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Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of
public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servant, civil employees for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry ...
within a particular
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
. This particular usage of the word
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, Executive (government), ex ...

government
refers specifically to a level of administration that is both geographically-localised and has limited powers. While in some countries, "government" is normally reserved purely for a national
administration (government) The term administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langua ...
(which may be known as a
central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists ...
or
federal government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government ( federalism). In a federation, the self-gover ...
), the term local government is always used specifically in contrast to national government – as well as, in many cases, the activities of sub-national, first-level
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ...

administrative division
s (which are generally known by names such as cantons, provinces, states, oblasts, or regions). Local governments generally act only within powers specifically delegated to them by law and/or directives of a higher level of government. In
federal states A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism Federalism is a mixed or compou ...

federal states
, local government generally comprises a third or fourth tier of government, whereas in
unitary state A unitary state is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
s, local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government. The question of
municipal autonomy A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
is a key question of public administration and governance.
Local election In many parts of the world, local elections take place to select office-holders in local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of t ...
s are held in many countries. The institutions of local government vary greatly between countries, and even where similar arrangements exist, the terminology often varies. Common designated names for local government entities include
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
,
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...

province
,
region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the wor ...
,
canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and entert ...
,
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
,
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
,
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...

prefecture
,
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipali ...

district
,
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...

city
,
township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grou ...

township
,
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" ...

town
,
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for g ...
,
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
,
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipali ...
,
shire Shire is a traditional term for an administrative division of land in Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British ...

shire
,
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellin ...

village
,
ward Ward may refer to: Division or unit * Hospital#Departments or wards, Hospital ward, a hospital division, floor, or room set aside for a particular class or group of patients, for example the psychiatric ward * Prison ward, a division of a pen ...
,
local service districtA local service district is a type of designated placeA designated place (DPL) is a type of community or populated area identified by Statistics Canada for statistical purposes. DPLs are delineated for each decennial census as the statistical counter ...
and
local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are ...
.


Africa


Egypt

Local government
tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the wo ...

tradition
ally had limited power in
Egypt's
Egypt's
highly
centralized Centralisation or centralization (see American and British English spelling differences#iseize, spelling differences) is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing ...

centralized
state. Under the central government were twenty-six
governorate A governorate is an administrative division of a country. It is headed by a governor. As English-speaking nations tend to call regions administered by governors either State (administrative division), states or provinces, the term ''governorate'' ...
s (sing., muhafazah; pl., muhafazat). These were subdivided into
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipali ...

district
s (sing., markaz; pl., marakaz) and
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellin ...

village
s (sing., qaryah; pl., qura) or
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" ...

town
s. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, and mayors, respectively.
Governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...

Governor
s were appointed by the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, and they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers. The
coercive Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a rituali ...
backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the
Ministry of Interior A ministry of home affairs is a common type of government department that serves as an interior ministry. Examples include: Lists of current ministries of home affairs Named "ministry" * Ministry of Internal Affairs (Adygea) * Ministry of ...
through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman (sing., ; pl., umadah). Before the revolution, state penetration of the
rural area A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or a countryside is a geographic ...

rural area
s was limited by the power of local notables, but under
Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein, (15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was an Egyptian politician who served as the second President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced ...

Nasser
, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, and the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government. The extension of officials into the countryside permitted the
regime In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social sc ...

regime
to bring development and services to the village. The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union (ASU), fostered a certain
peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial farmhand, agricultural laborer or a farmer with limited land-ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and tenant farmer, paying rent, tax, fees, or services to a landlord. In Europe, thre ...
political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Sadat and
Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the List of Presidents of Egypt, fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak ...
. The earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state. The district police station balanced the notables, and the system of local government (the mayor and council) integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to
decentralize
decentralize
power to the provinces and towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces. The elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget. In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, and the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, and these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, and local policies often reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt often bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers.


Mali

In recent years,
Mali Mali (; ), officially the Republic of Mali (french: République du Mali; bm, ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ, Mali ka Fasojamana, ff, 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭, Renndaandi Maali), is a landlocked country ...

Mali
has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of
Bamako Bamako ( bm, ߓߡߊ߬ߞߐ߬ ''Bàmakɔ̌'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ...

Bamako
, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, and 682 rural community districts (communes). The state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, and it provides technical support, coordination, and legal recourse to these levels. Opportunities for direct political participation, and increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, and observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors, councils, and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, and donor groups began partnering to further development. Eventually, the cercles will be reinstituted (formerly grouping arrondissements) with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen by and from members of the communal councils. The regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, and will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels, especially to mobilize and manage financial resources.


Nigeria

Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is the List of African countries by population, most populous country in Africa; geographically situated between the Sahel to the north, and the Gulf of ...

Nigeria
as a
federal republic A federal republic is a federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of In ...
operates three tiers of government: federal (or central), states and local government. The country's
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
provides for each local government (which exists in a single tier countrywide), and its development areas and autonomous communities created by individual state legislation to have
democratically Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government in which people, the people have the authority to choose their governing legislators. The decisions on who is consi ...

democratically
elected local government heads. There is a ministry (or bureau) of local government and chieftaincy affairs in each state charged with the responsibility of administration at that level. Nigeria has a total of 774
Local Government Areas A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division of a country that a local government is responsible for. The size of an LGA varies by country but it is generally a subdivision of a State (administrative division), state, province, divis ...
(LGAs).


South Africa

South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most populous nation a ...

South Africa
has a two-tiered local government system comprising local
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
which fall into district municipalities, and metropolitan municipalities which span both tiers of local government.


Asia


Afghanistan

Afghanistan was traditionally divided into provinces governed by centrally appointed governors with considerable autonomy in local affairs. There are currently 34 provinces. During the Soviet occupation and the development of country-wide resistance, local areas came increasingly under the control of
mujaheddin ''Mujahideen'' ( ar, مجاهدين ') is the plural form of ''mujahid'' (fighter in the way of Allah)( ar, مجاهد, links=no), the Arabic term for one engaged in '' jihad'' (literally, "struggle"). The English term '' jihadists'' grammatic ...
groups that were largely independent of any higher authority; local commanders, in some instances, asserted a measure of independence also from the mujaheddin leadership in Pakistan, establishing their own systems of local government, collecting revenues, running educational and other facilities, and even engaging in local negotiations. Mujaheddin groups retained links with the Peshawar parties to ensure access to weapons that were doled out to the parties by the government of Pakistan for distribution to fighters inside Afghanistan. The Taliban set up a shura (assembly), made up of senior Taliban members and important tribal from the area. Each shura made laws and collected taxes locally. The Taliban set up a provisional government for the whole of Afghanistan, but it did not exercise central control over the local shuras. The process of setting up the transitional government in June 2002 by the Loya Jirga took many steps involving local government. First, at the district and municipal level, traditional shura councils met to pick electors—persons who cast ballots for Loya Jirga delegates. Each district or municipality had to choose a predetermined number of electors, based on the size of its population. The electors then traveled to regional centers and cast ballots, to choose from amongst themselves a smaller number of loya jirga delegates— according to allotted numbers assigned to each district. The delegates then took part in the Loya Jirga. The warlords who rule various regions of the country exert local control. The transitional government is attempting to integrate local governing authorities with the central government, but it lacks the loyalty from the warlords necessary to its governing authority. More traditional elements of political authority—such as Sufi networks, royal lineage, clan strength, age-based wisdom, and the like—still exist and play a role in Afghan society. Karzai is relying on these traditional sources of authority in his challenge to the warlords and older Islamist leaders. The deep ethnic, linguistic, sectarian, tribal, racial, and regional cleavages present in the country create what is called "Qawm" identity, emphasizing the local over higher-order formations. Qawm refers to the group to which the individual considers himself to belong, whether a subtribe, village, valley, or neighborhood. Local governing authority relies upon these forms of identity and loyalty.


