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A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provides physical (hard copies documents) or digital access (soft copies) materials, and may be a physical location or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include
printed Printing is a process for mass reproducing text and Printmaking, images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabo ...
materials and other physical resources in many formats such as
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital elect ...

DVD
,
CD
CD
and Cassette as well as access to information, music or other content held on
bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the that int ...
s. A library, which may vary widely in size, may be organized for use and maintained by a public body such as a government, an institution/ schools, a corporation, or a private individual. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of
librarian A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information i ...

librarian
s who are trained and experts at finding, selecting, circulating and organizing information and at interpreting information needs, navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of resources. Library buildings often provide quiet and conducive areas for studying, as well as common areas for group study and collaboration, and may provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources; for instance: computers and access to the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. The library's clientele and therefore the services offered vary depending on its type: users of a
public library A public library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs ...
have different needs from those of a
special library A special library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs o ...
, for example. Libraries may also be community hubs, where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. Modern libraries extend their services beyond the physical walls of a building by providing material accessible by electronic means, including from home via the Internet. Hence managing information in an information world has become very easy simply because information can be provided or being accessed virtually by people who are in remote areas and other places away from the library. The services the library offers are variously described as library services, information services, or the combination "library and information services", although different institutions and sources define such terminology differently.


History

The
history of libraries The history of libraries A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a ...
began with the first efforts to organize collections of documents. The first libraries consisted of
archive An archive is an accumulation of historical records – in any media – or the physical facility in which they are located. Archives contain primary source In the study of history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece An ...

archive
s of the earliest form of writing—the
clay tablet In the Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and sym ...
s in
cuneiform script Cuneiform is a - that was used to write several languages of the . The script was in active use from the early until the beginning of the . It is named for the characteristic wedge-shaped impressions (: ) which form its . Cuneiform was origi ...

cuneiform script
discovered in
Sumer Sumer ()The name is from Akkadian language, Akkadian '; Sumerian language, Sumerian ''kig̃ir'', written and ,approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land". means "native, local", iĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian)from ''The ...

Sumer
, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in
classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (the 5th and 4th centuries BC) in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dar ...
in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the
Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ...
, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...
and
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
. The libraries of
Timbuktu Timbuktu ( ; french: Tombouctou; tmh, label=Tuareg languages, Tuareg, script=Tfng, ⵜⵏⴱⴾⵜ, Tin Buqt; Koyra Chiini: ) is a city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River. The town is the capital of the Tombouctou Region, one of the e ...

Timbuktu
were also established around this time and attracted scholars from all over the world. The
Fatimids The Fatimid Caliphate ( ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْفَاطِمِيَّة , al-Ḫilāfa al-Fāṭimiyya) was an Isma'ilism, Ismaili Shia caliphate of the 10th to the 12th centuries AD. Spanning a large area of North Africa, it range ...

Fatimids
(r. 909-1171) also possessed many great libraries within their domains. The historian Ibn Abi Tayyi’ describes their palace library, which probably contained the largest collection of literature on earth at the time, as a “”. Throughout history, along with bloody massacres, the destruction of libraries has been critical for conquerors who wish to destroy every trace of the vanquished community’s recorded memory. A prominent example of this can be found in the Mongol massacre of the Nizaris at Alamut in 1256 and the torching of their library, “the fame of which,” boasts the conqueror Juwayni, “had spread throughout the world”.


Etymology

The term ''library'' is based on the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
for 'book' or 'document', contained in Latin 'collection of books' and 'container for books'. Other modern languages use derivations from
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
(), originally meaning 'book container', via Latin (
cf. The abbreviation ''cf.'' (short for the la, confer/conferatur, both meaning 'compare') is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed. Style guides recommend that ''cf.'' be used only ...
or
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
).


Changing roles and content

Libraries may provide physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical location or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include
book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of v ...

book
s,
periodicals Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar example is the magazine A magazine is a periodica ...
,
newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments ...

newspaper
s,
manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a or machine for characters. Typically, a typewriter has an array ...

manuscript
s,
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
s,
maps A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meani ...
, prints,
document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', whic ...

document
s,
microform Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either photographic film, films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage, reading, and printing. Microform images are commonly reduced to about 4% or one twenty-fifth ...
,
CDs The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics compri ...

CDs
, ,
videotape Videotape is magnetic tape Magnetic tape is a medium for , made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of . It was developed in Germany in 1928, based on . Devices that record and playback audio and video using magnetic ta ...
s,
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital elect ...

