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Information retrieval (IR) in
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ...

computing
and
information science Information science (also known as information studies) is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, classification Classification is a process related to categorization Categorization is the human ability a ...
is the process of obtaining
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in wiktionary:Wor ...
resources that are relevant to an information need from a collection of those resources. Searches can be based on
full-text In Text retrieve, text retrieval, full-text search refers to techniques for searching a single computer-stored document or a collection in a full-text database. Full-text search is distinguished from searches based on metadata or on parts of the or ...
or other content-based indexing. Information retrieval is the science of searching for information in a document, searching for documents themselves, and also searching for the
metadata Metadata is " that provides information about other data", but not the content of the data, such as the text of a message or the image itself. There are many distinct types of metadata, including: * Descriptive metadata — the descriptive info ...

metadata
that describes data, and for
databases A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature ...

databases
of texts, images or sounds. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called
information overload Information overload (also known as infobesity, infoxication, information anxiety, and information explosionThe information explosion is the rapid increase in the amount of publication, published information or data and the effects of this abundan ...

information overload
. An IR system is a software system that provides access to books, journals and other documents; stores and manages those documents.
Web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a nu ...
s are the most visible IR applications.


Overview

An information retrieval process begins when a user enters a query into the system. Queries are formal statements of information needs, for example search strings in web search engines. In information retrieval a query does not uniquely identify a single object in the collection. Instead, several objects may match the query, perhaps with different degrees of relevancy. An object is an entity that is represented by information in a content collection or
database In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal #Design and modeling, design and mode ...

database
. User queries are matched against the database information. However, as opposed to classical SQL queries of a database, in information retrieval the results returned may or may not match the query, so results are typically ranked. This
ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked higher than", "ranked lower than" or "ranked equal to" the second. In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study o ...
of results is a key difference of information retrieval searching compared to database searching. Depending on the
application Application may refer to: Mathematics and computing * Application software, computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks ** Application layer, an abstraction layer that specifies protocols and interface methods used in a co ...
the data objects may be, for example, text documents, images, audio, mind maps or videos. Often the documents themselves are not kept or stored directly in the IR system, but are instead represented in the system by document surrogates or
metadata Metadata is " that provides information about other data", but not the content of the data, such as the text of a message or the image itself. There are many distinct types of metadata, including: * Descriptive metadata — the descriptive info ...

metadata
. Most IR systems compute a numeric score on how well each object in the database matches the query, and rank the objects according to this value. The top ranking objects are then shown to the user. The process may then be iterated if the user wishes to refine the query.


History

The idea of using computers to search for relevant pieces of information was popularized in the article ''
As We May Think "As We May Think" is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research ...
'' by
Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II, World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almo ...

Vannevar Bush
in 1945. It would appear that Bush was inspired by patents for a 'statistical machine' - filed by
Emanuel Goldberg Emanuel Goldberg ( he, עמנואל גולדברג; yi, עמנואל גאָלדבערג; russian: Эмануэль Гольдберг) (born: 31 August 1881; died: 13 September 1970) was an Israeli physicist and inventor. He was born in Moscow ...
in the 1920s and '30s - that searched for documents stored on film. The first description of a computer searching for information was described by Holmstrom in 1948, detailing an early mention of the
Univac UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) was a line of electronic digital stored-program s starting with the products of the . Later the name was applied to a division of the company and successor organizations. The , built by the Eckert–Mauchly C ...
computer. Automated information retrieval systems were introduced in the 1950s: one even featured in the 1957 romantic comedy, Desk Set. In the 1960s, the first large information retrieval research group was formed by
Gerard Salton Gerard A. "Gerry" Salton (8 March 1927 in Nuremberg – 28 August 1995), was a Professor of Computer Science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well a ...
at Cornell. By the 1970s several different retrieval techniques had been shown to perform well on small text corpora such as the Cranfield collection (several thousand documents). Large-scale retrieval systems, such as the Lockheed Dialog system, came into use early in the 1970s. In 1992, the US Department of Defense along with the
National Institute of Standards and Technology The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a physical sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abiotic component, non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, e ...
(NIST), cosponsored the
Text Retrieval Conference The Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) is an ongoing series of workshops focusing on a list of different information retrieval (IR) research areas, or ''tracks.'' It is co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology The Na ...
(TREC) as part of the TIPSTER text program. The aim of this was to look into the information retrieval community by supplying the infrastructure that was needed for evaluation of text retrieval methodologies on a very large text collection. This catalyzed research on methods that
scale Scale or scales may refer to: Mathematics * Scale (descriptive set theory)In the mathematical discipline of descriptive set theory, a scale is a certain kind of object defined on a set (mathematics), set of point (mathematics), points in some Poli ...
to huge corpora. The introduction of
web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea of a two-way effect is ...
s has boosted the need for very large scale retrieval systems even further.