Armenia

Armenia is subdivided into eleven
administrative divisions Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular, ...
. Of these, ten are provinces, known as ''marzer'' () or in the singular form '' marz'' () in
Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Armenian language, the Indo-European language spoken ...
.


Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan is administratively divided into the following subdivisions: *59
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, several Municipality, municipali ...

district
s (''rayonlar''; sing.– ''
rayon Rayon is a synthetic fiber Synthetic fiber or synthetic fibre (in British English; American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, see spelling differences) are fibers made by humans through chemical synthesis, as opposed to natur ...
''), *11
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

cities
(''şəhərlər''; sing.– '' şəhər''), *1
autonomous republic An autonomous republic is a type of administrative division similar to a province or Federated state, state. A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located wit ...
(''muxtar respublika''), which itself contains: **7 districts **1 city The rayons are further divided into
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
(''Bələdiyyə'').


Bangladesh

Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions, each named after their respective divisional headquarters:
Barisal Barisal, officially known as Barishal,( bn, বরিশাল, ), is a major city that lies on the banks of the Kirtankhola Kirtankhola ( bn, কীর্তনখোলা) is a river that starts Sayeshtabad, in the district of Barisal, Bang ...
,
Chittagong Chittagong ( bn, চিটাগাং) (), officially Chattogram ( bn, চট্টগ্রাম) also known as the Port City of Bangladesh, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, ...
,
Dhaka Dhaka ( or ; bn, ঢাকা, Ḍhākā, ), List of renamed places in Bangladesh, formerly known as Dacca, is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of Bangladesh, as well as the largest city in the Bengal region. It is the eighth ...
,
Khulna Khulna ( bn, খুলনা ) is the third largest city in Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, :bn:বাংলাদেশ, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the Li ...
,
Rajshahi Rajshahi ( bn, রাজশাহী, ; historically ''Rampur Boalia''; nicknamed ''Silk City'' or ''City of Education'') is a metropolitan city in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant econo ...
,
Sylhet Sylhet ( bn, সিলেট) is a metropolis, metropolitan city in northeastern Bangladesh. It is the administrative seat of Sylhet Division. Located on the north bank of the Surma River at the eastern tip of Bengal, Sylhet has a subtropical cli ...

Sylhet
, Rangpur and
Mymensingh Division Mymensingh Division ( bn, ময়মনসিংহ বিভাগ) is one of the eight Divisions of Bangladesh, administrative divisions of Bangladesh. It has an area of and a population of 11,370,000 as of the 2011 Bangladesh census, 2011 cen ...
. Divisions are divided into ''zila''. There are 64 zila in Bangladesh, each further divided into ''upazila'' or ''thana''. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several '' unions'', with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, which are further divided into ''mahallas''. There are no directly elected officials at the divisional or district levels, although elected chairs of subdistricts also sit on district councils. Direct elections are held for each union (or ward), electing a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates. Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. The cities with a city corporation, having mayoral elections, include Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, Khulna, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Barisal, Rangpur, Comilla and Gazipur. Other major cities, these and other municipalities electing a mayor and councilors for each ward, include Mymensingh, Gopalganj, Jessore, Bogra, Dinajpur, Saidapur, Narayanganj, Naogaon and Rangamati. Both the municipal heads are elected for a span of five years.


Brunei Darussalam

The
administrative divisions of Brunei The administrative divisions of Brunei mainly consist of ''daerah'' (district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in ...
mainly consist of ''daerah'', ''mukim'' and ''kampung'' or ''kampong''. They are organised hierarchically, with ''daerah'' being the first level and ''kampong'' the third level. All the administrative divisions are under direct governance of the government through the Ministry of Home Affairs. There are four districts in Brunei:
Brunei-Muara ) , leader_name = Awang Misle bin Haji Abdul Karim , leader_title1 = Deputy District Officer(''Timbalan Ketua Pegawai Daerah'') , leader_name1 = Awang Mohamad Yassin bin Haji Ahmed , total_type = Brun ...
, Belait, Tutong and
Temburong) , leader_name = Pengiran Muhammad Ameer Mubaarak bin Pengiran Haji Hashim , leader_title2 = Deputy District Officer(''Timbalan Ketua Pegawai Daerah'') , leader_name2 = - , area_total_km2 ...
. The administrative level of mukim lies below the district. At present, there are 38 mukims, with 17 in Brunei-Muara, 8 in Tutong, 8 in Belait and 5 in Temburong District. A mukim is headed by a penghulu. A village (Malay: kampung or kampong) is the lowest administrative level in Brunei and headed by a ketua kampong or village head. Its population varies from a few hundreds to tens of thousands.


Cambodia


China


Georgia

The subdivisions of Georgia are
autonomous republic An autonomous republic is a type of administrative division similar to a province or Federated state, state. A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located wit ...
s ( ka, ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა, ''avtonomiuri respublika''), regions (მხარე, ''
mkhare A ''mkhare'' ( ka, მხარე, ''mxare'') is a type of administrative division in the country of Georgia (country), Georgia. It is usually translated as "region". According to presidential decrees in 1994 and 1996, Georgia's division into r ...
''), and
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
(მუნიციპალიტეტი, ''munits'ipaliteti'').


India


Indonesia


Iran


Iraq


Israel

The
Israeli Ministry of Interior The Ministry of Interior ( he, משרד הפנים, ''Misrad HaPnim''; ar, وزارة الداخلية) in the State of Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾī ...
recognizes four types of local government in Israel: *
Cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
: 71 single-level urban municipalities, usually with populations exceeding 20,000 residents. *
Local councilsLocal council may refer to: Political subdivision * Local council (Israel) * Local council (Jordan) * Local councils of Malta * An elected authority in the local government in the United Kingdom * An elected authority in the local government in Aus ...
: 141 single-level urban or rural municipalities, usually with populations between 2,000 and 20,000. * Regional Councils: 54 bi-level municipalities which govern multiple rural communities located in relative geographic vicinity. The number of residents in the individual communities usually does not exceed 2000. There are no clear limits to the population and land area size of Israeli regional councils. * Industrial councils: Two single-level municipalities which govern large and complex industrial areas outside cities. The local industrial councils are Tefen in
Upper Galilee The Upper Galilee ( he, הגליל העליון, ''HaGalil Ha'Elyon''; ar, الجليل الأعلى, ''Al Jaleel Al A'alaa'') is a geographical-political term in use since the end of the Second Temple period. It originally referred to a mountaino ...

Upper Galilee
(north of
Karmiel Karmiel ( he, כַּרְמִיאֵל, ''lit.'' "God's vineyards") is a city in northern Israel. Established in 1964 as a development town, Karmiel is located in the Beit HaKerem Valley which divides upper and lower Galilee. The city is located s ...

