bicameralism, bicameral parliaments, this category includ ...
(PPSs). Ministers of State are responsible to their Secretaries of State. The role in this context has existed only since 1945 (see above for exception in the case of Beaverbrook) – previously, each parliamentary under-secretary was directly beneath a secretary of state. There can be more than one Minister of State at any government Department. Ministers of State may have departmental PPSs, or a PPS might be assigned to them. Of a similar standing to Ministers of State are positions such as the
Solicitor General A solicitor general or solicitor-general, in common law countries, is usually a legal officer who is the chief representative of a regional or national government in courtroom proceedings. In systems that have an Attorney general, attorney-general ...
, the Deputy
Leader of the House of Commons The Leader of the House of Commons is generally a member or attendee of the cabinet of the United Kingdom. The House of Commons devotes approximately three-quarters of its time to debating and explaining government business, such as Bill (law), b ...
,
Treasurer of the Household The Treasurer of the Household is a member of the Royal Household of the Sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately der ...
,
Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard The Captain of the Queen's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard The Queen's Body Guard of the Yeomen of the Guard is a bodyguard of the British monarch. The oldest British military corps still in existence, it was created by King Henry ...
,
Paymaster General Her Majesty's Paymaster General or HM Paymaster General is a ministerial position in the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. The incumbent Paymaster General is Michael Ellis (British politician), Michael Ellis MP. History The post was crea ...
,
Financial Secretary to the Treasury Financial Secretary to the Treasury is a mid-level ministerial post in the HM Treasury, British Treasury. It is the fifth most significant ministerial role within the Treasury after the First Lord of the Treasury, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, ...
and Economic Secretary to the Treasury. Ministers of State are bound by the
Ministerial Code The Ministerial Code is a document setting out "rules" and standards for government ministers in the United Kingdom. Separate codes exist for ministers of the Scottish Government sco, Scots Govrenment , border = , image ...
.


Subnational office

In the republic of
Burma Myanmar (; my, မြန်မာ ) or Burma ( my, ဗမာ ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos a ...

Burma
, the title was used for the Chief ministers of the following autonomous states, from 1947/48 till the abolition of that autonomy in 1962: Arakan State (Rakhine),
Chin State Chin State (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...
,
Kayin State Kayin State ( kjp, ဖၠုံခါန်ႋကၞင့်; ksw, ကညီကီၢ်စဲၣ်, , my, ကရင်ပြည်နယ်, ), also known by its former name Karen State, is a Administrative divisions of Myanmar, state of My ...
(Kayin),
Kayah State Kayah State ( my, ကယားပြည်နယ်, formerly Karenni State) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The Sta ...
(Karenni),
Kachin State Kachin State (KachinKachin or Kakhyen may refer to: *Kachin State, in northern Myanmar/Burma * Kachin Hills, northeastern Myanmar *Kachin peoples, a generalised term for six non-Burman ethno-linguistic groups in Kachin State. **Jingpo people, Ka ...
and
Shan State Shan State, commonly known by its native name Muang Tai, as well as Shanland (Shan Shan may refer to: People *Shan (surname), or 单 in Chinese, a Chinese surname *Shan, a variant of the Welsh given name usually spelled Siân *Occasionally use ...


Other uses


Australia

*
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...
: Section 64 of the
Commonwealth constitution
Commonwealth constitution
empowers the Governor-General, as the Queen's representative, to appoint "the Queen's Ministers of State for the Commonwealth f Australia as "officers to administer such departments of State of the Commonwealth as the Governor‑General in Council may establish". The ''Ministers of State Act 1952'' defines the number of ministers only distinguishes between ministers and
parliamentary secretaries A parliamentary secretary is a member of Parliament in the Westminster system who assists a more senior political minister, minister with their duties. In several countries the position has been re-designated as assistant minister. In the parliamen ...
(now known as assistant ministers). However, in practice ministers of state are divided into the
Cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing ...
and the outer ministry. The only ministerial portfolio to have the term "minister of state" in the title is
Special Minister of State The Special Minister of State (SMOS) in the Government of Australia The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, ...
.