Applications

Areas where information retrieval techniques are employed include (the entries are in alphabetical order within each category):


General applications

* Digital libraries *
Information filteringAn information filtering system is a system that removes Redundancy (information theory), redundant or unwanted Information technology, information from an information stream using (semi)automated or computerized methods prior to presentation to a hu ...
**
Recommender systems A recommender system, or a recommendation system (sometimes replacing 'system' with a synonym such as platform or engine), is a subclass of information filtering system that seeks to predict the "rating" or "preference" a user would give to an it ...
* Media search ** Blog search **
Image retrievalAn image retrieval system is a computer system for browsing, searching and retrieving images from a large database of digital images. Most traditional and common methods of image retrieval utilize some method of adding metadata Metadata is " dat ...
** 3D retrieval ** Music retrieval ** News search ** Speech retrieval ** Video retrieval *
Search engines A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), ...
** Site search **
Desktop search Desktop search tools search within a user's own computer files as opposed to searching the Internet. These tools are designed to find information on the user's PC, including web browser history, e-mail archives, text documents, sound files, images ...
**
Enterprise search Enterprise search is the practice of making content from multiple enterprise-type sources, such as database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the stu ...
**
Federated search Federated search retrieves information from a variety of sources via a search application built on top of one or more search engines. A user makes a single query request which is distributed to the search engines, databases or other query engines p ...
** Mobile search **
Social search Social search is a behavior of retrieving and searching on a social searching engine that mainly searches user-generated content User-generated content (UGC), alternatively known as user-created content (UCC), is any form of content, such as ima ...
**
Web search Web most often refers to: * Spider web A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word '' coppe'', meaning "spider") is a structure created by a spider Spiders ( order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropod An ar ...


Domain-specific applications

* Expert search finding * Genomic information retrieval * Geographic information retrieval * Information retrieval for chemical structures * Information retrieval in
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The d ...
*
Legal information retrievalLegal information retrieval is the science of information retrieval applied to legal text, including legislation, case law, and scholarly works. Accurate legal information retrieval is important to provide access to the law to laymen and legal profes ...
*
Vertical search A vertical search engine is distinct from a general web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more ob ...


Other retrieval methods

Methods/Techniques in which information retrieval techniques are employed include: *
Adversarial information retrieval Adversarial information retrieval (adversarial IR) is a topic in information retrieval related to strategies for working with a data source where some portion of it has been manipulated maliciously. Tasks can include gathering, indexing, filtering, ...
*
Automatic summarization Automatic summarization is the process of shortening a set of data computationally, to create a subset (a summary Summary may refer to: * Abstract (summary), shortening a passage or a write-up without changing its meaning but by using diffe ...
** Multi-document summarization *
Compound term processingCompound-term processing, in information-retrieval, is search result matching on the basis of compound terms. Compound terms are built by combining two or more simple terms; for example, "triple" is a single word term, but "triple heart bypass" is ...
* Cross-lingual retrieval *
Document classification Document classification or document categorization is a problem in library science Library science (often termed library studies, bibliothecography, library economy, and informatics) is an or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, pe ...
*
Spam filtering Various anti-spam techniques are used to prevent email spam (unsolicited bulk email). No technique is a complete solution to the spam problem, and each has trade-offs between incorrectly rejecting legitimate email (false positives) as opposed to no ...
*
Question answering Question A question is an utterance which typically functions as a request for information, which is expected to be provided in the form of an answer. Questions can thus be understood as a kind of illocutionary act in the field of pragmatics o ...


Model types

For effectively retrieving relevant documents by IR strategies, the documents are typically transformed into a suitable representation. Each retrieval strategy incorporates a specific model for its document representation purposes. The picture on the right illustrates the relationship of some common models. In the picture, the models are categorized according to two dimensions: the mathematical basis and the properties of the model.