Karmiel
) and
Ramat Hovav Ramat Hovav ( he, רָמַת חוֹבָב), new official name Ne'ot Hovav (), is an industrial zone in southern Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the State of Israel ( he, מְ ...
in the
Negev The Negev or Negeb (; he, הַנֶּגֶב; ar, ٱلنَّقَب ') is a desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in th ...

Negev
(south of
Beer Sheva Beersheba (; he, בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע ' , ar, بئر السبع, lit. ''Well of the Oath'') is the largest city in the Negev The Negev or Negeb (; he, הַנֶּגֶב; ar, ٱلنَّقَب ') is a desert upright=1.5, alt=see ...

Beer Sheva
).


Japan

Since the
Meiji restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
,
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdiv ...

Japan
has had a local government system based on
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...

prefecture
s. The national government oversees much of the country. Municipal governments were historical villages. Now mergers are common for cost effective administration. There are 47
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...

prefecture
s. They have two main responsibilities. One is mediation between national and municipal governments. The other is area wide administration.


Kazakhstan


Korea, North


Korea, South


Malaysia

Local government is the lowest level in the system of government in
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two reg ...

Malaysia
—after federal and state. It has the power to collect taxes (in the form of assessment tax), to create laws and rules (in the form of by-laws) and to grant licenses and permits for any trade in its area of jurisdiction, in addition to providing basic amenities, collecting and managing waste and garbage as well as planning and developing the area under its jurisdiction.


Myanmar


Nepal

Gaunpalika Gaunpalika ( ne, गाउँपालिका, lit=Rural municipality, translit=Gāum̐pālikā ) is an administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (Nepal) dissolved the existing Village development comm ...

Gaunpalika
(Rural Council) and Nagarpalika (Municipal council) are the local level divisions in
Nepal Nepal (; ne, :ne:नेपाल, नेपाल ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal ( ne, सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल ), is a landlocked country in S ...

Nepal
. Which is ruled by third level of government after Federal and Provincial government. In Nepal there are total 753 local levels government (including 6 (six) Metropolises, 11 Sub-metropolises, 276
Municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
and 460
Gaunpalika Gaunpalika ( ne, गाउँपालिका, lit=Rural municipality, translit=Gāum̐pālikā ) is an administrative division in Nepal. The Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (Nepal) dissolved the existing Village development comm ...

Gaunpalika
s). And there are total 6,743 wards are formed under these 753 local levels. These local government are ruled by local leaders and the Mayor is the supreme of each local government which is elected every 5 (Five) year by local public.


Pakistan

Local government is the third tier of government in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, e ...

Pakistan
, after
Federal Government A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government ( federalism). In a federation, the self-gover ...
and Provincial Government. There are three types of administrative unit of local government in Pakistan: * District Government Administrations * Town Municipal Administrations * Union Council Administrations There are over five thousand local governments in Pakistan. Since 2001, these have been led by democratically elected local councils, each headed by a Nazim (the word means "supervisor" in Urdu, but is sometimes translated as Mayor). Some districts, incorporating large metropolitan areas, are called City Districts. A City District may contain subdivisions called Towns and Union Councils. Council elections are held every four years. District Governments also include a District Coordination Officer (DCO), who is a civil servant in-charge of all devolved departments. Currently, the Powers of Nazim are also held by the DCO.


Palestinian Authority

Local government in the
Palestinian National Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية '), commonly known as the Palestinian Authority and officially the State of Palestine,
-controlled areas are divided into three main groups: Municipal councils, village council and local development committees. *
Municipality (Palestinian Authority) A municipality ( ar, هيئة محلية) is an administrative unit of local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word govern ...
: Depends on size of locality. Localities that serve as the centers of
governorate A governorate is an administrative division of a country. It is headed by a governor. As English-speaking nations tend to call regions administered by governors either State (administrative division), states or provinces, the term ''governorate'' ...
s and populations over 15,000 have 15-member councils. Localities with populations over 15,000 residents have 13-member councils and localities with populations between 4,000 and 15,000 have 9-member councils. *
Village Council (Palestinian Authority)A Village council is a type of local government used in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) for Palestinian people, Palestinian localities that usually number between 800 and 3,000+ inhabitants. The village council is also known Municipality (Pa ...
: Localities with populations between 800 and 1,500 have 3-member councils while those between 1,500 and −4,000 residents have 7-member councils.


Philippines

The
Local Government Code Codification of laws is a common practice in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republik ...
of 1991 provides for the three levels of
Local Government Units The Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas ...
or LGUs in the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republik ...

Philippines
: (1) the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...
(2)
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...
and
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipali ...
, and (3) the
barangay A barangay (; abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), sometimes referred to by its archaic name barrio (abbreviated as Bo.), is the smallest administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admi ...

barangay
. The country remains a unitary state and the National Government continues to have strong influence over local government units. A province is led by a governor along with the ''
Sangguniang Panlalawigan Sangguniang Panlalawigan (abbreviated as SP; ), commonly known as the Provincial Board, are the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human s ...
'' (Provincial Council) composed of board members. A mayor leads a city or municipality while the ''
Sangguniang Panlungsod The Sangguniang Panlungsod (SP) is the local legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collecti ...
'' (City Council) and the ''
Sangguniang Bayan The Sangguniang Bayan ( Municipalities_of_the_Philippines">municipal_governments_in_the_Philippines._It_is_responsible_for_passing_ordinances_and_resolutions_for_the_administration_of_a_municipality._Its_powers_are_defined_by_the_Local_Government_C ...
'' (Municipal Council) constitute the legislative branches of a city and municipality, respectively. A barangay is headed by the Barangay Captain and the
Barangay Council The Sangguniang Barangay, also known as the Barangay Council, and formerly as the Rural Council and then the Barrio Council, is the legislative body of a barangay, the lowest form of government in the Philippines. The term is coined from the Taga ...
. Barangays can be further divided into
purok A ''purok'' ( en, district or zone) is a division within a barangay A barangay (; abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), sometimes referred to by its archaic name barrio (abbreviated as Bo.), is the smallest administrative division Administrat ...
s and
sitio A ''sitio'' (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national ...

sitio
s but their leadership is unelected. The 1987 Philippine Constitution also provides for the existence of autonomous regions. The
Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao ar, منطقة بانجسامورو ذاتية الحكم فى مسلمى مينداناو , native_name = , settlement_type = Autonomous regions of the Philippines, Autonomous region , anthem ...
(BARMM) is the only autonomous region in the Philippines. There was an attempt to institute an autonomous region in the
Cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in the crust of Earth Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth, accounting for less than 1% of Earth's volum ...

Cordillera
, but that failed and instead the
Cordillera Administrative Region Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), also known as Cordillera Region ( ilo, Rehion/Deppaar Administratibo ti Kordiliera; tl, Rehiyong Pampangasiwaan ng Cordillera), is an Regions of the Philippines, administrative region in the Philippines, ...
(CAR) was established. Local governments have limited taxing authority. Most of their funds come from the national government via the
Internal Revenue Allotment The Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) is a local government unit The local government in the Philippines is divided into three levels: provinces and independent cities, component cities and municipalities A municipality is usually a sin ...