DVD
s, Blu-ray Discs,
e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, ...

e-book
s,
audiobook An audiobook (or a talking book) is a recording of a book or other work being read out loud. A reading of the complete text is described as "unabridged", while readings of a shorter version are an abridgement. Spoken audio has been available in s ...
s,
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
s,
table game Table game has two senses. In a general sense it is any "game played on a table or similar surface, typically with counters, balls, or other playing pieces" as opposed to card games A card game is any game with separate sliding drawer, ...
s,
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s and other formats. Libraries range widely in size, up to millions of items. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. Services offered by a library are variously described as library services, information services, or the combination "library and information services", although different institutions and sources define such terminology differently. Organizations or departments are often called by one of these names. However, in a world that is not static the roles of the libraries is slowly changing in order to suit the changing world, services provided by Libraries has gone an extra mile in supporting research, reference services. Reference services that include Current Awareness Services (CAS), Selective Dissemination Information (SDI) and Telephone Services. Therefore these services creates a conducive environment where library clients have the privilege to interact with the library staff in order to express their view and Information related needs.


Librarians/information specialists

Libraries are usually staffed by a combination of professionally-trained librarians, paraprofessional staff sometimes called
library technicianA library technician or library assistant is a skilled library and information paraprofessional trained to perform the day-to-day functions of a library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made acc ...
s, and support staff. Some topics related to the education of librarians and allied staff include accessibility of the collection, acquisition of materials, arrangement and finding tools, the book trade, the influence of the physical properties of the different writing materials, language distribution, role in education, rates of literacy, budgets, staffing, libraries for specially targeted audiences, architectural merit, patterns of usage, the role of libraries in a nation's cultural heritage, and the role of government, church or private sponsorship. Since the 1960s, issues of computerization and digitization have arisen. Librarians are trained to be updated with trending Information in order relevant Information.


Types

Many institutions make a distinction between a circulating or
lending library A lending library is a library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or electronic media, digital access to m ...
, where materials are expected and intended to be loaned to patrons, institutions, or other libraries, and a reference library where material is not lent out. Travelling libraries, such as the early horseback libraries of eastern Kentucky and bookmobiles, are generally of the lending type. Modern libraries are often a mixture of both, containing a general collection for circulation, and a reference collection which is restricted to the library premises. Also, increasingly, digital collections enable broader access to material that may not circulate in print, and enables libraries to expand their collections even without building a larger facility. Lamba (2019) reinforced this idea by observing that "today’s libraries have become increasingly multi-disciplinary, collaborative and networked" and that applying Web 2.0 tools to libraries would "not only connect the users with their community and enhance communication but will also help the librarians to promote their library’s activities, services, and products to target both their actual and potential users".


Academic libraries

Academic libraries University Library Leiden, the Netherlands, in 1694. La nouvelle bibliothèque, from ''Les delices de Leide, une des célèbres villes de l'Europe'', Leiden: P. van der Aa, 1712 An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher educ ...
are generally located on college and university campuses and primarily serve the students and faculty of that and other academic institutions. Some academic libraries, especially those at public institutions, are accessible to members of the general public in whole or in part. Therefore Library Services are extended to the general public at a fee, most academic libraries create such services in order to mobilize and also to just enhance literacy levels in their own communities. Libraries are known as institutions that enables the improvement of the reading culture in all parts of the world. Academic libraries are libraries that are hosted in post-secondary educational institutions, such as colleges and universities. Their main functions are to provide support in research, consultancy and resource linkage for students and faculty of the educational institution. Academic libraries house current, reliable relevant information resources spread through all the disciplines which serve to assuage the information requirements of students and faculty. However, in cases where not all books are housed Libraries have come up with E-resources, where they subscribe for a given institution they are serving in order to provide backups and also it is not just possible to have all the types of information. furthermore, most Libraries collaborate with other Libraries in exchange of books. Specific course-related resources are usually provided by the library, such as copies of textbooks and article readings held on 'reserve' (meaning that they are loaned out only on a short-term basis, usually a matter of hours). Some academic libraries provide resources not usually associated with libraries, such as the ability to check out laptop computers, web cameras, or scientific calculators. Academic libraries offer workshops and courses outside of formal, graded coursework, which are meant to provide students with the tools necessary to succeed in their programs. These workshops may include help with citations, effective search techniques, journal databases, and electronic citation software. These workshops provide students with skills that can help them achieve success in their academic careers (and often, in their future occupations), which they may not learn inside the classroom. The academic library provides a quiet study space for students on campus; it may also provide group study space, such as meeting rooms. In North America, Europe, and other parts of the world, academic libraries are becoming increasingly digitally oriented. The library provides a "gateway" for students and researchers to access various resources, both print/physical and digital. Academic institutions are subscribing to electronic journals databases, providing research and scholarly writing software, and usually provide computer workstations or computer labs for students to access journals, library search databases and portals, institutional electronic resources, Internet access, and course- or task-related software (i.e. word processing and spreadsheet software). Some academic libraries take on new roles, for instance, acting as an electronic repository for institutional scholarly research and academic knowledge, such as the collection and curation of digital copies of students' theses and dissertations. Moreover, academic libraries are increasingly acting as publishers on their own on a not-for-profit basis, especially in the form of fully
Open Access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

Open Access
institutional publishers.