Netherlands and Belgium

In the Netherlands (''Minister van Staat'' in Dutch) and Belgium (also ''Ministre d'État'' in French), Ministers of State is a title of honour awarded formally by the Monarch, but on the initiative of the government. It is given on a personal basis, for life rather than for a specified period. The title is granted for exceptional merits, generally to senior politicians at the end of their party career. Ministers of state are often former cabinet members or party leaders. Ministers of State advise the Sovereign in delicate situations, with moral authority but without formal competence. In Belgium they are entitled to a seat, alongside the members of the government in power, in the Crown Council of Belgium, Crown Council; to date the Crown Council has been convened on only five occasions, the first being in 1870 for the Franco-Prussian War, and the latest in 1960 in connection with the independence of the Belgian Congo. Apart from that, the only privileges of being a "minister of state" are protocollary precedence on state occasions and a ministerial car registration number. De facto, appointments tend to respect the almost obsessional balances between the Flemish and French-speaking communities as well as between the 'ministeriable' political families: mainly Christian-democrats, Socialists, Liberals, also (moderate) Nationalists, occasionally an Ecologist). Other former careers include those of Étienne Davignon (European Commissioner) and Luc Coene (prime-ministerial Kabinetschef, roughly Chief of staff). In January 2006 the number of ministers of state reached 51 with Johan Vande Lanotte, shortly after he laid down his portfolio and title of Vice-Prime Minister to head the Flemish Socialistische Partij Anders, Socialist SP.A party. After formateur Yves Leterme returned his commission in August 2007, King Albert II consulted 13 Ministers of State individually, without convening the crown council as such. In both countries, junior ministers are called State Secretary (Netherlands), State Secretary (''staatssecretaris'' or ''secrétaire d'état''), similarly to France. Some State Secretaries may, in specific circumstances, style themselves as Minister (not Minister of State) when visiting a foreign country.


New Zealand

* To bestow a sinecure — the role has been given to senior figures who did not occupy positions of leadership, but who were held in high esteem or who were wanted in Cabinet. For example, a former Prime Minister might be appointed Minister of State as an "wikt:statesman, elder statesman" — this was the purpose for which New Zealand Prime Minister Rob Muldoon originally created the position in 1975. * To create a sort of junior minister — using this office, politicians can be appointed to associate roles without having a substantive ministerial role of their own. There is no formal rank of "assistant minister" or "deputy minister" in New Zealand, but if someone is a full minister, they can be assigned to an associate role helping a different full minister. Someone appointed Minister of State is technically a full minister and can thus be assigned associate roles, thereby creating a type of minister whose only effective authority is as an associate minister. The first Minister of State in New Zealand was Keith Holyoake, a former Prime Minister. Other prominent people to have held the office include Jim Bolger and Robin Gray (New Zealand politician), Robin Gray (a former Prime Minister and a former Speaker of the New Zealand House of Representatives, Speaker, respectively). Examples of people who held the office simply in order that they might be appointed as associate ministers include Mita Ririnui, Damien O'Connor, and Dover Samuels.


Ancien Régime France

In France during the Ancien Régime and Bourbon Restoration in France, Bourbon Restoration, the title "Ministre d'État" had a specific designation. The title first appeared under Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII. The "ministres d'État", appointed by Letters patent, lettres patentes, attended meetings of the Conseil du Roi (which would later become the Conseil d'État (France), Conseil d'État). From 1661 on — at the start of Louis XIV of France, Louis XIV's "personal reign" — the king called whomever he wished to his Council; invitations were only good for one session and needed to be renewed as long as the individual retained the king's confidence. However, having attended one session of the Council gave the person the right to be called "ministre d'État" for life, and also gave him the right to an annual life pension of roughly 20,000 livre tournois, livres. There were few "ministres d'État" at Council meetings (between three or four during the reign of Louis XIV); they also attended the "Conseil des Dépêches" (the "Council of Messages", concerning notices and administrative reports from the provinces). Suppressed during the French Revolution, the title "ministre d'État" reappeared during the Bourbon Restoration in France, Bourbon Restoration as essentially an honorary title given (not systematically) to Ministers after their demission or their departure from office; refusal on behalf of the King to award this title to a demissioned Minister was seen as an affront.


British diplomacy

From 28 January 1944, the last two British Resident Minister, Ministers Resident in the Middle East, concerned with former British protectorate Egypt, were styled Ministers of State in the Middle East.


See also

*List of Jamaican Ministers of State *Minister of State (Turkey) * State Minister (Georgia)


References


External links


WorldStatesmen- see each present country
{{Types of government ministers and ministries Executive ministers Government ministers State ministers, *