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Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as
facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used to check facts. Science, Scientific ...
(
descriptive knowledgeIn epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (epistemology), justification, the Reason, ...
),
skills A skill is the learned ability to perform an action with determined results with good execution often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the ...

skills
(
procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge (also known as knowing-how, and sometimes referred to as practical knowledge, imperative knowledge, or performative knowledge) is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Unlike descriptive knowledgeIn epistemolo ...
), or objects (
acquaintance knowledge In philosophy, a distinction is often made between two different kinds of knowledge: knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. Whereas knowledge by description is something like ordinary propositional knowledge (e.g. "I know that sn ...
) contributing to ones
understanding Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical thing, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to use concepts to model that thing. Understanding is a relation between the knower and an object of u ...

understanding
. By most accounts, knowledge can be acquired in many different ways and from many sources, including but not limited to
perception Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...

perception
,
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
,
memory Memory is the faculty of the by which or is , stored, and retrieved when needed. It is the retention of information over time for the purpose of influencing future action. If s could not be remembered, it would be impossible for language, r ...

memory
,
testimony In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. Etymology The words "testimony" and "testify" both derive from the Latin word ''testis'', referring to the notion of a disinterested Third-party source, thir ...
,
scientific inquiry Models of scientific inquiry have two functions: first, to provide a descriptive account of ''how'' scientific inquiry is carried out in practice, and second, to provide an explanatory account of ''why'' scientific inquiry succeeds as well as it app ...
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
, and practice. The
philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real o ...

philosophical
study of knowledge is called
epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ...

epistemology
. The term "knowledge" can refer to a theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); formal or informal; systematic or particular. The philosopher
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thoug ...

Plato
argued that there was a distinction between knowledge and true belief in the ''Theaetetus'', leading many to attribute to him a definition of knowledge as "
justified true belief A belief is an attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition In linguistics and logic, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguist ...
"., Chapter 7, pp. 95–101. The difficulties with this definition raised by the
Gettier problem The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (episte ...
have been the subject of extensive debate in epistemology for more than half a century.


Theories of knowledge

Knowledge is the primary subject of the field of
epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ...

epistemology
, which studies what we know, how we come to know it, and what it means to know something. Defining knowledge is an important aspect of epistemology, because it does not suffice to have a belief; one must also have good reasons for that belief, because otherwise there would be no reason to prefer one belief over another. The definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among epistemologists. The classical definition, described but not ultimately endorsed by
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thoug ...

Plato
, specifies that a
statement Statement or statements may refer to: Common uses *Statement (computer science), the smallest standalone element of an imperative programming language *Statement (logic), declarative sentence that is either true or false *Statement, a Sentence_(lin ...
must meet three
criteria Criterion, or its plural form criteria, may refer to: General * Criterion, Oregon, a historic unincorporated community in the United States * Criterion Place, a proposed skyscraper in West Yorkshire, England * Criterion Restaurant, in London, Engl ...
in order to be considered knowledge: it must be
justified Justified may refer to: * Justified (album), ''Justified'' (album), an album by Justin Timberlake * Justified (song), "Justified" (song), a single by Kacey Musgraves * Justified (TV series), ''Justified'' (TV series), an American television drama ...
,
true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things that aim to represent reality or otherw ...

true
, and
believed
believed
. Epistemologists today generally agree that these conditions are not sufficient, as various
Gettier case The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (episte ...
s are thought to demonstrate. There are a number of alternative definitions which have been proposed, including
Robert Nozick Robert Nozick (; November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lov ...
's proposal that all instances of knowledge must 'track the truth' and
Simon Blackburn Simon Blackburn (born 12 July 1944) is an English academic philosopher known for his work in Meta-ethics, metaethics, where he defends quasi-realism, and in the philosophy of language; more recently, he has gained a large general audience from ...

Simon Blackburn
's proposal that those who have a justified true belief 'through a defect, flaw, or failure' fail to have knowledge.
Richard Kirkham Richard Ladd Kirkham (born June 18, 1955) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), common ...
suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the evidence for the belief necessitates its truth. In contrast to this approach,
Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein ( ; ; 26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationali ...

Ludwig Wittgenstein
observed, following
Moore's paradox Moore's paradox concerns the apparent absurdity involved in asserting a first-person present-tense sentence such as "It is raining, but I do not believe that it is raining" or "It is raining, but I believe that it is not raining." The first author ...
, that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it, but it isn't so." He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. For example, on this account, to ''know'' that the kettle is boiling is not to be in a particular state of mind, but to perform a particular task with the statement that the kettle is boiling. Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way "knowledge" is used in natural languages. He saw knowledge as a case of a
family resemblance Family resemblance (german: Familienähnlichkeit, link=no) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein ( ; ; 26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austri ...
. Following this idea, "knowledge" has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out relevant features but that is not adequately captured by any definition.