Children's libraries

Children's libraries are special collections of books intended for juvenile readers and usually kept in separate rooms of general public libraries. Some children's libraries have entire floors or wings dedicated to them in bigger libraries while smaller ones may have a separate room or area for children. They are an educational agency seeking to acquaint the young with the world's literature and to cultivate a love for reading. Their work supplements that of the public schools. Services commonly provided by public libraries may include storytelling sessions for infants, toddlers, preschool children, or after-school programs, all with an intention of developing early literacy skills and a love of books. One of the most popular programs offered in public libraries are summer reading programs for children, families, and adults. Another popular reading program for children is PAWS TO READ or similar programs where children can read to certified therapy dogs. Since animals are a calming influence and there is no judgment, children learn confidence and a love of reading. Many states have these types of programs: parents need simply ask their librarian to see if it is available at their local library.


National libraries

A serves as a national repository of information, and has the right of
legal deposit Legal deposit is a legal requirement that a person or group submit copies of their publications to a repository, usually a library. The number of copies required varies from country to country. Typically, the national library is the primary reposit ...
, which is a legal requirement that publishers in the country need to deposit a copy of each publication with the library. Unlike a public library, a national library rarely allows citizens to borrow books. Often, their collections include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. There are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis on the repository character. The first national libraries had their origins in the royal collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state. Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of people who rely on Library, libraries and information professionals. An independent, non-governmental, not ...
(IFLA) to discuss their common tasks, define and promote common standards, and carry out projects helping them to fulfill their duties. The national libraries of Europe participate in
The European Library The European Library is an Internet service that allows access to the resources of 49 European national libraries and an increasing number of research libraries. Searching is free and delivers metadata records as well as digital objects, mostly ...
which is a service of the Conference of European National Librarians (CENL).


Public lending libraries

A public library provides services to the general public. If the library is part of a countywide library system, citizens with an active library card from around that county can use the library branches associated with the library system. A library can serve only their city, however, if they are not a member of the county public library system. Much of the materials located within a public library are available for borrowing. The library staff decides upon the number of items patrons are allowed to borrow, as well as the details of borrowing time allotted. Typically, libraries issue
library card A library card can refer to several cards traditionally used for the management of books and patrons in a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It ...

library card
s to community members wishing to borrow books. Often visitors to a city are able to obtain a public library card. Many public libraries also serve as community organizations that provide free services and events to the public, such as reading groups and toddler story time. For many communities, the library is a source of connection to a vast world, obtainable knowledge and understanding, and entertainment. According to a study by the
Pennsylvania Library Association The Pennsylvania Library Association (PaLA) is the professional association A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) seeks to advocacy, further a particular profession, th ...
, public library services play a major role in fighting rising illiteracy rates among youths. Public libraries are protected and funded by the public they serve. As the number of books in libraries have steadily increased since their inception, the need for compact storage and access with adequate lighting has grown. The '' stack system'' involves keeping a library's collection of books in a space separate from the reading room. This arrangement arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also supported the floors, which often were built of translucent blocks to permit the passage of light (but were not transparent, for reasons of modesty). The introduction of electrical lighting had a huge impact on how the library operated. The use of glass floors was largely discontinued, though floors were still often composed of metal grating to allow air to circulate in multi-story stacks. As more space was needed, a method of moving shelves on tracks (compact shelving) was introduced to cut down on otherwise wasted aisle space.
Library 2.0 Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physica ...
, a term coined in 2005, is the library's response to the challenge of Google and an attempt to meet the changing needs of users by using
web 2.0 Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web page A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008. ...

web 2.0
technology. Some of the aspects of Library 2.0 include, commenting, tagging, bookmarking, discussions, use of online social networks by libraries,
plug-ins Plug-in, plug in or plugin may refer to: * Plug-in (computing), a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program. ** Audio plug-in, adds audio signal processing features * Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle * Plug-in e ...
, and
widgets Widget is a placeholder name for an Widget (economics), unnamed, unspecified, or hypothetical manufactured good or product. The word was coined by in his play ' (1924). This meaning has been extended in various ways: Technology Computing * Soft ...
. Inspired by web 2.0, it is an attempt to make the library a more user-driven institution. Despite the importance of public libraries, they are routinely having their budgets cut by state legislature. Funding has dwindled so badly that many public libraries have been forced to cut their hours and release employees.


