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A magazine is a
periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments * Serial (literature), serialised f ...
which is
printed Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and Printmaking, images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabon ...

printed
in gloss-coated and matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of
content Content or contents may refer to: Media * Content (media), information or experience provided to audience or end-users by publishers or media producers ** Content industry, an umbrella term that encompasses companies owning and providing mass m ...
. They are generally financed by
advertising Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.William J. Stanton. ''Fundamentals of Marketing''. McGraw-Hill (1984). Sponsors of advertising are ...

advertising
, by a
purchase price
purchase price
, by prepaid
subscriptions The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer must pay a recurring price at regular intervals for access to a Product (business), product. The model was pioneered by publishers of books and periodicals in the 17th century ...
, or by a combination of the three.


Definition

In the technical sense a ''
journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the course of a day or other period *Daybook, also known as a general journal, a ...
'' has continuous pagination throughout a volume. Thus ''
Business Week ''Bloomberg Businessweek'', previously known as ''BusinessWeek'', is an American weekly business magazine, published 50 times a year. Since 2009, the magazine is owned by New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish i ...
'', which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the '' Journal of Business Communication'', which continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal. Some professional or
trade publications A trade magazine, also called a trade journal, or trade paper (colloquially or disparagingly a trade rag), is a magazine or newspaper whose target audience is people who work in a particular tradesman, trade or industry. The collective term for this ...
are also
peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may re ...
, for example the ''
Journal of Accountancy The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is the national professional organization of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) in the United States, with more than 418,000 members in 143 countries in business and industry, public ...
''. Non-peer-reviewed academic or professional publications are generally ''professional magazines''. That a publication calls itself a ''journal'' does not make it a journal in the technical sense; ''
The Wall Street Journal ''The Wall Street Journal'', also known as ''The Journal'', is an American business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or sim ...

The Wall Street Journal
'' is actually a
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...

newspaper
.


Etymology

The word "magazine" derives from
Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured ...
meaning "warehouse, depot, store", from Italian , from Arabic , the plural of meaning "storehouse". In its original sense, the word "magazine" referred to a storage space or device. In the case of written publication, it refers to a collection of
written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entities or Organization, groups through the use of sufficien ...
article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of ...
s. This explains why magazine publications share the word with
gunpowder magazine A gunpowder magazine is a magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedul ...
s,
artillery magazine Magazine is the name for an item or place within which ammunition Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon or weapon system. Ammunition is both expendable weapons (e.g., bombs, mis ...
s,
firearm magazine A magazine is an ammunition Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon A weapon, arm or armament is any implement or device that can be used with the intent to inflict phys ...
s, and in French and Russian (adopted from French as ),
retailer Retail is the sale of and to s, in contrast to , which is sale to business or institutional customers. A retailer purchases goods in large quantities from , directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells in smaller quantities to consumers f ...
s such as
department store A department store is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics) ...
s.


Distribution

Print magazines can be distributed through the
mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Non-rectangular s ...

mail
, through sales by s,
bookstore Bookselling is the commercial trading of book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often num ...

bookstore
s, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations.
Electronic distribution Digital distribution (also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution (ESD), among others) is the delivery or distribution of digital media Digital media means any media (communication), media tha ...
methods can include
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
,
email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

email
,
news aggregator In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest commo ...
s, and visibility of a publication's
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a or other with references () to other text that the reader can immediately access. Hyperte ...

website
and
search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a n ...
results. The traditional subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories:


Paid circulation

In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics.


Non-paid circulation

This means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, and not who reads them.


Controlled circulation

This is the model used by many trade magazines (industry-based periodicals) distributed only to qualifying readers, often for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs (e.g., printing and postage) associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one (unqualified leads); instead, they operate under controlled circulation, deciding who may receive free subscriptions based on each person's qualification as a member of the trade (and likelihood of buying, for example, likelihood of having corporate purchasing authority, as determined from job title). This allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, and it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was widely used before the rise of the
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including ''
Computer Weekly ''Computer Weekly'' is a digital magazine and website for IT professionals in the United Kingdom. It was formerly published as a weekly print magazine by Reed Business Information for over 45 years. Topics covered within the magazine include outs ...
'' and ''
Computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ...
'', and in finance, '' Waters Magazine''. For the global media industry, an example would be ''
VideoAge International ''VideoAge International'' is a TV trade magazine based in New York City, with offices in Los Angeles, California and Milan, Italy. Known simply as ''VideoAge'', it is published by TV Trade Media, Inc. Its subtitle is "The Business Journal of Film ...
.''