Self-knowledge

“Self-knowledge” usually refers to a person's knowledge of their own sensations, thoughts, beliefs, and other mental states. A number of questions regarding self-knowledge have been the subject of extensive debates in philosophy, including whether self-knowledge differs from other types of knowledge, whether we have privileged self-knowledge compared to knowledge of other minds, and the nature of our acquaintance with ourselves.
David Hume David Hume (; born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) Cranston, Maurice, and Thomas Edmund Jessop. 2020 999999 or triple nine most often refers to: * 999 (emergency telephone number) 250px, A sign on a beach ...

David Hume
expressed skepticism about whether we could ever have self-knowledge over and above our immediate awareness of a "bundle of perceptions", which was part of his broader skepticism about
personal identity 300px, What does it take for a person to persist from moment to moment—for the same person to exist at different moments? Personal identity is the unique numerical identity In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of genera ...
.


The value of knowledge

It is generally assumed that knowledge is more valuable than mere true belief. If so, what is the explanation? A formulation of the value problem in epistemology first occurs in Plato's Meno. Socrates points out to Meno that a man who knew the way to Larissa could lead others there correctly. But so, too, could a man who had true beliefs about how to get there, even if he had not gone there or had any knowledge of Larissa. Socrates says that it seems that both knowledge and true opinion can guide action. Meno then wonders why knowledge is valued more than true belief and why knowledge and true belief are different. Socrates responds that knowledge is more valuable than mere true belief because it is tethered or justified. Justification, or working out the reason for a true belief, locks down true belief. The problem is to identify what (if anything) makes knowledge more valuable than mere true belief, or that makes knowledge more valuable than a mere minimal conjunction of its components, such as justification, safety, sensitivity, statistical likelihood, and anti-Gettier conditions, on a particular analysis of knowledge that conceives of knowledge as divided into components (to which knowledge-first epistemological theories, which posit knowledge as fundamental, are notable exceptions). The value problem re-emerged in the philosophical literature on epistemology in the twenty-first century following the rise of
virtue epistemology Virtue epistemology is a contemporary philosophy, philosophical approach to epistemology that stresses the importance of intellectual and specifically epistemic virtues. A distinguishing factor of virtue theories is that they use for the evaluation ...
in the 1980s, partly because of the obvious link to the concept of value in ethics. In contemporary philosophy, epistemologists including
Ernest Sosa Ernest Sosa (born June 17, 1940) is an American philosopher primarily interested in epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope ...
,
John Greco John Patrick Greco, Jr. (born March 24, 1985) is a former American football guard (American and Canadian football), guard. He was drafted by the St. Louis Rams in the third round of the 2008 NFL Draft. He played college football at the Universit ...
,
Jonathan Kvanvig Jonathan Lee Kvanvig (born December 7, 1954) is Professor of Philosophy at Washington University in St. Louis. Kvanvig has published extensively in areas such as epistemology, philosophy of religion, logic, and philosophy of language. Some of his ...
,
Linda Zagzebski Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski (born 1946) is an American philosopher. She is the George Lynn Cross Research Professor, as well as Kingfisher College Chair of the Philosophy of Religion and Ethics, at the University of Oklahoma. She writes in the areas ...
, and Duncan Pritchard have defended virtue epistemology as a solution to the value problem. They argue that epistemology should also evaluate the "properties" of people as epistemic agents (i.e. intellectual virtues), rather than merely the properties of propositions and propositional mental attitudes.


Scientific knowledge

The development of the
scientific method The scientific method is an empirical Empirical evidence for a proposition is evidence, i.e. what supports or counters this proposition, that is constituted by or accessible to sense experience or experimental procedure. Empirical evidence ...

scientific method
has made a significant contribution to how knowledge of the physical world and its phenomena is acquired. To be termed scientific, a method of
inquiry An inquiry (also spelled as enquiry in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon E ...

inquiry
must be based on gathering
observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through ...
and
measurable In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...

measurable
evidence Evidence for a proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence (linguistics), sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by a ...

evidence
subject to specific principles of
reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ...

reasoning
and experimentation. The scientific method consists of the collection of
data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ...

data
through
observation Observation is the active acquisition of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. Th ...