Reference libraries

A reference library does not lend books and other items; instead, they can only be read at the library itself. Typically, such libraries are used for
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...
purposes, for example at a university. Some items at reference libraries may be historical and even unique. Many lending libraries contain a "reference section", which holds books, such as dictionaries, which are common reference books, and are therefore not lent out. Such reference sections may be referred to as "reading rooms", which may also include newspapers and periodicals. An example of a reading room is the Hazel H. Ransom Reading Room at the
Harry Ransom Center Harry may refer to: TV shows * ''Harry'' (American TV series), a 1987 American comedy series starring Alan Arkin * ''Harry'' (British TV series), a 1993 BBC drama that ran for two seasons * ''Harry'' (talk show), a 2016 American daytime talk sho ...
of the
University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin, UT, or Texas) is a public university, public research university in Austin, Texas, founded in 1883. The University of Texas was included in the Association of American Universities in 1929. The i ...
, which maintains the papers of literary agent Audrey Wood."Audrey Wood: An Inventory of Her Collection at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center."
''www.hrc.utexas.edu''. Retrieved 22 April 2015.


Research libraries

A research library is a collection of materials on one or more subjects. A research library supports scholarly or scientific research and will generally include
primary Primary or primaries may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music Groups and labels * Primary (band), from Australia * Primary (musician), hip hop musician and record producer from South Korea * Primary Music, Israeli record label Works * ...

primary
as well as
secondary source In scholarship A scholarship is an award of Student financial aid, financial aid for a student to further their education at a private elementary or secondary school, or a private or public post-secondary college, university, or other academi ...
s; it will maintain permanent collections and attempt to provide access to all necessary materials. A research library is most often an
academic An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, secondary or tertiary education, tertiary higher education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership. Academia is the ...
or
national library A national library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's need ...

national library
, but a large
special library A special library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs o ...
may have a research library within its special field, and a very few of the largest public libraries also serve as research libraries. A large university library may be considered a research library; and in North America, such libraries may belong to the
Association of Research Libraries The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comp ...
. In the United Kingdom, they may be members of Research Libraries UK (RLUK). A research library can be either a reference library, which does not lend its holdings, or a lending library, which does lend all or some of its holdings. Some extremely large or traditional research libraries are entirely reference in this sense, lending none of their materials; most academic research libraries, at least in the US and the UK, now lend books, but not periodicals or other materials. Many research libraries are attached to a parental organization and serve only members of that organization. Examples of research libraries include the
British Library The British Library is the national library A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public library, public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow book ...

British Library
, the
Bodleian Library The Bodleian Library () is the main research library A research library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housi ...

Bodleian Library
at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...
and the
New York Public Library Main Branch The Stephen A. Schwarzman Building, commonly known as the Main Branch or the New York Public Library, is the flagship building in the New York Public Library system and a landmark in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The branch, one of four Rese ...
on 42nd Street in Manhattan, State Public Scientific Technological Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science.


Digital libraries

Digital libraries are libraries that house digital resources. They are defined as an organization and not a service that provide access to digital works, have a preservation responsibility to provide future access to materials, and provides these items easily and affordably. The definition of a digital library implies that "a digital library uses a variety of software, networking technologies and standards to facilitate access to digital content and data to a designated user community." Access to digital libraries can be influenced by several factors, either individually or together. The most common factors that influence access are: The library's content, the characteristics and information needs of the target users, the library's digital interface, the goals and objectives of the library's organizational structure, and the standards and regulations that govern library use. Access will depend on the users ability to discover and retrieve documents that interest them and that they require, which in turn is a preservation question. Digital objects cannot be preserved passively, they must be curated by digital librarians to ensure the trust and integrity of the digital objects. One of the biggest considerations for digital librarians is the need to provide long-term access to their resources; to do this, there are two issues requiring watchfulness: Media failure and format obsolescence. With media failure, a particular digital item is unusable because of some sort of error or problem. A scratched CD-ROM, for example, will not display its contents correctly, but another, unscratched disk will not have that problem. Format obsolescence is when a digital format has been superseded by newer technology, and so items in the old format are unreadable and unusable. Dealing with media failure is a reactive process, because something is done only when a problem presents itself. In contrast, format obsolescence is preparatory, because changes are anticipated and solutions are sought before there is a problem. Future trends in digital preservation include: Transparent enterprise models for digital preservation, launch of self-preserving objects, increased flexibility in digital preservation architectures, clearly defined metrics for comparing preservation tools, and terminology and standards interoperability in real time.