First dimension: mathematical basis

* ''Set-theoretic'' models represent documents as sets of words or phrases. Similarities are usually derived from set-theoretic operations on those sets. Common models are: **
Standard Boolean model The (standard) Boolean model of information retrieval (BIR) is a classical information retrieval (IR) model and, at the same time, the first and most-adopted one. It is used by many IR systems to this day. The BIR is based on Boolean logic and class ...
** Extended Boolean model ** Fuzzy retrieval * ''Algebraic models'' represent documents and queries usually as vectors, matrices, or tuples. The similarity of the query vector and document vector is represented as a scalar value. **
Vector space model Vector space model or term vector model is an algebraic model for representing text documents (and any objects, in general) as vectors Vector may refer to: Biology *Vector (epidemiology), an agent that carries and transmits an infectious pat ...

Vector space model
**
Generalized vector space model The Generalized vector space model is a generalization of the vector space modelVector space model or term vector model is an algebraic model for representing text documents (and any objects, in general) as vectors of identifiers (such as index te ...
** (Enhanced) Topic-based Vector Space Model ** Extended Boolean model **
Latent semantic indexing Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a technique in natural language processing, in particular distributional semantics, of analyzing relationships between a set of documents and the terms they contain by producing a set of concepts related to the docu ...
a.k.a.
latent semantic analysis Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a technique in natural language processing, in particular distributional semantics, of analyzing relationships between a set of documents and the terms they contain by producing a set of concepts related to the docu ...
* ''Probabilistic models'' treat the process of document retrieval as a probabilistic inference. Similarities are computed as probabilities that a document is relevant for a given query. Probabilistic theorems like the
Bayes' theorem In probability theory and statistics, Bayes' theorem (alternatively Bayes' law or Bayes' rule; recently Bayes–Price theorem), named after the Reverend Thomas Bayes, describes the probability of an event (probability theory), event, based on p ...
are often used in these models. ** Binary Independence Model ** Probabilistic relevance model on which is based the okapi (BM25) relevance function **
Uncertain inferenceUncertain inference was first described by C. J. van Rijsbergen as a way to formally define a query and document relationship in Information retrieval. This formalization is a logical implication with an attached measure of uncertainty. Definitio ...
**
Language model A statistical language model is a probability distribution over sequences of words. Given such a sequence, say of length , it assigns a probability P(w_1,\ldots,w_m) to the whole sequence. The language model provides context (language use), contex ...
s ** Divergence-from-randomness model **
Latent Dirichlet allocation In natural language processing, the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a generative model, generative statistical model that allows sets of observations to be explained by Latent variable, unobserved groups that explain why some parts of the dat ...

Latent Dirichlet allocation
* ''Feature-based retrieval models'' view documents as vectors of values of ''feature functions'' (or just ''features'') and seek the best way to combine these features into a single relevance score, typically by
learning to rank Learning to rank. Slides from Tie-Yan Liu's talk at WWW upright=1.35, A global map of the web index for countries in 2014 The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, ...
methods. Feature functions are arbitrary functions of document and query, and as such can easily incorporate almost any other retrieval model as just another feature.


Second dimension: properties of the model

* ''Models without term-interdependencies'' treat different terms/words as independent. This fact is usually represented in vector space models by the
orthogonality In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...

orthogonality
assumption of term vectors or in probabilistic models by an independency assumption for term variables. * ''Models with immanent term interdependencies'' allow a representation of interdependencies between terms. However the degree of the interdependency between two terms is defined by the model itself. It is usually directly or indirectly derived (e.g. by
dimensional reduction Dimensional reduction is the limit of a Compactification (physics), compactified theory where the size of the compact dimension goes to zero. In physics, a theory in ''D'' spacetime dimensions can be redefined in a lower number of dimensions ''d'' ...
) from the
co-occurrence In linguistics, co-occurrence or cooccurrence is an above-chance frequency of occurrence of two terms (also known as coincidence or concurrence In Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New ...
of those terms in the whole set of documents. * ''Models with transcendent term interdependencies'' allow a representation of interdependencies between terms, but they do not allege how the interdependency between two terms is defined. They rely an external source for the degree of interdependency between two terms. (For example, a human or sophisticated algorithms.)