observation
and
experiment An experiment is a procedure carried out to support or refute a hypothesis, or determine the efficacy or likelihood of something previously untried. Experiments provide insight into Causality, cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome oc ...

experiment
ation, and the formulation and testing of
hypotheses A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation An explanation is a set of statements usually constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context Context may refer to: * Context (language use), the rel ...

hypotheses
. Science, and the nature of scientific knowledge have also become the subject of
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ...
. As science itself has developed, scientific knowledge now includes a broader usage in the soft sciences such as biology and the
social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist o ...

social science
s – discussed elsewhere as meta-epistemology, or
genetic epistemology Genetic epistemology or 'developmental theory of knowledge' is a study of the origins (genesis) of knowledge (epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study t ...
, and to some extent related to "
theory of cognitive development Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual ...
". Note that "
epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ...

epistemology
" is the study of knowledge and how it is acquired. Science is "the process used everyday to logically complete thoughts through inference of facts determined by calculated experiments."
Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), also known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord ...

Sir Francis Bacon
was critical in the historical development of the scientific method; his works established and popularized an inductive methodology for scientific inquiry. His aphorism, "
knowledge is power seal with its motto The phrase "" (or "" or also "") is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, kno ...
", is found in the Meditations Sacrae (1597). Until recent times, at least in the Western tradition, it was simply taken for granted that knowledge was something possessed only by humans – and probably ''adult'' humans at that. Sometimes the notion might stretch to ''Society-as-such'', as in (e. g.) "the knowledge possessed by the Coptic culture" (as opposed to its individual members), but that was not assured either. Nor was it usual to consider ''unconscious'' knowledge in any systematic way until this approach was popularized by
Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine Me ...

Freud
.


Situated knowledge

Situated knowledge is knowledge specific to a particular situation. It was used by
Donna Haraway Donna J. Haraway (born September 6, 1944) is an American Professor Emeritus, Emerita in the History of Consciousness Department and Feminist studies, Feminist Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz, United States. She is a ...
as an extension of the
feminist Feminism is a range of social movements and ideology, ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social gender equality, equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that societies priori ...

feminist
approaches of "successor science" suggested by
Sandra Harding Sandra G. Harding (born 1935) is an United States, American philosopher of Feminist philosophy, feminist and postcolonial theory, epistemology, research methodology, and philosophy of science. She directed the UCLA Center for the Study of Women f ...
, one which "offers a more adequate, richer, better account of a world, in order to live in it well and in critical, reflexive relation to our own as well as others' practices of domination and the unequal parts of privilege and oppression that makes up all positions."Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective
. Haraway, Donna. ''Feminist Studies'' Vol. 14, No. 3. pp. 575–599. 1988.
This situation partially transforms science into a
narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a written Writing is a medium of human communication Comm ...

narrative
, which Arturo Escobar explains as, "neither fictions nor supposed facts." This narrative of situation is historical textures woven of fact and fiction, and as Escobar explains further, "even the most neutral scientific domains are narratives in this sense," insisting that rather than a purpose dismissing science as a trivial matter of contingency, "it is to treat (this narrative) in the most serious way, without succumbing to its mystification as 'the truth' or to the ironic
skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U. ...

skepticism
common to many critiques." Haraway's argument stems from the limitations of the , as well as the overemphasis of the sense of vision in
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
. According to Haraway,
vision Vision or The Vision may refer to: Perception Optical perception * Visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment (biophysical), environment through photopic vision (daytime vision), color visio ...
in
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
has been, "used to signify a leap out of the marked body and into a conquering gaze from nowhere." This is the "gaze that mythically inscribes all the marked bodies, that makes the unmarked category claim the power to see and not be seen, to represent while escaping representation." This causes a limitation of views in the position of
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of ...

science
itself as a potential player in the creation of knowledge, resulting in a position of "modest witness". This is what Haraway terms a "god trick", or the aforementioned representation while escaping representation. In order to avoid this, "Haraway perpetuates a tradition of thought which emphasizes the importance of the subject in terms of both ethical and political accountability". Some methods of generating knowledge, such as
trial and error Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem-solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a List of Latin phrases, Latin phrase meaning literally 'to this'. In English, it generally signifies a solution desi ...
, or learning from
experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian Paracelsianism (also Paracelsism; German: ') was an early modern History of medicine, medical movement based on the theories and therapies of Paracelsus. It developed in the second half ...

