Limited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation
of creating animated cartoon
s that does not redraw entire frames but variably reuses common parts between frames.
The use of budget-cutting and time-saving animation measures in animation dates back to the earliest commercial animation, including cycled animations, mirror-image and symmetrical drawings, still characters, and other labor-saving methods. In general, the progression was from early productions in which every frame was drawn by hand, independent of each other drawing, toward more limited animation that made use of the same drawings in different ways.
, a man who put an unprecedented amount of detail into his animations, boasted that in his 1914 film, ''Gertie the Dinosaur
'', that everything moved, including the rocks and blades of grass in the background. In contrast, his 1918 film ''The Sinking of the Lusitania
'' progressed to using cels over still backgrounds, while still maintaining a level of detail comparable to that of ''Gertie''.
The 1942 ''Merrie Melodies
'' short ''The Dover Boys
'' is one of the earliest Warner Bros. cartoons to extensively employ some of the processes of what would become known as "limited animation," particularly its use of characters that either stand still or move so quickly that the actual motion appears to be a blur.
used limited animation throughout its existence. When the company's namesakes, William Hanna
and Joseph Barbera
, separated from the MGM studio
in 1957, they opted to take a drastically different approach to animation than they had for their fully animated film shorts; as television screens were much smaller than theater screens at the time, limited animation, with its emphasis on character close-ups and dialogue-based humor, was a better fit for the more intimate home viewer experience. At the time, most feature films (along with animated shorts, including Hanna and Barbera's own work on ''Tom and Jerry
'') were transitioning to the widescreen CinemaScope
process, which made it more difficult to replicate intimacy; The Walt Disney Company
, though they continued to use full animation, had also used character close-ups and personality-driven humor in their early films. When Disney produced ''Lady and the Tramp
'' in CinemaScope, the process made it difficult to replicate that style,
a problem that Hanna-Barbera did not have with smaller, more square television screens.
The financial benefits of limited animation led to television animation companies relying on the process extensively in the television era. Jay Ward Productions
relied on limited animation for those reasons,
compensating with its heavy Cold War
satire and a style of deadpan
comedy that would become a trademark of the studio's style. One of the frequent users of limited animation was HB's Saturday-morning rival Filmation
(makers of ''He-Man and the Masters of the Universe
'' and ''BraveStarr
'') which gave their work a distinct look. Bill Meléndez
used a form of limited animation to adapt the ''Peanuts
'' franchise to television and later film; in addition to the cost and time concerns (especially for his first special ''A Charlie Brown Christmas
'', which was given only a $76,000 budget and four months to produce 30 minutes of animation), Meléndez also noted that ''Peanuts'' creator Charles M. Schulz
had designed the characters with a flat style well-suited for limited animation. The short-lived Cambria Studios
turned out three serials
using one of the most inexpensive approaches to animation possible: known as Syncro-Vox
, it involved superimposing film of the voice actor's moving lips over a still frame of the character.
By the 1970s, the usage of limited animation in Saturday morning cartoon
s had become an epidemic; Walter Williams, creator of ''The Mr. Bill Show
'', noted that cartoons in the 1970s were so static, he expected the artist's hands to enter the screen at any moment and physically start moving the drawings around. This inspired him to create the "Mr. Hands" character in ''The Mr. Bill Show'', who literally did just that.
Limited animation proved to be particularly popular in Japan
, such that the Japanese word for animation, ''anime
'', entered the English lexicon as a loanword
for the distinctive, low-frame rate
style of limited animation that took root there.
[Anime's Great Deception-The Difference Between Anime and Cartoons]
/ref> Anime features scenes of mouth moving with occasional eye blinks, rendered long shots of detailed backgrounds and rare use of 2D fluidity on motion-blur filled action alongside reused drawings. It also has the benefit of lower cost productions and stylized content as opposed to realistic animation.Animation Styles: What Make Anime Unique-Show Me The Animation.com
/ref> As was the case in the United States, television was a major impetus for the growth of anime in Japan; the country's recovery from World War II led to economic prosperity and a boom in Japanese television ownership, and the development of anime allowed Japan to compete in an animation field where they had previously lagged well behind the West.
* Cutout animation
* Flash animation
* Motion comic
* PowerPoint animation
* Stock footage
* UPA (animation studio)
* Adult Swim