Saudi Arabia

There are three levels of local government in the Kingdom of
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Five Pillars of Islam and part of the Adhan. It reads: "I bear witness that none deserves worship e ...

Saudi Arabia
: the city council, the municipal council and the municipality. The city council is the highest level of local government. The municipal councils began in 2005 and is the second level of local government. The municipality is the third level of local government. There are 178 municipalities across the kingdom. The first began in Jeddah during the Othmanic period. Each municipality is run by its city's mayor. As a collective the kingdom's municipalities make up the Ministry of Municipality and Rural Affairs (MoMRA).


Sri Lanka


Syria


Taiwan

The
Republic of China government A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected representatives". In republics, the country is considered a "public m ...
in
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main islan ...

Taiwan
consists of special municipality governments, provincial city governments and
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
governments for their local governments. They also have councils in each of those three local government levels.


Tajikistan


Thailand


Turkey

Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the B ...

Turkey
has two levels of local government; provinces (Turkish: iller ) and districts (Turkish: ilçeler ). The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes; however, they do not represent an administrative structure. Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 957 districts.


United Arab Emirates


Uzbekistan


Vietnam

Vietnam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...

Vietnam
has 3 levels of local government: *First tier: provinces and municipalities *Second tier: provincial cities, towns, urban districts and rural districts *Third tier: wards, communes and townships Each level has a People's Committee (executive – up to third tier), a People's Council (legislative – up to third tier) and a People's Court (judiciary – up to second tier)


Yemen


Europe


Albania

Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is ...

Albania
has 3 levels of local government : * 12 administrative counties ( sq, qark or prefekturë). * 36 districts ( sq, rreth). * 373 municipalities ( sq, bashki or komunë), 72 of which have city status ( sq, qytet). There are overall 2980 villages/communities ( sq, fshat) in all Albania. Each district has its council which is composed of a number of municipalities. The municipalities are the first level of local governance, responsible for local needs and law enforcement.


Andorra

Andorra , image_flag = Flag of Andorra.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Andorra.svg , symbol_type = Coat of arms , national_motto = la, Virtus Unita Fortior, label=none (Latin Latin (, or , ) is ...

Andorra
is formed by seven
parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
(parròquies, singular – parròquia);
Andorra la Vella Andorra la Vella (, ; , es, Andorra la Vieja, french: Andorre-la-Vieille) is the capital (political), capital of the Andorra, Principality of Andorra. It is located high in the east Pyrenees, between France and Spain. It is also the name of the p ...

Andorra la Vella
,
Canillo Canillo () is one of the parishes of Andorra Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories ...

Canillo
,
Encamp Encamp () is one of the parishes of Andorra Andorra Andorra (, ; ), officially the Principality of Andorra ( ca, Principat d'Andorra), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories ...

Encamp
,
La Massana La Massana (; originally ''La Maçana'') is one of the seven parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical juris ...

La Massana
,
Escaldes-Engordany Escaldes-Engordany () is one of the 7 parishes of Andorra. The Escaldes-Engordany parish was founded on 14 June 1978 and has the second largest population after Andorra la Vella. The parish is composed of the areas of les Escaldes, Engordany, Els Vi ...

Escaldes-Engordany
,
Ordino Ordino () is the most northerly parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity ...

Ordino
,
Sant Julià de Lòria
Sant Julià de Lòria
. Some parishes have a further territorial subdivision. Ordino, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria are subdivided into ''quarts'' (quarters), while Canillo is subdivided into 10 ''veïnats'' (neighborhoods). Those mostly coincide with villages, which are found in all parishes. Each parish has its own elected mayor who is the nominal head of the local government known as a ''comú'' in Catalan.


Belarus

At the top level of administration,
Belarus , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Minsk , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages = , languages2_type = Recognized minority language , ...

Belarus
is divided into six ''regions'' and the city of
Minsk Minsk ( be, Мінск , russian: link=no, Минск) is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislach (Berezina), Svislach and the now subterranean Nyamiha, Niamiha rivers. As the capital, Minsk has a special administrat ...

Minsk
, which has a special status being the capital of Belarus. Minsk is also the capital of
Minsk Region Minsk Region or Minsk Oblast or Minsk Voblasts ( be, Мі́нская во́бласць, ''Minskaja vobłasć'' ; russian: Минская о́бласть, ''Minskaja oblastj'') is one of the regions of Belarus At the top level of administrati ...
. At the second level, the regions are divided into ''
raion A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast). The term is from the French "''rayon''" (meaning "honeycomb, department"), which is both a type of a subnational entity Adminis ...
s'' ("districts").


Bulgaria

Since the 1880s, the number of territorial management units in
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...

Bulgaria
has varied from seven to 26. Between 1987 and 1999 the administrative structure consisted of nine provinces (''oblasti'', singular ''
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian): , Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzst ...
''). A new administrative structure was adopted in parallel with the decentralisation of the economic system. It includes 27 provinces and a metropolitan capital province (Sofia-Grad). All areas take their names from their respective capital cities. The provinces subdivide into 264
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
. Municipalities are run by mayors, who are elected to four-year terms, and by directly elected municipal councils. Bulgaria is a highly
centralised Centralisation or centralization (see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthog ...
state, where the national Council of Ministers directly appoints regional governors and all provinces and municipalities are heavily dependent on it for funding.


Croatia

Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika H ...

Croatia
is divided into 20 counties and the capital city of
Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република ...

Zagreb
, the latter having the authority and legal status of a county and a city at the same time. The counties subdivide into 127
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
and 429
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...

municipalities
.


Czech Republic

The highest tier of local government in the
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It i ...
are the thirteen regions (Czech:
''kraje'', singular ''kraj''
''kraje'', singular ''kraj''
) and the capital city of
Prague Prague (; cs, Praha , german: Prag, la, Praga) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic The Czech Republic (; cs, Česká republika ), also known by its short-form name, Czechia (; cz, Česko ), is a landlocked countr ...

Prague
. Each region has its own elected Regional Assembly (''krajské zastupitelstvo'') and ''hejtman'' (usually translated as
hetman ( uk, гетьман, translit=het’mаn; cs, hejtman; ro, hatman) is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders. A hetman was the highest military officer in the hetmanates of Ukraine, t ...
or
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...

governor
). In Prague, their powers are executed by the city council and the mayor. The regions are divided into seventy-six
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
(''okresy'', singular ''okres'') including three "statutory cities" (without Prague, which had special status). The districts lost most of their importance in 1999 in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration. A further reform in effect since January 2003 created 204 Municipalities with Extended Competence (obce s rozšířenou působností); also obce III. stupně – third-level municipalities, unofficially also called "little districts" (Czech: 'malé okresy') which took over most of the administration of the former district authorities. Some of these are further divided between Municipalities with Commissioned Local Authority (obce s pověřeným obecním úřadem, shortened to pověřená obec, pl. pověřené obce; "second-level municipalities"). In 2007 the borders of the districts were slightly adjusted and 119 municipalities are now within different districts.


Denmark

For local government purposes, Denmark is divided into five Regions of Denmark, regions ( da, regioner), with their most important area of responsibility being the public health service. They are also responsible for employment policies, and some regions are responsible for public mass transit. Regions are not entitled to levy their own taxes, and they rely entirely on central state funding (around 70%) and funding coming from the municipalities (around 30%). Regions are led by directly elected councils (''regionsråd''). They consist of 41 members each. The regions are further divided into 98 Municipalities of Denmark, municipalities (''kommuner''). Elections for the municipalities are held on the third Tuesday of November every four years.