experience
, tend to create highly situational knowledge. Situational knowledge is often embedded in language, culture, or traditions. This integration of situational knowledge is an allusion to the community, and its attempts at collecting subjective perspectives into an embodiment "of views from somewhere." Knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of ''acknowledgement'' in human beings. Even though Haraway's arguments are largely based on , this idea of different worlds, as well as the
skeptic Skepticism (American English, American and Canadian English) or scepticism (British English, British, Hiberno-English, Irish, Australian English, Australian, and New Zealand English) is generally a questioning attitude or doubt towards one or m ...

skeptic
stance of situated knowledge is present in the main arguments of
post-structuralism Post-structuralism is a term for philosophical and literary forms of theory that both build upon and reject ideas established by structuralism, the intellectual project that preceded it. Though post-structuralists all present different critiques ...
. Fundamentally, both argue the contingency of knowledge on the presence of
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
;
power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second. In older works, p ...
, and
geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and Solar System, planets. The first person t ...

geography
, as well as the rejection of universal rules or laws or elementary structures; and the idea of
power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second. In older works, p ...
as an inherited trait of
objectification In social philosophy, objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object (philosophy), object or a thing. It is part of dehumanization, the act of disavowing the humanity of others. Sexual objectification, the act ...
.


Partial knowledge

One discipline of
epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ...

epistemology
focuses on partial knowledge. In most cases, it is not possible to understand an information domain exhaustively; our knowledge is always ''incomplete'' or partial. Most real problems have to be solved by taking advantage of a partial understanding of the problem context and problem data, unlike the typical math problems one might solve at school, where all data is given and one is given a complete understanding of formulas necessary to solve them (
False consensus effect In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense sco ...
). This idea is also present in the concept of
bounded rationality Bounded rationality is the idea that rationality Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing con ...
which assumes that in real-life situations people often have a limited amount of information and make decisions accordingly.


Religious concepts of knowledge


Christianity

In many expressions of
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
, such as
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
and
Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...
, knowledge is one of the
seven gifts of the Holy Spirit The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are an enumeration of seven spiritual gifts originating from patristic authors, later elaborated by five intellectual virtues and four other groups of ethical characteristics. They are: wisdom, understanding, ...
. "The knowledge that comes from the Holy Spirit, however, is not limited to human knowledge; it is a special gift, which leads us to grasp, through creation, the greatness and love of God and his profound relationship with every creature." (Pope Francis, papal audience May 21, 2014)


Hinduism

विद्या दान (Vidya Daan) i.e.
knowledge sharing Knowledge sharing is an activity through which knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (Knowledge by acquaint ...
is a major part of Daan, a
tenet A tenet is a synonym for axiom, one of the principles on which a belief or theory is based. Tenet may also refer to: Media * Tenet (band), a heavy metal band * TENET (ensemble), an American early music vocal and instrumental group * Tenet (film), ...
of all
Dharmic Religions Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social ...
.
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...

Hindu
Scriptures present two kinds of knowledge, ''Paroksh Gyan'' and ''Prataksh Gyan''. ''Paroksh Gyan'' (also spelled '' Paroksha-Jnana'') is secondhand knowledge: knowledge obtained from books, hearsay, etc. ''Pratyaksh Gyan'' (also spelled ''Pratyaksha-Jnana'') is the knowledge borne of direct experience, i.e., knowledge that one discovers for oneself.
Jnana yoga Jñāna yoga, also known as jñāna mārga, is one of the Three Yogas , three classical paths (''Spirituality#Hinduism , margas'') for moksha (liberation) in Hinduism, which emphasizes the "path of knowledge", also known as the "path of self-r ...
("path of knowledge") is one of three main types of yoga expounded by
Krishna Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polythei ...

Krishna
in the
Bhagavad Gita The ''Bhagavad Gita'' (; sa, भगवद्गीता।, IAST: ' /bɦɐɡɐʋɐd ɡiːtäː/, lit. "The Song of Bhagavan, God"), often referred to as the ''Gita'', is a 701-Sanskrit prosody, verse Hindu scripture that is part of the Hind ...
. (It is compared and contrasted with
Bhakti Yoga Bhakti yoga, also called Bhakti marga (literally the path of '' Bhakti''), is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion and ''dharma'', or way of life. It is the Major religious groups, wor ...
and
Karma yoga Karma yoga ( sa, कर्म योग), also called Karma marga, is one of the four classical spiritual paths in Hinduism Hinduism () is an and ', or way of life. It is the , with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the gl ...
.)