Performance and correctness measures

The evaluation of an information retrieval system' is the process of assessing how well a system meets the information needs of its users. In general, measurement considers a collection of documents to be searched and a search query. Traditional evaluation metrics, designed for Boolean retrieval or top-k retrieval, include
precision and recall In , and , precision and recall are performance metrics that apply to data retrieved from a , or . Precision (also called ) is the fraction of relevant instances among the retrieved instances, while recall (also known as ) is the fraction of r ...
. All measures assume a
ground truth Ground truth is a term used in various fields to refer to information provided by direct observation (i.e. empirical evidence Empirical evidence is the information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it ans ...
notion of relevancy: every document is known to be either relevant or non-relevant to a particular query. In practice, queries may be ill-posed and there may be different shades of relevancy.


Timeline

* Before the 1900s *: 1801:
Joseph Marie Jacquard Joseph Marie Charles ''dit'' (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (; 7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834) was a French weaver and merchant. He played an important role in the development of the earliest programmable loom (the " Jacquard loom"), which in turn ...

Joseph Marie Jacquard
invents the
Jacquard loom The Jacquard machine () is a device fitted to a loom A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension Tension may refer to: Science * Psychological stress * Tensi ...

Jacquard loom
, the first machine to use punched cards to control a sequence of operations. *: 1880s:
Herman Hollerith Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American businessman, inventor, and statistician who developed an electromechanical tabulating machine The tabulating machine was an electromechanical In engineering ...
invents an electro-mechanical data tabulator using punch cards as a machine readable medium. *: 1890 Hollerith
cards {{Redirect, CARDS, other uses, Cards (disambiguation){{!Cards The CARDS programme, of Community Assistance for Reconstruction, Development and Stabilisation, is the EU's main instrument of financial assistance to the Western Balkans, covering spec ...
,
keypunch A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator. Other devices included here for that same function include the gang punch, the pantograph punch, a ...
es and tabulators used to process the 1890 US Census data. * 1920s-1930s *:
Emanuel Goldberg Emanuel Goldberg ( he, עמנואל גולדברג; yi, עמנואל גאָלדבערג; russian: Эмануэль Гольдберг) (born: 31 August 1881; died: 13 September 1970) was an Israeli physicist and inventor. He was born in Moscow ...
submits patents for his "Statistical Machine” a document search engine that used photoelectric cells and pattern recognition to search the metadata on rolls of microfilmed documents. * 1940s–1950s *: late 1940s: The US military confronted problems of indexing and retrieval of wartime scientific research documents captured from Germans. *:: 1945:
Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II, World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almo ...

Vannevar Bush
's ''
As We May Think "As We May Think" is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush ( ; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research ...
'' appeared in ''
Atlantic Monthly ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. It was founded in 1857 in Boston, as ''The Atlantic Monthly'', a literary and cultural magazine that published leading writers' commentary on education, the abolition of sl ...
''. *:: 1947:
Hans Peter Luhn Hans Peter Luhn (July 1, 1896 – August 19, 1964) was a researcher in the field of computer science and Library & Information Science for IBM, and creator of the Luhn algorithm, Key Word in Context, KWIC (Key Words In Context) indexing, and ...
(research engineer at IBM since 1941) began work on a mechanized punch card-based system for searching chemical compounds. *: 1950s: Growing concern in the US for a "science gap" with the USSR motivated, encouraged funding and provided a backdrop for mechanized literature searching systems (
Allen Kent Allen Kent (October 24, 1921 – May 1, 2014) was an information scientist. Early life He was born in New York City.
ASIS&T obitua ...
''et al.'') and the invention of the
citation index A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index A bibliographic index is a bibliography intended to help find a publication. Citations are usually listed by author and subject in separate sections, or in a single alphabetical sequence under a ...
by
Eugene Garfield Eugene Eli Garfield (September 16, 1925 – February 26, 2017) was an American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics. He helped to create ''Current Contents'', ''Science Citation Index'' (SCI), ''Journa ...
. *: 1950: The term "information retrieval" was coined by
Calvin Mooers Calvin Northrup Mooers (October 24, 1919 – December 1, 1994), was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States o ...
. *: 1951: Philip Bagley conducted the earliest experiment in computerized document retrieval in a master thesis at
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
. *: 1955: Allen Kent joined
Case Western Reserve University Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abse ...
, and eventually became associate director of the Center for Documentation and Communications Research. That same year, Kent and colleagues published a paper in American Documentation describing the precision and recall measures as well as detailing a proposed "framework" for evaluating an IR system which included statistical sampling methods for determining the number of relevant documents not retrieved. *: 1958: International Conference on Scientific Information Washington DC included consideration of IR systems as a solution to problems identified. See: ''Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information, 1958'' (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1959) *: 1959:
Hans Peter Luhn Hans Peter Luhn (July 1, 1896 – August 19, 1964) was a researcher in the field of computer science and Library & Information Science for IBM, and creator of the Luhn algorithm, Key Word in Context, KWIC (Key Words In Context) indexing, and ...
published "Auto-encoding of documents for information retrieval." * 1960s: *: early 1960s:
Gerard Salton Gerard A. "Gerry" Salton (8 March 1927 in Nuremberg – 28 August 1995), was a Professor of Computer Science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well a ...
began work on IR at Harvard, later moved to Cornell. *: 1960: Melvin Earl Maron and John Lary Kuhns published "On relevance, probabilistic indexing, and information retrieval" in the Journal of the ACM 7(3):216–244, July 1960. *: 1962: *:* Cyril W. Cleverdon published early findings of the Cranfield studies, developing a model for IR system evaluation. See: Cyril W. Cleverdon, "Report on the Testing and Analysis of an Investigation into the Comparative Efficiency of Indexing Systems". Cranfield Collection of Aeronautics, Cranfield, England, 1962. *:* Kent published ''Information Analysis and Retrieval''. *: 1963: *:* Weinberg report "Science, Government and Information" gave a full articulation of the idea of a "crisis of scientific information." The report was named after Dr.
Alvin Weinberg Alvin Martin Weinberg (; April 20, 1915 – October 18, 2006) was an American nuclear physicist Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also ...