History

The earliest example of magazines was ''
Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen ''Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen'' ("Edifying Monthly Discussions") was a German philosophy German philosophy, here taken to mean either (1) philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as t ...
'', a literary and philosophy magazine, which was launched in 1663 in Germany. ''
The Gentleman's Magazine ''The Gentleman's Magazine'' was a monthly magazine founded in London, England, by Edward Cave in January 1731. It ran uninterrupted for almost 200 years, until 1922. It was the first to use the term ''magazine'' (from the French language, Fren ...
'', first published in 1731 in London was the first general-interest magazine.
Edward Cave Edward Cave (27 February 1691 – 10 January 1754) was an English printer, editor and publisher. He coined the term "magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-co ...

Edward Cave
, who edited ''The Gentleman's Magazine'' under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine", on the analogy of a military storehouse. Founded by
Herbert Ingram Herbert Ingram (27 May 1811 – 8 September 1860) was a British journalist and politician. He is considered the father of pictorial journalism through his founding of ''The Illustrated London News ''The Illustrated London News'' appeared fir ...

Herbert Ingram
in 1842, ''
The Illustrated London News ''The Illustrated London News'' appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world's first illustrated An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print a ...
'' was the first
illustrated An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in print and digital published media, such as posters, flyers, magazines, books, teaching materials, animations, video g ...
magazine.


Britain

The oldest consumer magazine still in print is ''
The Scots Magazine ''The Scots Magazine'' is a magazine containing articles on subjects of Scottish interest. It claims to be the oldest magazine in the world still in publication, although there have been several gaps in its publication history. It has reported on ev ...
'', which was first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. ''
Lloyd's List ''Lloyd's List'' is one of the world's oldest continuously running journals, having provided weekly shipping news in London as early as 1734. It was published daily until 2013 (when the final print issue, number 60,850, was published), and is in ...
'' was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734; and though its online platform is still updated daily it has not been published as a magazine since 2013 after 274 years.


France

Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were ''
Mercure de France The ''Mercure de France'' was originally a France, French gazette and literary magazine first published in the 17th century, but after several incarnations has evolved as a publisher, and is now part of the Éditions Gallimard publishing group. ...
'', ''
Journal des sçavans A journal, from the Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century. Rather than a unified Dialect#Dialect or language, language, Old French was r ...
'', founded in 1665 for scientists, and ''
Gazette de France ''La Gazette'' (), originally ''Gazette de France'', was the first weekly magazine published in France. It was founded by Théophraste Renaudot and published its first edition on 30 May 1631. It progressively became the mouthpiece of one royalist ...
'', founded in 1631.
Jean Loret Jean Loret (ca 1600-1665) was a French writer and poet known for publishing the weekly news of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an est ...

Jean Loret
was one of France's first journalists. He disseminated the weekly news of music, dance and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a ''gazette burlesque'', assembled in three volumes of ''La Muse historique'' (1650, 1660, 1665). The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs of the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris. They were not totally quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions.
Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (; born Mara; 24 May 1743 – 13 July 1793) was a French political theorist A theory is a rational type of abstract thinking about a phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The te ...
(1743–1793) was the most prominent editor. His ''
L'Ami du peuple ''L'Ami du peuple'' (, ''The Friend of the People'') was a newspaper written by Jean-Paul Marat during the French Revolution. "The most celebrated radical paper of the Revolution", according to historian Jeremy D. Popkin, ''L’Ami du peuple'' was ...