Estonia

Estonia is divided into 79 Municipalities of Estonia, municipalities (''omavalitsus''), and each municipality is a unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. Furthermore, the country is also divided into fifteen Counties of Estonia, counties ( et, maakonnad), each of which were used to be led by a county
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (p ...

governor
(''maavanem''), who represents the national government at the regional level. This although changed with 2017 Administrative reform in Estonia, administrative reform.


Finland

The most important administrative layer of local government in Finland are the 311 Municipalities of Finland, municipalities, which may also call themselves towns or cities. They account for half of public spending. Spending is financed by municipal income tax, property tax, state subsidies, and other revenue. In addition to municipalities, there are two intermediate levels of local government. Municipalities co-operate in seventy-four Sub-regions of Finland, sub-regions and nineteen Regions of Finland, regions. These are governed by the member municipalities and have only limited powers. However, the autonomous province of Åland has a directly elected regional council, and the Sami people have a semi-autonomous Sami Domicile Area in Lapland (Finland), Lapland for issues on language and culture.


France

According to its Constitution of France, Constitution of 1958, France has 3 levels of local government: *13 ''Régions'' (including Corsica) and 5 ''Régions d'outre-mer'' (Réunion, Martinique, Mayotte, Guadeloupe and French Guiana). Corsica is not referred to as a "région" but simply as a "collectivité territoriale", that merely means "local government area". *96 ''Departments of France, départements'' and 5 ''Overseas department, départements d'outre-mer'' (Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and French Guiana). Paris is both a commune and a département. *There are 36,679 Communes of France, municipalities (in French: ''Communes''). However, in addition to the constitutional clauses of 1958, there now exist specificities: *Intercommunalities are now a level of government between municipalities and departments. *There exist 2 "pays d'outre-mer": French Polynesia and New Caledonia. The expression "pays d'outre-mer" is convenient as it can be understood in French as both "overseas country" and "overseas county/traditional area" (as evidenced by Pays de la Loire that is a home région, not a home "country"). French Polynesia works as an autonomous ''région'', whereas New Caledonia has a ''sui generis'' local government status with specific institutions and even more autonomy.


Germany


Greece

Since 1 January 2011, Greece consists of thirteen modern regions of Greece, regions subdivided into a total of 325 Municipalities and communities of Greece, municipalities and communities. The regions have their own elected governors and regional councils, however there are seven decentralized administrations, which group from one to three regions under a government-appointed general secretary. There is also one autonomous area, Mount Athos.


Hungary

For local government, Hungary is divided into 19 Counties of Hungary, counties. In addition, the Capitals of Hungary, capital (''főváros''), Budapest, is independent of any county government The counties are further subdivided into 174 Subregions of Hungary, subregions (''kistérségek''), and Budapest is its own subregion. There are also 23 towns with county rights (singular ''megyei jogú város''). The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective county instead of being independent territorial units.


Iceland

The Municipalities of Iceland are local administrative areas in Iceland that provide a number of services to their inhabitants such as kindergartens, elementary schools, waste management, social services, public housing, public transportation, services to senior citizens and disability, handicapped people. They also govern zoning and can voluntarily take on additional functions if they have the budget for it. The autonomy of municipalities over their own matters is guaranteed by the constitution of Iceland. The municipalities are governed by municipal councils which are directly elected every four years. The sizes of these councils vary from five members in the smallest municipalities to fifteen in the largest one. Most municipalities except for the very small ones hire an executive manager who may or may not be a member of the municipal council. These managers are usually referred to as mayors (''bæjarstjóri / borgarstjóri'') in the mostly urban municipalities but "commune manager" (''sveitarstjóri'') in the rural or mixed municipalities.


Ireland

The Republic of Ireland, Republic of Ireland's local government is laid out by the Local Government Reform Act 2014. With a few exceptions, local government is two-tier. At the lowest level are the municipal, metropolitan or borough councils, which are elected during local elections. These councillors from the relevant county then together form the council, termed either County or City and County Councils. For example, the 4 municipal districts in Westmeath County each elect their own councils, who together form Westmeath County Council. Many functions are performed by the Chief Executive, who is appointed by the Minister for Local Government. The exceptions to the above is the county of Dublin and the cities of Cork and Galway, the later two's councils are directly elected with no lower council. Dublin county is made up of four local area authorities, each elected directly. There are thirty-one local authorities. The main sources of funding for local government in Ireland are local property and motor tax revenues, payments from the Exchequer, charges for goods and services, and state grants.


Isle of Man

Local government on the Isle of Man is partly based on the ancient parishes. There are four types of local authorities: a borough corporation, town commissioners, village commissioners, and parish commissioners.


Italy

The Constitution of Italy, Italian Constitution defines three levels of local government: *Regions of Italy, Regions: At present 5 of them (Valle d'Aosta, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige, Sardinia and Sicily) have a special status and are given more power than the others. The constitutional reform of 2001 gave more power to regions. *Provinces of Italy, Provinces: They mostly care to roads, forests, and education. They had more power in the past. *Comune, Communes: The Mayor and staff, caring for the needs of a single town or of a village and neighbouring minor towns or villages. Major cities also have an extra tier of local government named ''Circoscrizione di Decentramento Comunale'' or, in some cities (e.g. Rome) ''Municipio''.


Latvia

Latvia is a unitary state, currently divided into 110 municipalities ( lv, novadi) and 9 republican cities ( lv, republikas pilsētas) with their own council.


Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein is divided into eleven Municipalities of Liechtenstein, municipalities (''Gemeinden'' singular ''Gemeinde''), most consisting of only a single town.


Lithuania

Lithuania has a three-tier division of local government: the country is divided into Counties of Lithuania, 10 counties (Lithuanian: singular – ''apskritis'', plural – ''apskritys'') that are further subdivided into Municipalities of Lithuania, 60 municipalities (Lithuanian: singular – ''savivaldybė'', plural – ''savivaldybės'') which consist of over 500 Elderships of Lithuania, elderships (Lithuanian: singular – ''seniūnija'', plural – ''seniūnijos''). The counties are ruled by County governor (Lithuania), county governors (Lithuanian: ''apskrities viršininkas'') appointed by the central government, and effectively oversee the two lower tiers of local government. Municipalities are the most important administrative unit of local government. Each municipality has its own government and council, with elections taking place every four years. The mayor, who is a member of the council, is elected directly by the residents in a majority vote. The council appoints elder (administrative title), elders to govern the elderships. Elderships, numbering over 500, are the smallest units of local government. They provide public services such as registering births and deaths and identifying individuals or families in need of welfare.


Malta

Malta is a unitary city state divided into 68 municipalities (Local councils of Malta, local councils), according to the constitution of the Malta.