Special libraries

All other libraries fall into the "
special library A special library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs o ...
" category. Many private businesses and public organizations, including hospitals, churches, museums, research laboratories, law firms, and many government departments and agencies, maintain their own libraries for the use of their employees in doing specialized research related to their work. Depending on the particular institution, special libraries may or may not be accessible to the general public or elements thereof. In more specialized institutions such as law firms and research laboratories, librarians employed in special libraries are commonly specialists in the institution's field rather than generally trained librarians, and often are not required to have advanced degrees in a specifically library-related field due to the specialized content and clientele of the library. Special libraries can also include women's libraries or LGBTQ libraries, which serve the needs of women and the LGBTQ community. Libraries and the LGBTQ community have an extensive history, and there are currently many libraries, archives, and special collections devoted to preserving and helping the LGBTQ community. Women's libraries, such as the Vancouver Women's Library or the Women's Library @LSE are examples of women's libraries that offer services to women and girls and focus on women's history. Some special libraries, such as governmental law libraries, hospital libraries, and military base libraries commonly are open to public visitors to the institution in question. Depending on the particular library and the clientele it serves, special libraries may offer services similar to research, reference, public, academic, or children's libraries, often with restrictions such as only lending books to patients at a hospital or restricting the public from parts of a military collection. Given the highly individual nature of special libraries, visitors to a special library are often advised to check what services and restrictions apply at that particular library. Special libraries are distinguished from special collections, which are branches or parts of a library intended for rare books, manuscripts, and other special materials, though some special libraries have special collections of their own, typically related to the library's specialized subject area. For more information on specific types of special libraries, see
law libraries Leo T. Kissam Memorial Library, the law library of the federal depository library A law library is a special library used by Legal education, law students, lawyers, judges and their law clerks, historians and other scholars of legal history i ...
,
medical librariesA health or medical library is designed to assist physicians, health professionals, students, patients, consumers, medical researchers, and Informationist, information specialists in finding health and scientific information to improve, update, asses ...
, , or
transportation libraries A transportation library is a type of library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet th ...
.


Organization

Most libraries have materials arranged in a specified order according to a
library classification A library classification is a system of knowledge organization by which library resources are arranged and ordered systematically. Library classifications a notational system that represents the order of topics in the classification and allows i ...
system, so that items may be located quickly and collections may be browsed efficiently. Some libraries have additional galleries beyond the public ones, where reference materials are stored. These reference stacks may be open to selected members of the public. Others require patrons to submit a "stack request", which is a request for an assistant to retrieve the material from the closed stacks: see List of closed stack libraries (in progress). Larger libraries are often divided into departments staffed by both paraprofessionals and professional librarians. * Circulation (or Access Services) – Handles user accounts and the loaning/returning and shelving of materials. *
Collection Development Library collection development is the process of systematically building the collection of a particular library to meet the information needs of the library users (a service population) in a timely and economical manner using information resources ...
– Orders materials and maintains materials budgets. * Reference – Staffs a
reference desk Librarian, Ballard Carnegie Library, Seattle, Washington ca. 1907 The reference desk or information desk of a library is a public service counter where professional librarians provide library users with direction to library materials, advice on ...
answering questions from users (using structured reference interviews), instructing users, and developing library programming. Reference may be further broken down by user groups or materials; common collections are
children's literature Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are created for children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's ...

children's literature
,
young adult literature Young adult fiction (YA) is a category of fiction written for readers from 12 to 18 years of age. While the genre is targeted at adolescents, approximately half of YA readers are adults. The subject matter and genres of YA correlate with the age ...
, and
genealogy Genealogy (from el, γενεαλογία ' "study of family trees") is the study of families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinit ...

genealogy
materials. * Technical Services – Works behind the scenes cataloging and processing new materials and deaccessioning weeded materials. * Stacks Maintenance – Re-shelves materials that have been returned to the library after patron use and shelves materials that have been processed by Technical Services. Stacks Maintenance also shelf reads the material in the stacks to ensure that it is in the correct library classification order. Basic tasks in
library management Library management is a sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses on specific issues faced by libraries and library management professionals. Library management encompasses normal managerial tasks, as well as intellectual freedom Int ...
include the planning of acquisitions (which materials the library should acquire, by purchase or otherwise), library classification of acquired materials, preservation of materials (especially rare and fragile archival materials such as manuscripts), the deaccessioning of materials, patron borrowing of materials, and developing and administering library computer systems. More long-term issues include the planning of the construction of new libraries or extensions to existing ones, and the development and implementation of outreach services and reading-enhancement services (such as adult literacy and children's programming). Library materials like books, magazines, periodicals, CDs, etc. are managed by Dewey Decimal Classification Theory and modified Dewey Decimal Classification Theory is more practical reliable system for library materials management. The
International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic discipline ...
(ISO) has published several standards regarding the management of libraries through its Technical Committee 46 (TC 46), which is focused on "libraries, documentation and information centers, publishing, archives, records management, museum documentation, indexing and abstracting services, and information science". The following is a partial list of some of them: * ISO 2789:2006 Information and documentation—International library statistics * ISO 11620:1998 Information and documentation—Library performance indicators * ISO 11799:2003 Information and documentation—Document storage requirements for archive and library materials * ISO 14416:2003 Information and documentation—Requirements for binding of books, periodicals, serials, and other paper documents for archive and library use—Methods and materials * ISO/TR 20983:2003 Information and documentation—Performance indicators for electronic library services