Islam

In
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, knowledge (Arabic: علم, ''ʿilm'') is given great significance. "The Knowing" (''al-ʿAlīm'') is one of the 99 names reflecting distinct attributes of
God In monotheistic Monotheism is the belief A belief is an attitude Attitude may refer to: Philosophy and psychology * Attitude (psychology) In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the ...
. The
Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of Islam, believed by Muslims to be a revelation in Islam, revelation from God in Islam, God (''Allah''). It is widely rega ...

Qur'an
asserts that knowledge comes from God () and various ''
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or ...

hadith
'' encourage the acquisition of knowledge.
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
is reported to have said "Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave" and "Verily the men of knowledge are the inheritors of the prophets". Islamic scholars, theologians and jurists are often given the title ''
alim Aleem (''ʿAlīm'' , also anglicized as 'Al-'Aleem'') is one of the Names of God in Islam, names of God in Islam, meaning "''All-Knower''". Also used as a personal name, as short form of Abdul Alim, "''Servant of the All-Knowing''": Given name * A ...
'', meaning "knowledgeble".


Judaism

In
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is ...

Jewish
tradition, knowledge (
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
: דעת ''da'ath'') is considered one of the most valuable traits a person can acquire. Observant Jews recite three times a day in the
Amidah The Amidah ( he, תפילת העמידה, ''Tefilat HaAmidah'', "The Standing Prayer"), also called the ''Shemoneh Esreh'' ( 'eighteen'), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy Jewish prayer ( he, תְּפִלָּה, ; plural ; ...
"Favor us with knowledge, understanding and discretion that come from you. Exalted are you, Existent-One, the gracious giver of knowledge." The
Tanakh The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages o ...
states, "A wise man gains power, and a man of knowledge maintains power", and "knowledge is chosen above gold". The
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
's
tree of the knowledge of good and evil . The Tree of Knowledge is on the right. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil ( hbo, עֵ֕ץ הַדַּ֖עַת ט֥וֹב וָרָֽע; , ) is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden The Garden of Eden ( he, גַּ ...
contained the knowledge that separated Man from God: "And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil..." ()


See also

*
Omniscience Omniscience () is the capacity to know everything. In monotheistic religions, such as Sikhism and the Abrahamic religions, this is an God#Specific attributes, attribute of God. In Jainism, omniscience is an attribute that any individual can e ...

Omniscience
*
Outline of knowledge The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to knowledge: Knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowl ...
– guide to the subject of knowledge presented as a
tree structure A tree structure, tree diagram, or tree model is a way of representing the hierarchical A hierarchy (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that a ...

tree structure
d list of its subtopics. *
Outline of human intelligence The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human intelligence: Human intelligence is, in the human species, the mental capacities to learn, understand, and reason, including the capacities to comprehend ideas, pla ...
- list of subtopics in
tree structure A tree structure, tree diagram, or tree model is a way of representing the hierarchical A hierarchy (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that a ...

tree structure
* Analytic-synthetic distinction * Decolonization of knowledge * Desacralization of knowledge *
Descriptive knowledgeIn epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (epistemology), justification, the Reason, ...
*
Epistemic modal logicEpistemic modal logic is a subfield of modal logic that is concerned with reasoning about knowledge. While epistemology has a long philosophical tradition dating back to Ancient Greece, epistemic logic is a much more recent development with applicat ...
*
Gnosticism Gnosticism (from grc, γνωστικός, gnōstikós, , 'having knowledge') is a collection of religious ideas and systems which coalesced in the late 1st century AD among Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pro ...
*
Inductive inference Inductive reasoning is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying ''some'' evidence, but not full assurance, of the truth of the conclusion. It is also described as a method where one's experiences and observations, in ...
*
Inductive probability Inductive probability attempts to give the probability of future events based on past events. It is the basis for inductive reasoning, and gives the mathematical basis for learning and the perception of patterns. It is a source of knowledge about th ...
*
Intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. More generally, it can be des ...
*
Knowledge transfer Knowledge transfer refers to sharing or disseminating of knowledge and providing inputs to problem solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a List of Latin phrases, Latin phrase meaning literally 'to this'. I ...

Knowledge transfer
*
Metaknowledge Metaknowledge or meta-knowledge is knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (Knowledge by acquaintance, acquain ...
*
Procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge (also known as knowing-how, and sometimes referred to as practical knowledge, imperative knowledge, or performative knowledge) is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Unlike descriptive knowledgeIn epistemolo ...
*
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK) was founded in London in 1826, mainly at the instigation of Whigs (British political party), Whig MP Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Henry Brougham, with the object of publ ...


References


External links

* * * * * * {{Authority control
Knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
Concepts in epistemology Intelligence Mental content Virtue Main topic articles