Netherlands

The Netherlands has three tiers of government. There are two levels of local government in the Netherlands, the provinces and the municipalities. The water boards are also part of the local government. The Netherlands is divided into twelve provinces (''provinces of the Netherlands, provincie'', pl. ''provincies''). They form the tier of administration between the central government and the municipalities. Each province is governed by a provincial council, the States-Provincial (''Provinciale Staten'', abbr. to ''PS''). Its members are elected every four years. The day-to-day management of the province is in the hands of the provincial executive, the States Deputed (''Gedeputeerde Staten'', abbr. to ''GS''). Members of the executive are chosen by the provincial council. The size of the executive varies from one province to another. In Flevoland, the smallest of the Dutch provinces, it has four members, while most other provinces have six or seven. Meetings of the provincial executive are chaired by the King's Commissioner (''Commissaris van de Koningin, Commissaris van de Koning(in)'', abbr. to ''CvdK''). The King's Commissioner is not elected by the residents of the province, but appointed by the Crown (the King and government ministers). The appointment is for six years and may be extended by a second term. The King's Commissioner can be dismissed only by the Crown. King's Commissioners play an important part in the appointment of municipal mayors. When a vacancy arises, the King's Commissioner first asks the municipal council for its views as to a successor, then writes to the Minister of the Interior recommending a candidate. Municipalities (''list of municipalities of the Netherlands, gemeente'', pl. ''gemeenten'') form the lowest tier of government in the Netherlands, after the central government and the provinces. There are 415 of them (1 January 2012). The municipal council (''gemeenteraad'') is the highest authority in the municipality. Its members are elected every four years. The role of the municipal council is comparable to that of the board of an organisation or institution. Its main job is to decide the municipality's broad policies and to oversee their implementation. The day-to-day administration of the municipality is in the hands of the municipal executive (''college van burgemeester en wethouders'', abbr. to ''(college van) B&W)'', made up of the mayor (''burgemeester'') and the aldermen (''wethouder'', pl. ''wethouders''). The executive implements national legislation on matters such as social assistance, unemployment benefits and environmental management. It also bears primary responsibility for the financial affairs of the municipality and for its personnel policies. Aldermen are appointed by the council. Councillors can be chosen to act as aldermen. In that case, they lose their seats on the council and their places are taken by other representatives of the same political parties. Non-councillors can also be appointed. Unlike councillors and aldermen, mayors are not elected (not even indirectly), but are appointed by the Crown. Mayors chair both the municipal council and the executive. They have a number of statutory powers and responsibilities of their own. They are responsible for maintaining public order and safety within the municipality and frequently manage the municipality's public relations. As Crown appointees, mayors also have some responsibility for overseeing the work of the municipality, its policies and relations with other government bodies. Although they are obliged to carry out the decisions of the municipal council and executive, they may recommend that the Minister of the Interior quash any decision that they believe to be contrary to the law or against the public interest. Mayors are invariably appointed for a period of six years. They can be dismissed only by the Crown and not by the municipal council. Water boards (''waterschap'' and ''hoogheemraadschap'', pl. ''waterschappen'' and ''hoogheemraadschappen'') are among the oldest government authorities in the Netherlands. They literally form the foundation of the whole Dutch system of local government; from time immemorial they have shouldered the responsibility for water management for the residents of their area. In polders this mainly involves regulating the water level. It has always been in the common interest to keep water out and polder residents have always had to work together. That is what led to the creation of water boards. The structure of the water boards varies, but they all have a general administrative body and an executive board (''college van dijkgraaf en heemraden'') consisting of a chairperson (''dijkgraaf (official), dijkgraaf'') and other members (''heemraad, (hoog)heemraad'', pl. ''(hoog)heemraden''). The chairperson also presides the general administrative body. This body consists of people representing the various categories of stakeholders: landholders, leaseholders, owners of buildings, companies and, since recently, all the residents as well. Importance and financial contribution decide how many representatives each category may delegate. Certain stakeholders (e.g. environmental organisations) may be given the power to appoint members. The general administrative body elects the executive board from among its members. The government appoints the chairperson for a period of six years. The general administrative body is elected for a period of four years. In the past the administrative body was elected as individuals but from 2009 they will be elected as party representatives.


Norway

Norway's regional administration is organised in 19 counties (fylke), with 18 of them subdivided into 431 municipalities (kommune) per 1 January 2006. The municipal sector is a provider of vital services to the Norwegian public, accounting for about 20% of Norwegian GNP and 24% of total employment. Norway had 435 municipalities of varying size in 2003, each administered by an elected municipal council. They are grouped into 19 counties (fylker), each governed by an elected county council. Each county is headed by a governor appointed by the king in council. Oslo is the only urban center that alone constitutes a county; the remaining 18 counties consist of both urban and rural areas. County and municipal councils are popularly elected every four years. The municipalities have wide powers over the local economy, with the state exercising strict supervision. They have the right to tax and to use their resources to support education, libraries, social security, and public works such as streetcar lines, gas and electricity works, roads, and town planning, but they are usually aided in these activities by state funds.


Portugal

Currently, mainland Portugal is divided into 18 districts (in Portuguese, ''distritos''). Each district takes the name of their respective capital city. Insular Portugal, comprising the two Atlantic ocean, Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, is organized as two Autonomous regions of Portugal, autonomous regions (in Portuguese, ''regiões autónomas''). Each district and each Autonomous region is divided into municipalities (in Portuguese, ''municípios'') which, in turn, are subdivided into parishes (in Portuguese, ''freguesias''). Since 1976, when the two Autonomous regions of Portugal were established, the Azores and Madeira are no longer divided into districts.


Poland

Poland has three levels of subdivision. The territory of Poland is divided into 16 Administrative divisions of Poland, voivodeships (provinces); these are further divided into 379 Gmina, powiats (counties or districts), and these in turn are divided into 2,479 gminas (communes or municipalities). Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Each voivodeship is jointly governed by the National-government appointed voivode and a locally elected Voivodeship sejmik, sejmik (provincial assembly), which appoints an executive board led by a voivodeship marshal.


Russia

The Russian Federation consistes of eighty-five federal subjects that are constituent members of the Federation. However, two of these federal subjects — the Republic of Crimea and the federal cities of Russia, federal city of Sevastopol—are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. All federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council of Russia, Federation Council (upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, Federal Assembly). But they do differ in the degree of autonomous area, autonomy they enjoy. The modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary significantly from one federal subject to another. While the implementation details may be considerably different, in general, however, the following types of high-level administrative divisions are recognized: *administrative districts (
raion A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast). The term is from the French "''rayon''" (meaning "honeycomb, department"), which is both a type of a subnational entity Adminis ...
s) *city of federal subject significance, cities/towns and urban-type settlement#Administrative divisions, urban-type settlements of federal subject significance *closed city#Russia, closed administrative-territorial formations Typical lower-level administrative divisions include: *selsoviets (rural councils) *town of district significance, towns and urban-type settlements of the administrative district significance *city districts