Buildings

Librarians have sometimes complained that some of the library buildings which have been used to accommodate libraries have been inadequate for the demands made upon them. In general, this condition may have resulted from one or more of the following causes: * an effort to erect a
monument A monument is a type of structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to ...

monument
al building; most of those who commission library buildings are not librarians and their priorities may be different * to conform it to a type of
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
unsuited to library purposes * the appointment, often by competition, of an architect unschooled in the requirements of a library * failure to consult with the librarian or with library experts Much advancement has undoubtedly been made toward cooperation between architect and librarian, and many good designers have made library buildings their specialty; nevertheless it seems that the ideal type of library is not yet realized—the type so adapted to its purpose that it would be immediately recognized as such, as is the case with school buildings. This does not mean that library constructions should conform rigidly to a fixed standard of appearance and arrangement, but it does mean that the exterior should express as nearly as possible the purpose and functions of the interior.


Usage

Some patrons may not know how to fully use the library's resources. This can be due to individuals' unease in approaching a staff member. Ways in which a library's content is displayed or accessed may have the most impact on use. An antiquated or clumsy search system, or staff unwilling or untrained to engage their patrons, will limit a library's usefulness. In the
public libraries A public library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs o ...
of the United States, beginning in the 19th century, these problems drove the emergence of the
library instructionLibrary instruction, also called bibliographic instruction, user education and library orientation, consists of "instructional programs designed to teach library users how to locate the information they need quickly and effectively. tusually covers ...
movement, which advocated library user education. One of the early leaders was
John Cotton Dana John Cotton Dana (born August 19, 1856 in Woodstock, Vermont Woodstock is the shire town (county seat) of Windsor County, Vermont, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the town population was 3,048. It includes the vi ...
. The basic form of library instruction is sometimes known as
information literacy The Association of College & Research Libraries The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), a division of the American Library Association, is a professional association of academic librarians and other interested individuals. It ...
. Libraries should inform their users of what materials are available in their collections and how to access that information. Before the computer age, this was accomplished by the card
catalogue Catalog or catalogue may refer to: *Cataloging **in Science and technology ***Library catalog, a catalog of books and other media **** Union catalog, a combined library catalog describing the collections of a number of libraries ***Astronomical ca ...
—a cabinet (or multiple cabinets) containing many drawers filled with
index card An index card (or record card in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codifica ...
s that identified books and other materials. In a large library, the card catalogue often filled a large room. The emergence of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
, however, has led to the adoption of electronic catalogue databases (often referred to as "webcats" or as online public access catalogues, OPACs), which allow users to search the library's holdings from any location with Internet access. This style of catalogue maintenance is compatible with new types of libraries, such as digital libraries and distributed libraries, as well as older libraries that have been
retrofitted Retrofitting is the addition of new technology or features to older systems, for example: * power plant retrofit, improving power plant efficiency, increasing output or reducing emissions * home energy retrofit, the improving of existing buildings ...
. Large libraries may be scattered within multiple buildings across a town, each having multiple floors, with multiple rooms housing their resources across a series of shelves called
bays A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a Gulf (geography), gulf, sea, sound (geography), sound, or bight (geogr ...
. Once a user has located a resource within the catalogue, they must then use navigational guidance to retrieve the resource physically, a process that may be assisted through signage, maps,
GPS The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national ...

GPS
systems, or
RFID Radio-frequency identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic field An electromagnetic field (also EM field or EMF) is a classical (i.e. non-quantum) field Field may refer to: Expanses of open ground * Field (agriculture), an area of land used fo ...

RFID
tagging.
Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, Norway to the north, and is defined by the Gulf of B ...

Finland
has the highest number of registered book borrowers per capita in the world. Over half of Finland's population are registered borrowers. In the US, public library users have borrowed on average roughly 15 books per user per year from 1856 to 1978. From 1978 to 2004, book circulation per user declined approximately 50%. The growth of audiovisuals circulation, estimated at 25% of total circulation in 2004, accounts for about half of this decline.