L'Ami du peuple
'' advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated; it closed when he was assassinated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature, poetry and stories. They served religious, cultural and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major elements in the changing political culture. For example, there were eight Catholic periodicals in 1830 in Paris. None were officially owned or sponsored by the Church and they reflected a range of opinion among educated Catholics about current issues, such as the 1830 July Revolution that overthrew the Bourbon monarchy. Several were strong supporters of the Bourbon kings, but all eight ultimately urged support for the new government, putting their appeals in terms of preserving civil order. They often discussed the relationship between church and state. Generally, they urged priests to focus on spiritual matters and not engage in politics. Historian M. Patricia Dougherty says this process created a distance between the Church and the new monarch and enabled Catholics to develop a new understanding of church-state relationships and the source of political authority.


Turkey


General

The ''Moniteur Ottoman'' was a gazette written in and first published in 1831 on the order of
Mahmud II Mahmud II ( ota, محمود ثانى, Mahmud-u s̠ānī, tr, II. Mahmud; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th of the from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal ref ...

Mahmud II
. It was the first
official gazette A government gazette (also known as an official gazette, official journal, official newspaper, official monitor or official bulletin) is a periodical publication that has been authorised to publish public or legal notices. It is usually establish ...
of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
, edited by Alexandre Blacque at the expense of the
Sublime Porte , was known as the Sublime Porte until the 18th century. Image:DSC04009 Istanbul - La Sublime Porta - Foto G. Dall'Orto 25-5-2006.jpg, 300px, The later Sublime Porte proper in 2006 The Sublime Porte, also known as the Ottoman Porte or High Porte ...
. Its name perhaps referred to the French newspaper ''
Le Moniteur Universel ''Le Moniteur Universel'' was a French newspaper founded in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 resi ...

Le Moniteur Universel
''. It was issued weekly. '' Takvim-i vekayi'' was published a few months later, intended as a translation of the ''Moniteur'' into
Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and ...
. After having been edited by former Consul for Denmark "''M. Franceschi''", and later on by "''Hassuna de Ghiez''", it was lastly edited by Lucien Rouet. However, facing the hostility of embassies, it was closed in the 1840s.


Satire

Satirical magazines Satire is a genre of the visual arts, visual, literature, literary, and performing arts, usually in the form of fiction and less frequently Nonfiction, non-fiction, in which vices, follies, abuses and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, wi ...
of Turkey have a long tradition. One of the earliest satirical magazines was '''' which was launched in 1869. There are around 20 satirical magazines; the leading ones are '''' (70,000 weekly circulation), ''LeMan'' (50,000) and ''Uykusuz''. Historical examples include Oğuz Aral's magazine '' Gırgır'' (which reached a circulation of 500,000 in the 1970s) and '' Marko Paşa'' (launched 1946). Others include ''L-Manyak'' and ''Lombak''.


United States


Colonial America

Publishing was a very expensive industry in colonial times. Paper and printer's ink were taxed imported goods and their quality was inconsistent. Interstate tariffs and a poor road system hindered distribution, even on a regional scale. Many magazines were launched, most failing within a few editions, but publishers kept trying.
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
is said to have envisioned one of the first magazines of the American colonies in 1741, the ''General Magazine and Historical Chronicle''. The ''Pennsylvania Magazine'', edited by
Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the ...

Thomas Paine
, ran only for a short time but was a very influential publication during the
Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War(s) may refer to: * American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the armed conflict between Great Britain and 13 of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America * French Revolution ...
. The final issue containing the text of the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
was published in 1776.


Late 19th century

In the mid-1800s, monthly magazines gained popularity. They were general interest to begin, containing some news, vignettes, poems, history, political events, and social discussion. Unlike newspapers, they were more of a monthly record of current events along with entertaining stories, poems, and pictures. The first periodicals to branch out from news were ''Harper's'' and ''
The Atlantic ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. It was founded in 1857 in Boston, as ''The Atlantic Monthly'', a literary and cultural magazine that published leading writers' commentary on education, the abolition of sl ...