Spain

Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous communities, which in turn are divided into 50 provinces of Spain, provinces. There are also two autonomous cities of Spain, autonomous cities: those of Ceuta and Melilla. Finally, each province comprises a number of municipalities. Each administrative entity is given powers, structure, and boundaries by a law that was passed by the Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister . Law 7/1985, passed by the former Spanish Prime Minister Felipe González Márquez (socialist), lays down the procedure of the Local Government. Every city in Spain used this Law until 2003. This year, the former Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar López (conservative), passed a Law (57/2003) to modernize organic rules of those cities which had more than 250,000 inhabitants, and other important cities (like capital cities of provinces with at least 175,000 inhabitants). Also, it exists two other important Laws for specifically Madrid (Law 22/2006) and Barcelona (Law 1/2006). The main governing body in most municipalities is called Ayuntamiento (in the less populated municipalities an alternative local organization system called open council, "''concejo abierto''", is used). The Ayuntamiento in turn is formed by the Plenary (''el Pleno'', the collective formed by the city councillors) and the Mayor. The number of members that compose The Plenary varies depending on city's population (for example, since 2007 Valencia has 33 members and Pamplona has 27). The name given to the members of the Plenary is councillor (''concejal''). Those councillors are elected between city's inhabitants every four years by direct vote. After being elected, councillors meet in a special Plenary session to determine who will be elected, between them, as city's Mayor. In the next days after the election, the mayor chooses some councillors to set up the executive governing body (''Junta de Gobierno'' or ''Comisión de Gobierno''). After that, and for the next four years, city's mayor and the ''Junta de Gobierno'' will govern over the city according to their competences (urbanism, some taxes, local police, licenses for specific activities, cleaning services, etc.). Meanwhile, councillors in the Plenary but not part of the ''Junta de Gobierno'' (the opposition) will oversee Mayor's rule. The autonomous community of Catalonia is divided in 4 provinces and more than 900 municipalities. Between these two tiers, there are 41 ''comarques'' (singular, ''comarca''), roughly equivalent to 'district' or 'county'. The ''comarca'' is a commonwealth, or union, of municipalities with competences in several fields (Law 6/1987 of the Parliament of Catalonia).


Sweden

Every fourth year general elections are held in Sweden to elect members of the national parliament, 20 county council assemblies and 290 municipal assemblies. As the parliament elects the national government, the local assemblies elect their executive committees and their boards. Members in local committees and boards are elected proportionally by the political parties in the assemblies, giving all the major parties representation. The parties usually cooperate well on the local levels. The county councils (''landsting'') are responsible for health care and usually provide transportation. The municipalities (''kommuner'') are responsible for: *social services, childcare, preschool, elderly care *primary and secondary education *planning and building *health protection, water, sewerage, refuse, emergency services On a voluntary basis, the municipalities provide sports, culture, housing, energy as well as commercial service. The activities are financed by income taxes. Swedes pay around 20% of their taxable income to the municipality and around 11% to the county council. (The national government is financed by VAT and payroll taxes and fees.)


Ukraine


United Kingdom

The system of local government is different in each of the four home nations of the UK. In total there are 426 local authorities in the UK. 346 of these are in England, 11 in Northern Ireland, 32 in Scotland and 22 are in Wales.


England

The most complex system is in England, the result of numerous reforms and reorganisation over the centuries. The top-level of sub-national administration within England until the end of March 2012 consisted of the nine Region (England), regions. The regions were used by central government for various statistical purposes, and Government Offices and assorted other institutions including Regional Development Agencies. Regional Government Offices, Regional Development Agencies and Regional Ministers were all abolished by the Cameron–Clegg coalition, Cameron ministry in 2010. Only the London region which is a sub-region compared to the other regions of England has a directly elected government. Only one regional referendum has been held to date to seek consent for the introduction of direct elections elsewhere — in the northeast of England — and this was overwhelmingly rejected by the electorate. The layers of elected local government vary. In different areas the highest tier of elected local government may be: *counties of England, counties, which may be **single-tier unitary authorities of England, unitary authorities, or **divided into District (England), districts (also known as boroughs in some areas) *Districts of England, districts, which are separate Unitary authorities of England, unitary authorities in some areas *metropolitan districts (also called metropolitan boroughs) in some areas which are similar to unitary authorities, but have Joint-board, joint boards with other districts in the same metropolitan county *Greater London, which is divided into 32 London boroughs and the City of London In most areas there is a lower tier of government, Civil parishes in England, civil parishes, with limited functions. Most civil parishes are in rural areas, but if the parish is a town the Parish councils of England, parish council may be called a town council. In a few cases the parish is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, and the parish council is called a city council. Metropolitan counties, and a few non-metropolitan counties, no longer have elected councils or administrative functions, and their former functions are performed by districts. Such counties remain Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial counties.


Northern Ireland

Since 1 April 2015 Northern Ireland is divided into 11 districts. Local government in Northern Ireland does not carry out the same range of functions as those in the rest of the United Kingdom.


Scotland

Local government in Scotland is arranged on the lines of unitary authority, unitary authorities, with the nation divided into 32 council areas of Scotland, council areas.


Wales

Wales has a uniform system of 22 unitary authorities, variously styled as county, county borough, city or city and county local authorities. There are also Community (Wales), communities, equivalent to parishes.


North America


Canada

Canada has a federal system with three orders of government. The largest is the federal government, followed by the provincial and local governments. Municipal governments are separately elected. They must follow laws and guidelines as set out by their province, but are allowed to pass additional by-laws and acts unique to them.


Mexico

Mexico is a Federal Republic made up by 31 States of Mexico, states and a Mexican Federal District, federal district. Each state is divided in ''municipalities of Mexico, municipios'', while the federal district is divided in sixteen ''Boroughs of the Mexican Federal District, delegaciones''. Twenty-nine states of Mexico were created as administrative divisions by the constitution of 1917, which grants them those powers not expressly vested in the federal government; Mexico's two remaining territories, Baja California Sur and Quintana Roo, achieved statehood on 9 October 1974, raising the total to 31. Each state has a constitution, a governor elected for six years, and a unicameral legislature, with representatives elected by district vote in proportion to population. An ordinary session of the legislature is held annually, and extraordinary sessions may be called by the governor or the permanent committee. Bills may be introduced by legislators, by the governor, by the state supreme court, and by municipalities (a unit comparable to a US county). In addition to the 31 states, there is also one federal district comprising Mexico City, whose governor serves as a member of the cabinet. Many state services are supported by federal subsidies. The principal unit of state government is the municipality. Mexico's 2,378 municipalities are governed by municipal presidents and municipal councils. State governors generally select the nominees for the municipal elections. Municipal budgets are approved by the respective state governors. Until 1997, the president appointed the mayor of Mexico City. Political reforms allowed the first open elections in 1997, and Cuauhtémoc Cardenas Solórzano became Mexico City's first elected mayor.


United States

Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the U.S. state, state. Most states have at least two tiers of local government: County (United States), counties and municipality, municipalities. In some states, counties are divided into Civil township, townships. There are several different types of jurisdictions at the municipal level, including the
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...

city
,
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" ...

town
, parish, borough (United States), borough, village (United States), village, Indian reservation, reservations and boundaries (United States), boundaries. The types and nature of these municipal entities varies from state to state.


Oceania


Australia

Local government is the third type of government in Australia, after Federal and State.


New Zealand

New Zealand has a local government system comprising two complementary sets of local authorities—Regions of New Zealand, regional councils and Territorial authorities of New Zealand, territorial authorities. There are 78 local authorities consisting of: *11 regional councils, which cover much of New Zealand’s land area, and *67 territorial authorities (comprising 53 district councils, 12 List of cities in New Zealand, city councils and 2 other councils). Six of the territorial authorities are unitary authority, unitary authorities, which also have the powers of a regional council. They are Auckland Council, Nelson City Council, the Gisborne, Marlborough and Tasman district councils, and Chatham Islands Council. Regional council areas are based on water catchment areas, whereas territorial authorities are based on community of interest and road access. Within a regional council area there are usually many city or district councils, although city and district councils can be in multiple regional council areas.