Shift to digital libraries

In the 21st century, there has been increasing use of the Internet to gather and retrieve data. The shift to digital libraries has greatly impacted the way people use physical libraries. Between 2002 and 2004, the average American academic library saw the overall number of transactions decline approximately 2.2%. Libraries are trying to keep up with the digital world and the new generation of students that are used to having information just one click away. For example, the University of California Library System saw a 54% decline in circulation between 1991 and 2001 of 8,377,000 books to 3,832,000. These facts might be a consequence of the increased availability of e-resources. In 1999–2000, 105 ARL university libraries spent almost $100 million on electronic resources, which is an increase of nearly $23 million from the previous year. A 2003 report by the Open E-book Forum found that close to a million e-books had been sold in 2002, generating nearly $8 million in revenue. Another example of the shift to digital libraries can be seen in
Cushing Academy Cushing Academy is a private, coeducational college-preparatory school for boarding and day A day is approximately the period during which the Earth completes one rotation around its axis, which takes around 24 hours. A solar day is the len ...
's decision to dispense with its library of printed books—more than 20,000 volumes in all—and switch over entirely to digital media resources. A 2001 discussion paper exploring changing use of libraries reported decreased library usage by undergraduate students, who had become more used to retrieving information from the Internet than a traditional library. Finding information by simply searching the Internet is seen as easier and faster than reading an entire book. In a survey conducted by NetLibrary, 93% of undergraduate students said that finding information online made more sense to them than going to the library. Three-quarters said they did not have enough time to go to the library. While the retrieving information from the Internet may be efficient and time-saving than visiting a traditional library, research showed that undergraduates are most likely searching only .03% of the entire web. In the mid-2000s, Swedish company Distec invented a library book vending machine known as the
GoLibrary GoLibrary or Library-a-Go-Go (Swedish: ''Bokomaten'') is a book lending vending machine used by libraries in Sweden and the U.S. state of California.
, that offers library books to people where there is no branch, limited hours, or high traffic locations such as El Cerrito del Norte BART station in
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
.


The Internet

A library may make use of the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
in a number of ways, from creating their own library website to making the contents of its catalogues searchable online. Some specialised search engines such as
Google Scholar Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Compu ...
offer a way to facilitate searching for academic resources such as journal articles and research papers. The
Online Computer Library Center OCLC, Inc., doing business as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or alias () is a fictitious name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose ...
allows anyone to search the world's largest repository of library records through its
WorldCat #REDIRECT WorldCat#REDIRECT WorldCat WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 15,600 libraries A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community ...
online database.Grossman, W. M. (2009). "Why you can't find a library book in your search engine". ''The Guardian''.
Accessed: 23 March 2010
Websites such as
LibraryThing LibraryThing is a social cataloging web application A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system An operating system ...
and
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...
provide abstracts, reviews, and recommendations of books. Libraries provide computers and Internet access to allow people to search for information online. Online information access is particularly attractive to younger library users.
Digitization DigitizationTech Target. (2011, April). Definition: digitization. ''WhatIs.com''. Retrieved December 15, 2021, from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/digitization is the process of converting information into a digital Digital usuall ...
of books, particularly those that are
out-of-print An out-of-print (OOP) or out-of-commerce item or work, is something that is no longer being published. The term applies to all types of printed matter, visual media, sound recordings, and video Video is an electronic medium for the reco ...
, in projects such as
Google Books Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its code-name Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet ...
provides resources for library and other online users. Due to their holdings of valuable material, some libraries are important partners for search engines such as
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
in realizing the potential of such projects and have received reciprocal benefits in cases where they have negotiated effectively.Darnton, R. (2009). "Google & the Future of Books". ''New York Review of Books''; 55 (2).
Accessed: 23 March 2010
As the prominence of and reliance on the Internet has grown, library services have moved the emphasis from mainly providing print resources to providing more computers and more
Internet access Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the using s, s, and other devices; and to access services such as and the . Internet access is sold by s (ISPs) delivering connectivity at a wide range of via vari ...
. Libraries face a number of challenges in adapting to new ways of information seeking that may stress convenience over quality, reducing the priority of
information literacy The Association of College & Research Libraries The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), a division of the American Library Association, is a professional association of academic librarians and other interested individuals. It ...
skills. The potential decline in library usage, particularly reference services, puts the necessity for these services in doubt. Library scholars have acknowledged that libraries need to address the ways that they market their services if they are to compete with the Internet and mitigate the risk of losing users. This includes promoting the information literacy skills training considered vital across the library profession. Many US based research librarians rely on the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in order to guide students and faculty in research. However, marketing of services has to be adequately supported financially in order to be successful. This can be problematic for library services that are publicly funded and find it difficult to justify diverting tight funds to apparently peripheral areas such as branding and marketing. The
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...

privacy
aspect of library usage in the Internet age is a matter of growing concern and advocacy; privacy workshops are run by the Library Freedom Project which teach librarians about digital tools (such as the Tor (network), Tor network) to thwart mass surveillance.