The Atlantic
'', which focused on fostering the arts.Biagi, Shirley. Media Impact: An Introduction to Mass Media, 2013 Update. Cengage Publishing, 2013. Textbook. Both ''Harper's'' and ''The Atlantic'' persist to this day, with Harper's being a cultural magazine and The Atlantic focusing mainly on world events. Early publications of Harper's even held famous works such as early publications of ''Moby Dick'' or famous events such as the laying of the world's first
transatlantic telegraph cable Transatlantic telegraph cables were Submarine communications cable, undersea cables running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications. Telegraphy is now an obsolete form of communication and the cables have long since been decomm ...
; however, the majority of early content was trickle down from British events. The development of the magazines stimulated an increase in literary criticism and political debate, moving towards more opinionated pieces from the objective newspapers. The increased time between prints and the greater amount of space to write provided a forum for public arguments by scholars and critical observers. The early periodical predecessors to magazines started to evolve to modern definition in the late 1800s. Works slowly became more specialized and the general discussion or cultural periodicals were forced to adapt to a consumer market which yearned for more localization of issues and events.


Progressive Era: 1890s–1920s

Mass circulation magazines became much more common after 1900, some with circulations in the hundreds of thousands of subscribers. Some passed the million-mark in the 1920s. It was an age of
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement fo ...
. Because of the rapid expansion of national advertising, the cover price fell sharply to about 10 cents. One cause was the heavy coverage of corruption in politics, local government and big business, especially by ''Muckrakers.'' They were journalists who wrote for popular magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings. They relied on their own
investigative journalism Investigative journalism is a form of journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts, ideas, and people that are the "news of the day" and that informs society to at least some degre ...
reporting; muckrakers often worked to expose social ills and corporate and
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, lobbying, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, infl ...
. Muckraking magazines–notably ''
McClure's ''McClure's'' or ''McClure's Magazine'' (1893–1929) was an American illustrated monthly periodical popular at the turn of the 20th century. The magazine is credited with having started the tradition of muckraking The muckrakers were reform- ...
''–took on corporate monopolies and crooked
political machine In the politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the ...
s while raising public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and
social issues A social issue is a problem that affects many people within a society. It is a group of common problems in present-day society and ones that many people strive to solve. It is often the consequence of factors extending beyond an individual's co ...
like
child labor Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful. Such e ...

child labor
. The journalists who specialized in exposing waste, corruption, and scandal operated at the state and local level, like
Ray Stannard Baker Ray Stannard Baker (April 17, 1870 – July 12, 1946) (also known by his pen name David Grayson) was an American journalist, historian, biographer, and author. Biography Baker was born in Lansing, Michigan. After graduating from the Michigan ...

Ray Stannard Baker
,
George Creel George Edward Creel (December 1, 1876 – October 2, 1953) was an American Investigative journalism, investigative journalist and writer, a politician and government official. He served as the head of the United States Committee on Public Informa ...
, and
Brand Whitlock Brand Whitlock (March 4, 1869 – May 24, 1934) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), ...

Brand Whitlock
. Others like
Lincoln Steffens Lincoln Austin Steffens (April 6, 1866 – August 9, 1936) was an American investigative journalist Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, pol ...

Lincoln Steffens
exposed political corruption in many large cities;
Ida Tarbell Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857January 6, 1944) was an American writer, Investigative journalism, investigative journalist, List of biographers, biographer and lecturer. She was one of the leading muckrakers of the Progressive Era of the ...

Ida Tarbell
went after
John D. Rockefeller John Davison Rockefeller Sr. (July 8, 1839May 23, 1937) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Am ...

John D. Rockefeller
's
Standard Oil Company Standard Oil Co. was an American petroleum, oil-producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller and Henry Flagler as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world at its h ...
.
Samuel Hopkins Adams Samuel Hopkins Adams (January 26, 1871 – November 16, 1958) was an American writer, best known for his investigative journalism Investigative journalism is a form of journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of reports ...

Samuel Hopkins Adams
in 1905 showed the fraud involved in many patent medicines,
Upton Sinclair Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an American writer, muckraker The muckrakers were reform-minded journalists, writers, and photographers in the Progressive Era The Progressive Era (1896– ...
's 1906 novel ''
The Jungle ''The Jungle'' is a 1906 novel by the American journalist and novelist Upton Sinclair Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. (September 20, 1878 – November 25, 1968) was an American writer, muckraker The muckrakers were reform-minded journalis ...
'' gave a horrid portrayal of how meat was packed, and, also in 1906,
David Graham Phillips David Graham Phillips (October 31, 1867 – January 24, 1911) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United Stat ...