Alvin Weinberg
. *:* Joseph Becker and Robert M. Hayes published text on information retrieval. Becker, Joseph; Hayes, Robert Mayo. ''Information storage and retrieval: tools, elements, theories''. New York, Wiley (1963). *: 1964: *:*
Karen Spärck Jones Karen Spärck Jones (26 August 1935 – 4 April 2007) was a pioneering British computer scientist responsible for the concept of inverse document frequency (IDF), a technology that underlies most modern search engines. In 2019, ''The New York ...
finished her thesis at Cambridge, ''Synonymy and Semantic Classification'', and continued work on
computational linguistics Computational linguistics is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field concerned with the computational modelling of natural language, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions. In general, comput ...
as it applies to IR. *:* The
National Bureau of Standards The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a physical sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abiotic component, non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, e ...
sponsored a symposium titled "Statistical Association Methods for Mechanized Documentation." Several highly significant papers, including G. Salton's first published reference (we believe) to the
SMART Smart or SMART may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Smart'' (Hey! Say! JUMP album), 2014 * Smart (Hotels.com), former mascot of Hotels.com * ''Smart'' (Sleeper album), 1995 debut album by Sleeper * ''SMart ''SMart'' was a British CBBC t ...
system. *:mid-1960s: *::* National Library of Medicine developed
MEDLARS MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database A bibliographic database is a database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Infor ...
Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, the first major machine-readable database and batch-retrieval system. *::* Project Intrex at MIT. *:: 1965: published ''Libraries of the Future''. *:: 1966: Don Swanson was involved in studies at University of Chicago on Requirements for Future Catalogs. *: late 1960s: F. Wilfrid Lancaster completed evaluation studies of the MEDLARS system and published the first edition of his text on information retrieval. *:: 1968: *:* Gerard Salton published ''Automatic Information Organization and Retrieval''. *:* John W. Sammon, Jr.'s RADC Tech report "Some Mathematics of Information Storage and Retrieval..." outlined the vector model. *:: 1969: Sammon's
A nonlinear mapping for data structure analysis
(IEEE Transactions on Computers) was the first proposal for visualization interface to an IR system. * 1970s *: early 1970s: *::* First online systems—NLM's AIM-TWX, MEDLINE; Lockheed's Dialog; SDC's ORBIT. *::* Theodor Nelson promoting concept of
hypertext Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic visual display, visual display, electronic circuit, ...