Associations

The
International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is the leading international body representing the interests of people who rely on Library, libraries and information professionals. An independent, non-governmental, not ...
(IFLA) is the leading international association of library organisations. It is the global voice of the library and information profession, and its annual conference provides a venue for librarians to learn from one another. Library associations in Asia include the Indian Library Association (ILA), Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centers (IASLIC), Bengal Library Association (BLA), Kolkata, Pakistan Library Association, the Pakistan Librarians Welfare Organization, the Bangladesh Association of Librarians, Information Scientists and Documentalists, the Library Association of Bangladesh, and the Sri Lanka Library Association (founded 1960). National associations of the English-speaking world include the American Library Association, the Australian Library and Information Association, the Canadian Library Association, the LIANZA, Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa, and the Research Libraries UK (a consortium of 30 university and other research libraries in the United Kingdom). Library bodies such as Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals, CILIP (formerly the Library Association, founded 1877) may advocate the role that libraries and librarians can play in a modern Internet environment, and in the teaching of
information literacy The Association of College & Research Libraries The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), a division of the American Library Association, is a professional association of academic librarians and other interested individuals. It ...
skills. The Nigerian Library Association is the recognized group for librarians working in Nigeria. It was established in 1962 in Ibadan. Public library advocacy is support given to a public library for its financial and philosophical goals or needs. Most often this takes the form of monetary or material donations or campaigning to the institutions which oversee the library, sometimes by advocacy groups such as Friends of Libraries and community members. Originally, library advocacy was centered on the library itself, but current trends show libraries positioning themselves to demonstrate they provide "economic value to the community" in means that are not directly related to the checking out of books and other media.


International protection

Libraries are considered part of the cultural heritage and are one of the primary objectives in many state and domestic conflicts and are at risk of destruction and looting. Financing is often carried out by robbing valuable library items. National and international coordination regarding military and civil structures for the protection of libraries is operated by Blue Shield International and UNESCO. From an international perspective, despite the partial dissolution of state structures and very unclear security situations as a result of the wars and unrest, robust undertakings to protect libraries are being carried out. The topic is also the creation of "no-strike lists", in which the coordinates of important cultural monuments such as libraries have been preserved.Eden Stiffman: ''Cultural Preservation in Disasters, War Zones. Presents Big Challenges.'' In: ''The Chronicle of Philanthropy.'' 11 May 2015.


See also


Lists of libraries


References


Further reading

* Barnard, T.D.F. (ed.) (1967). ''Library Buildings: design and fulfilment; papers read at the Week-end Conference of the London and Home Counties Branch of the Library Association, held at Hastings, 21–23 April 1967''. London: Library Association (London and Home Counties Branch) * Terry Belanger. ''Lunacy & the Arrangement of Books'', New Castle, Del.: Oak Knoll Books, 1983; 3rd ptg 2003, * Bieri, Susanne & Fuchs, Walther (2001). ''Bibliotheken bauen: Tradition und Vision = Building for Books: traditions and visions''. Basel: Birkhäuser * Ellsworth, Ralph E. (1973). ''Academic Library Buildings: a guide to architectural issues and solutions''. 530 pp. Boulder: Associated University Press * Fraley, Ruth A. & Anderson, Carol Lee (1985). ''Library Space Planning: how to assess, allocate, and reorganize collections, resources, and physical facilities''. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers * * Irwin, Raymond (1947). ''The National Library Service [of the United Kingdom]''. London: Grafton & Co. x, 96 p. * Lewanski, Richard C. (1967). ''Lilbrary Directories [and] Library Science Dictionaries'', in ''Bibliography and Reference Series'', no. 4. 1967 ed. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press. ''N.B''.: Publisher also named as the "American Bibliographical Center". * Robert K. Logan with Marshall McLuhan. ''The Future of the Library: From Electric Media to Digital Media. New York: Peter Lang Publishing. * Mason, Ellsworth (1980). ''Mason on Library Buildings''. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press * Monypenny, Phillip, and Guy Garrison (1966). ''The Library Functions of the States [i.e. the US]: Commentary on the Survey of Library Functions of the States'', [under the auspices of the] Survey and Standard Committee [of the] American Association of State Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association. xiii, 178 p. * * Orr, J.M. (1975). ''Designing Library Buildings for Activity''; 2nd ed. London: Andre Deutsch * Thompson, Godfrey (1973). ''Planning and Design of Library Buildings''. London: Architectural Press


External links

*
LIBweb
Directory of library servers in 146 countries via WWW
Centre for the History of the Book
hss.ed.ac.uk * ''The Free Library'' *
Libraries: Frequently Asked Questions
ibiblio.org
''A Library Primer''
by
John Cotton Dana John Cotton Dana (born August 19, 1856 in Woodstock, Vermont Woodstock is the shire town (county seat) of Windsor County, Vermont, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the town population was 3,048. It includes the vi ...
, 1903, setting out the basics of organizing and running a library. (from Project Gutenberg) {{Authority control Libraries, Library science Book promotion