David Graham Phillips
unleashed a blistering indictment of the U.S. Senate. Roosevelt gave these journalists their nickname when he complained that they were not being helpful by raking up all the muck.


1930s–1990s


21st century

According to the Research Department of
Statista Statista is a German company specializing in market and consumer data. According to the company, its platform contains more than 1,000,000 statistics on more than 80,000 topics from more than 22,500 sources and 170 different industries, and gener ...
, closures of magazines outnumbered launches in North America during 2009. Although both figures declined during 2010–2015, launches outnumbered closures in each of those years, sometimes by a 3:1 ratio. Focusing more narrowly, MediaFinder.com found that 93 new magazines launched during the first six months of 2014 while only 30 closed in that time frame. The category which produced the most new publications was "Regional interest", of which six new magazines were launched, including ''12th & Broad'' and ''Craft Beer & Brewing''. However, two magazines had to change their print schedules. Johnson Publishing's ''Jet'' stopped printing regular issues making the transition to digital format, however still print an annual print edition. ''Ladies' Home Journal'' stopped their monthly schedule and home delivery for subscribers to become a quarterly newsstand-only special interest publication. According to statistics from the end of 2013, subscription levels for 22 of the top 25 magazines declined from 2012 to 2013, with just ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'', ''
Glamour Glamour or glamor may refer to: Arts Film * Glamour (1931 film), ''Glamour'' (1931 film), a British film * Glamour (1934 film), ''Glamour'' (1934 film), an American film * Glamour (2000 film), ''Glamour'' (2000 film), a Hungarian film Writi ...
'' and ''
ESPN The Magazine ''ESPN The Magazine'' was an American monthly sports magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally publish ...
'' gaining numbers.


Women's magazines

The "seven sisters" of American women's magazines are ''
Ladies' Home Journal ''Ladies' Home Journal'' was an American magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regul ...
'', ''
Good Housekeeping ''Good Housekeeping'' is an American women's magazine This is a list of women's magazines from around the world. These are magazines that have been published primarily for a readership of woman, women. See also ''history of women's magazines''. ...
'', ''
McCall's ''McCall's'' was a monthly American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United ...
'', ''
Woman's Day ''Woman's Day'' is an American women's magazine that covers such topics as homemaking, food, nutrition, physical fitness, physical attractiveness, and fashion. The print edition is one of the Seven Sisters (magazines), Seven Sisters magazines. The ...
'', ''
Redbook ''Redbook'' is an American women's magazine that is published by the Hearst Corporation Hearst Communications, Inc., often referred to simply as Hearst, is an American multinational mass media and business information conglomerate based in the ...
'', ''
Family Circle ''Family Circle'' was an American magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular sc ...
'' and '' Better Homes and Gardens''. Some magazines like ''
Godey's Lady's Book ''Godey's Lady's Book'', alternatively known as ''Godey's Magazine and Lady's Book'', was an American women's magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Pa ...
'' and ''
Harper's Bazaar ''Harper's Bazaar'' is an American monthly women's fashion magazine published by New York City-based Hearst. It was first published in 1867 as the weekly ''Harper's Bazar''. The current editor-in-chief of the U.S. edition is Samira Nasr. ...
'' were intended exclusively for a female audience, emphasizing the traditional gender roles of the 19th century. ''Harper's Bazaar'' was the first to focus exclusively on couture fashion, fashion accessories and textiles. The inclusion of
didactic Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an ...
content about housekeeping may have increased the appeal of the magazine for a broader audience of women and men concerned about the frivolity of a fashion magazine.


Types


Targeting women


Fashion

In the 1920s, new magazines appealed to young German women with a sensuous image and advertisements for the appropriate clothes and accessories they would want to purchase. The glossy pages of ''Die Dame'' and ''Das Blatt der Hausfrau'' displayed the "Neue Frauen", "New Girl" – what Americans called the flapper. This ideal young woman was chic, financially independent, and an eager consumer of the latest fashions. Magazines kept her up to date on fashion, arts, sports, and modern technology such as automobiles and telephones.