South America


Argentina

Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and the federal capital of Buenos Aires. During the 19th century there was a bitter struggle between Buenos Aires and the interior provinces, and there has long been an element of tension regarding the division of powers between the central government and provincial bodies. The federal government retains control over such matters as the regulation of commerce, customs collections, currency, civil or commercial codes, or the appointment of foreign agents. The provincial governors are elected every four years. The constitutional "national intervention" and "state of siege" powers of the president have been invoked frequently. The first of these powers was designed to "guarantee the republican form of government in the provinces." Since the adoption of the 1853 constitution, the federal government has intervened over 200 times, mostly by presidential decree. Under this authority, provincial and municipal offices may be declared vacant, appointments annulled, and local elections supervised. Between 1966 and 1973, all local legislatures were dissolved and provincial governors were appointed by the new president. A restoration of provincial and municipal government followed the return to constitutional government in 1973. After the March 1976 coup, the federal government again intervened to remove all provincial governors and impose direct military rule over all municipalities. Since 1983, representative local government has been in force again. Until 1996, the President appointed the mayor of Buenos Aires, and by law, the president and Congress controlled any legislation that affected the city. Constitutional reforms that year led to an elected mayoral position, and a 60-member Poder Legislativo (legislative power).


Brazil

Brazil is a federation consisting of 27 Federative units of Brazil, federative units: 26 states and one Federal District (Brazil), Federal District. Government exists at three levels: federal, state, and municipal. The states are subdivided into 5,570 Municipalities of Brazil, municipalities, while the Federal District has no municipalities (divided into Administrative regions of the Federal District (Brazil), administrative regions instead) and has powers of both a state and a municipality.. Municipal government consists of an executive branch headed by a Mayors in Brazil, mayor (''Prefeito/Prefeita''), and a legislative branch (''Câmara Municipal),'' serving four-year terms''.'' Municipalities are enshrined in the Constitution of Brazil, constitution of 1988 as entities of the federation; their responsibilities are distinct from the other two levels in theory, but overlap in practice (eg. education, health, transportation). With their broad powers, municipalities may create their own constitutions, termed organic law, and cannot be overruled by state governments. Elections at the municipal level follow a similar, partisan system to Elections in Brazil, state and federal elections, but take place in different years. Municipalities may have anywhere from 9 to 55 members of the ''Câmara Municipal'', depending on the population. There is no minimum or maximum population requirement for municipalities: while the average population of a municipality in 2005 was 30,099, Borá, Borá, São Paulo state (the least populous) had only 823 inhabitants, while São Paulo (the largest) had 10.9 million inhabitants. Municipalities within a state may choose to merge or separate with approval in a plebiscite and enacting of a state law.


Paraguay

Paraguay is divided into 17 Departments of Paraguay, departments, which are subdivided into districts, which, in turn, comprise municipalities (the minimum requirement for a municipality is 3,000 persons) and rural districts (partidos). A governor, elected by popular vote, runs each department. Municipal government is exercised through a municipal board, chosen by direct election, and an executive department. In the principal cities and capitals, the executive department is headed by a mayor appointed by the minister of the interior; in other localities, the mayor is appointed by the presidents of the municipal boards. Police chiefs are appointed by the central government.


Peru

Peru is divided into Regions of Peru, 25 regions and the Lima Province, province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year terms. These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property. The province of Lima is administered by a city council. The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralisation process and still influence local politics.


Uruguay

Uruguay's administrative subdivisions consisted of nineteen territories called departments and governed by intendencias, which were subordinate to the central government and responsible for local administration. They enforced national laws and administered the nation's social and educational policies and institutions within their territories. These territories had limited taxing powers, but they could borrow funds and acquire property. They also had the power to establish unpaid five-member local boards or town councils in municipalities other than the departmental capital if the population was large enough to warrant such a body. Executive authority was vested in a governor (intendente), who administered the department, and in a thirty-one-member departmental board (junta departmental), which carried out legislative functions. These functions included approval of the departmental budget and judicial actions, such as impeachment proceedings against departmental officials, including the governor. At the municipal level, a mayor (intendente municipal) assumed executive and administrative duties, carrying out resolutions made by the local board (whose members were appointed on the basis of proportional representation of the political parties). The governor was required to comply with and enforce the constitution and the laws and to promulgate the decrees enacted by the departmental board. The governor was authorized to prepare the budget, submit it for approval to the departmental board, appoint the board's employees, and, if necessary, discipline or suspend them. The governor represented the department in its relations with the national government and other departmental governments and in the negotiation of contracts with public or private agencies. Like the governor, the members of the departmental board and the mayor were elected for five-year terms in direct, popular elections. A governor could be reelected only once, and candidates for the post had to meet the same requirements as those for a senator, in addition to being a native of the department or a resident therein for at least three years before assuming office. Departmental board members had to be at least twenty-three years of age, native born (or a legal citizen for at least three years), and a native of the department (or a resident for at least three years). The board sat in the capital city of each department and exercised jurisdiction throughout the entire territory of the department. It could issue decrees and resolutions that it deemed necessary either on the suggestion of the governor or on its own initiative. It could approve budgets, fix the amount of taxes, request the intervention of the Accounts Tribunal for advice concerning departmental finances or administration, and remove from office—at the request of the governor—members of nonelective local departmental boards. The board also supervised local public services; public health; and primary, secondary, preparatory, industrial, and artistic education. Although Montevideo was the smallest department in terms of area (divided into twenty-three geographic zones that generally coincided with the electoral zones), its departmental board had sixty-five members in 1990; all other departments had thirty-one-member boards and a five-member executive council appointed by the departmental board, with proportional representation from the principal political parties. Data as of December 1990


References


Further reading

*Kemp, Roger L. ''Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity'', McFarland and Co., Jefferson, NC, USA, and London, Eng., UK 1998 (). *Kemp, Roger L. ''Model Government Charters: A City, County, Regional, State, and Federal Handbook'', McFarland and Co., Jefferson, NC, USA, and London, Eng., UK, 2003 (). *Kemp, Roger L. ''Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City, County and Regional Options'', McFarland and Co., Jefferson, NC, USA, and London, Eng., UK, 2007 (). *Lockner, Allyn O. ''Steps to Local Government Reform: A Guide to Tailoring Local Government Reforms to Fit Regional Governance Communities in Democracies''. iUniverse, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, 2013 ().


External links


Department of Local and Regional Democracy and Good Governance
Council of Europe
The Congress in briefRural local self-government challenges and development prospects
by Rukhman Adukov *
Using a Model Municipal Performance Measurement System to Assess Mid-sized Texas Cities.Factors Contributing to Municipal Annexation among Medium Sized Southern US Cities.
Colin Rice
United Cities and Local Governments
is an organisation for cities, local governments and municipal associations throughout the world.
Agenda 21 for culture
is the reference document for cultural programmes of local authorities
Rural Decentralization and Local Governance
provides free access to selected e-resources and news on local governance in developing countries.
Governance From Below
Free to download studies, papers, data, and other resources on local government, decentralization and federalism. {{Authority control Local government, Decentralization Localism (politics), Government