Parenting

The first women's magazine targeted toward wives and mothers was published in 1852. Through the use of advice columns,
advertisements Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...
, and various publications related to
parenting Parenting or child rearing promotes and supports the physical fitness, physical, emotional, Social change, social, and intellectual development of a child from infant, infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the intricacies of raising a child ...
, women's magazines have influenced views of
mother A mother is the female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ovum, ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals, including female humans, have two X chro ...

mother
hood and child-rearing. Mass-marketed women's magazines have shaped and transformed cultural values related to parenting practices. As such, magazines targeting women and parenthood have exerted power and influence over ideas about motherhood and child-rearing.


Religion

Religious groups have used magazines for spreading and communicating religious doctrine for over 100 years. ''The Friend'' was founded in Philadelphia in 1827 at the time of a major Quaker schism; it has been continually published and was renamed ''
Friends Journal ''Friends Journal'' is a monthly Quaker magazine that combines first-person narrative, reportage, poetry, and news. It is an independent publication of Friends Publishing Corporation based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ''Friends Journal'' began w ...
'' when the rival Quaker groups formally reconciled in the mid-1950s. Several Catholic magazines launched at the turn of the 20th century that still remain in circulation including; '' St. Anthony Messenger'' founded in 1893 and published by the
Franciscan Friars The Franciscans are a group of related Mendicant orders, mendicant Christianity, Christian Catholic religious order, religious orders, primarily within the Catholic Church. Founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi, these orders include the Ord ...
(OFM) of St. John the Baptist Province,
Cincinnati, Ohio Cincinnati ( ) is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Hamilton County, Ohio, Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking River (Kentucky), Licking and Ohio Riv ...

Cincinnati, Ohio
, Los Angeles–based ''Tidings'', founded in 1895 (renamed ''
Angelus 240px, '' The Angelus'' (1857–1859) by Jean-François Millet The Angelus (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the ...
'' in 2016), and published jointly by The Tidings Corporation and the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles The Archdiocese of Los Angeles ( la, Archidiœcesis Angelorum in California, es, Arquidiócesis de Los Ángeles) is an ecclesiastical territory or archdiocese of the Catholic Church (Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites, particularly ...

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles
, and ''Maryknoll'', founded in 1907 by the Foreign Mission Society of America which brings news about the organization's charitable and missionary work in over 100 countries. There are over 100 Catholic magazines published in the United States, and thousands globally which range in scope from inspirational messages to specific religious orders, faithful family life, to global issues facing the worldwide Church.
Jehovah's Witnesses Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious ...
' primary magazine, ''
The Watchtower ''The Watchtower Announcing Jehovah's Kingdom'' is an illustrated religious magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazin ...

The Watchtower
'', was started by
Charles Taze Russell Charles Taze Russell (February 16, 1852 – October 31, 1916), or Pastor Russell, was an American Christian restorationist Restorationism (or Christian primitivism) is the belief that Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic relig ...

Charles Taze Russell
in July 1879 under the title ''Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence''. The public edition of the magazine is one of the most widely distributed magazines in the world, with an average printing of approximately 62 million per issue.


Celebrity, human interest, and gossip

Magazines publishing stories and photos of high-profile individuals and celebrities have long been a popular format in the United States. In 2019, ''
People Magazine ''People'' is an American weekly magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, ...
'' ranked second behind ESPN Magazine in total reach with a reported reach of 98.51 million.


See also

*
History of journalism The history of journalism spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism Journalism is the ...
*
Automobile magazine An automobile magazine is a magazine with news and reports on cars and the Automotive industry, automobile industry. Automobile magazines may feature new car tests and comparisons, which describe advantages and disadvantages of similar models; ...
s * Boating magazines * British boys' magazines * Business magazines *
Computer magazine Computer magazines are about computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations kno ...
s * Customer magazines *
Fantasy fiction magazine ''Fantastic Adventures'' magazine A fantasy fiction magazine, or fantasy magazine, is a magazine which publishes primarily fantasy fiction. Not generally included in the category are magazines for children with stories about such characters as San ...
s *
Horror fiction magazine A horror fiction magazine is a magazine that publishes primarily horror fiction with the main purpose of frightening the reader. Horror magazines can be in print, on the internet, or both. Major horror magazines Defunct magazines *''The Arkham ...
s *
Humor magazine A humor magazine is a magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and conta ...
s *
Inflight magazine An inflight magazine (or in-flight magazine) is a free magazine distributed via the seats of an airplane by an airline company or in an airport lounge. Overview Many airline companies or a few key content creating companies produce inflight maga ...
s *
Literary magazine A literary magazine is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. Th ...
s * Luxury magazines *
Music magazine A music magazine A list of music magazines, music magazine is a magazine dedicated to music and culture in music cognition, music culture. Such magazines typically include music news, interviews, photo shoots, essays, record reviews, concert reviews ...
s *
News magazines '' 2512'', a monthly news magazine published in Réunion. A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published magazine, radio or television program, usually published weekly, consisting of articles about current events. News magazines generally ...
*
Online magazine An online magazine is a magazine published on the Internet, through bulletin board systems and other forms of public computer networks. One of the first magazines to convert from a print magazine format to being online only was the computer maga ...
s *
Pornographic magazine Pornographic magazines or erotic magazines, sometimes known as adult, sex or top-shelf magazines, are magazines that contain content of an explicitly sexual nature. Publications of this kind may contain images of attractive naked subjects, as is t ...
s *
Pulp magazine Pulp magazines (often referred to as "the pulps") were inexpensive fiction magazines that were published from 1896 to the late 1950s. The term "pulp" derives from the cheap wood pulp Pulp is a Lignocellulosic biomass, lignocellulosic fibrous ma ...
s *
Science fiction magazine A science fiction magazine is a publication that offers primarily science fiction, either in a hard-copy periodical format or on the Internet. Science fiction magazines traditionally featured speculative fiction in short story, Novella, novelette, ...
s *
Scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal articles, books or thesis' form. The part of academic written ...
s *
Shelter magazineA shelter magazine is a periodical publication with an editorial focus on interior design, architecture, home furnishings, and often gardening. The term is most often used in the U.S. magazine publishing trade. The earliest example of this "chiefly ...
s (home design and decorating) *
Sports magazine A sports magazine is usually a weekly, biweekly or monthly, magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally p ...
s *
Sunday magazine A Sunday magazine is a publication inserted into a Sunday newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray b ...
s *
Teen magazine#REDIRECT Teen magazine Teen magazines are magazines aimed at teenager, teenage readers. They usually consist of gossip, news, fashion tips and interviews and may include posters, label, stickers, small samples of cosmetics or other products and in ...
s *
Trade journal A trade magazine, also called a trade journal, or trade paper (colloquially or disparagingly a trade rag), is a magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated a ...
s *
Video magazine Video magazines are a series of online videos that follow the print magazine format in which the reader/viewer consumes an issue on a periodic basis. Video magazines differ from traditional online magazine or ezine because they are delivered in a v ...
s *
Zine A zine ( ; short for ''magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Th ...
s


Lists

*
List of 18th-century British periodicals This list of 18th-century British periodicals excludes daily newspapers. *''The Tatler'' *''The Spectator (1711)'', (1711–1714) daily 1711–1712, founded by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, in 1714 three times a week for six months, ...
*
List of 19th-century British periodicals This is a list of British periodicals established in the 19th century, excluding daily newspapers. The periodical press flourished in the 19th century: the ''Waterloo Directory of English Newspapers and Periodicals'' plans to eventually list ov ...
*
List of architecture magazines Architecture magazines and journals cover new architectural works, architects, and design. ''Architectural Forum'', ''Architectural Record'', and ''Architectural Review'' are among the oldest; each began publication in the 1890s. English or multil ...
* List of art magazines * List of fashion magazines * List of health and fitness magazines *
List of magazines by circulation The following list of the magazines in the world by circulation is based upon the number of copies distributed, on average, for each issue. Lists by continent and country The following are lists of magazine A magazine is a periodical lit ...
* Lists of magazines by country *
List of men's magazines This is a list of magazines primarily marketed to men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines. This list includes 'adult' pornographic magazines as well as more mainstream ones. Not included ...
*
List of music magazines This is an alphabetical listing of notable printed and online music magazines. 0–9 *''1000°'' *''365mag'' *''7ball'' A *''Ablaze!'' *''The Absolute Sound'' *''Absolutely Zippo'' *''Acoustic (magazine), Acoustic'' *''Acoustic Guitar (magaz ...
*
List of online magazine archives This is a list of historical online magazines. See also * Magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: A ...
*
List of political magazines This is a list of political magazines. Currently published No longer published * ''The American Mercury ''The American Mercury'' was an American magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, ...
* List of railroad-related periodicals *
List of satirical magazines This is a list of satirical magazines which have a satirical Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over tim ...
* List of science magazines * List of travel magazines * List of teen magazines * List of women's magazines


Categories

* * * *


References


Further reading

* Angeletti, Norberto, and Alberto Oliva. ''Magazines That Make History: Their Origins, Development, and Influence'' (2004), covers ''Time'', ''Der Spiegel'', ''Life'', ''Paris Match'', ''National Geographic'', ''Reader's Digest'', ''¡Hola!'', and ''People'' * Brooker, Peter, and Andrew Thacker, eds. ''The Oxford Critical and Cultural History of Modernist Magazines: Volume I: Britain and Ireland 1880–1955'' (2009) * Buxton, William J., and Catherine McKercher. "Newspapers, magazines and journalism in Canada: Towards a critical historiography." ''Acadiensis'' (1988) 28#1 pp. 103–12
in JSTORalso online
* Cox, Howard and Simon Mowatt. ''Revolutions from Grub Street: A History of Magazine Publishing in Britain'' (2015
excerpt
* Würgler, Andreas
''National and Transnational News Distribution 1400–1800''
European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History (2010) retrieved: 17 December 2012.


United States

* Baughman, James L. ''Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media'' (2001
excerpt and text search
* Brinkley, Alan. ''The Publisher: Henry Luce and His American Century'', Alfred A. Knopf (2010) 531 pp. *

Book review by Janet Maslin, ''The New York Times'', 19 April 2010 * Damon-Moore, Helen. ''Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880–1910'' (1994
online
* Elson, Robert T. ''Time Inc: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941'' (1968); vol. 2: ''The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History, 1941–1960'' (1973), official corporate history * Endres, Kathleen L. and Therese L. Lueck, eds. ''Women's Periodicals in the United States: Consumer Magazines'' (1995
online
* Haveman, Heather A. ''Magazines and the Making of America: Modernization, Community, and Print Culture, 1741–1860'' (Princeton UP, 2015) * Johnson, Ronald Maberry and Abby Arthur Johnson. ''Propaganda and Aesthetics: The Literary Politics of Afro-American Magazines in the Twentieth Century'' (1979
online
* Mott, Frank Luther. ''A History of American Magazines'' (five volumes, 1930–1968), detailed coverage of all major magazines, 1741 to 1930 by a leading scholar. * Nourie, Alan and Barbara Nourie. ''American Mass-Market Magazines'' (Greenwood Press, 1990
online
* Rooks, Noliwe M. ''Ladies' Pages: African American Women's Magazines and the Culture That Made Them'' (Rutgers UP, 2004
online
* Summer, David E. ''The Magazine Century: American Magazines Since 1900'' (Peter Lang Publishing; 2010) 242 pages. Examines the rapid growth of magazines throughout the 20th century and analyzes the form's current decline. * Tebbel, John, and Mary Ellen Zuckerman. ''The Magazine in America, 1741–1990'' (1991), popular history * Wood, James P. ''Magazines in the United States: Their Social and Economic Influence'' (1949
online
* Zuckerman, Mary Ellen. ''A History of Popular Women's Magazines in the United States, 1792–1995'' (Greenwood Press, 1998
online


External links

* * * * {{Authority control Magazines, Publications by format History of mass media, Magazines Magazine publishing Newspapers Promotion and marketing communications Revenue models