hypertext
, published ''Computer Lib/Dream Machines''. *: 1971:
Nicholas JardineNicholas Jardine Fellow of the British Academy, FBA (born 4 September 1943) is a British mathematician, philosopher of science and its history, historian of astronomy and natural history, and amateur mycology, mycologist. He is Emeritus Professor at ...
and Cornelis J. van Rijsbergen published "The use of hierarchic clustering in information retrieval", which articulated the "cluster hypothesis." *: 1975: Three highly influential publications by Salton fully articulated his vector processing framework and term discrimination model: *::* ''A Theory of Indexing'' (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics) *::* ''A Theory of Term Importance in Automatic Text Analysis'' ( JASIS v. 26) *::* ''A Vector Space Model for Automatic Indexing'' ( CACM 18:11) *: 1978: The First ACM SIGIR conference. *: 1979: C. J. van Rijsbergen published ''Information Retrieval'' (Butterworths). Heavy emphasis on probabilistic models. *: 1979: Tamas Doszkocs implemented the CITE
natural language user interfaceNatural-language user interface (LUI or NLUI) is a type of computer human interface where linguistic phenomena such as verbs, phrases and clauses act as UI controls for creating, selecting and modifying data in software applications. In interface ...
for MEDLINE at the National Library of Medicine. The CITE system supported free form query input, ranked output and relevance feedback.Doszkocs, T.E. & Rapp, B.A. (1979). "Searching MEDLINE in English: a Prototype User Inter-face with Natural Language Query, Ranked Output, and relevance feedback," In: Proceedings of the ASIS Annual Meeting, 16: 131-139. * 1980s *: 1980: First international ACM SIGIR conference, joint with British Computer Society IR group in Cambridge. *: 1982: Nicholas J. Belkin, Robert N. Oddy, and Helen M. Brooks proposed the ASK (Anomalous State of Knowledge) viewpoint for information retrieval. This was an important concept, though their automated analysis tool proved ultimately disappointing. *: 1983: Salton (and Michael J. McGill) published ''Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval'' (McGraw-Hill), with heavy emphasis on vector models. *: 1985: David Blair and Bill Maron publish: An Evaluation of Retrieval Effectiveness for a Full-Text Document-Retrieval System *: mid-1980s: Efforts to develop end-user versions of commercial IR systems. *:: 1985–1993: Key papers on and experimental systems for visualization interfaces. *:: Work by Donald B. Crouch, Robert R. Korfhage, Matthew Chalmers, Anselm Spoerri and others. *: 1989: First
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
proposals by
Tim Berners-Lee Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system ...

Tim Berners-Lee
at
CERN The European Organization for Nuclear Research (french: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (; ; derived from the name ), is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large la ...
. * 1990s *: 1992: First TREC conference. *: 1997: Publication of Korfhage's ''Information Storage and Retrieval'' with emphasis on visualization and multi-reference point systems. *: 1999: Publication of Ricardo Baeza-Yates and Berthier Ribeiro-Neto's ''Modern Information Retrieval'' by Addison Wesley, the first book that attempts to cover all IR. *: late 1990s:
Web search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a nu ...
s implementation of many features formerly found only in experimental IR systems. Search engines become the most common and maybe best instantiation of IR models.


Major conferences

* SIGIR
Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval
* ECIR: European Conference on Information Retrieval * CIKM:
Conference on Information and Knowledge ManagementThe Association for Computing Machinery, ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM, pronounced ) is an annual computer science academic conference, research conference dedicated to information management (IM) and knowledge manageme ...
* WWW:
International World Wide Web Conference The Web Conference (formerly known as International World Wide Web Conference, abbreviated as WWW) is a yearly international academic conference on the topic of the future direction of the World Wide Web. The first conference of many was held and ...
* WSDM
Conference on Web Search and Data Mining
* ICTIR
International Conference on Theory of Information Retrieval


Awards in the field

*
Tony Kent Strix awardThe UKeiG Strix award is an annual award for outstanding contributions to the field of information retrieval and is presented in memory of Dr Tony Kent, a past Fellow of the Institute of Information Scientists (IIS), who died in 1997. Tony Kent made ...
*
Gerard Salton Award The Gerard Salton Award is presented by the Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947 and is the world's largest scientific ...
* Karen Spärck Jones Award


See also

* * * * * * * * * ** ** ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


References


Further reading

* Ricardo Baeza-Yates, Berthier Ribeiro-Neto
Modern Information Retrieval: The Concepts and Technology behind Search (second edition)
Addison-Wesley, UK, 2011. * Stefan Büttcher, Charles L. A. Clarke, and Gordon V. Cormack
Information Retrieval: Implementing and Evaluating Search Engines
MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2010. * * Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan, and Hinrich Schütze
Introduction to Information Retrieval
Cambridge University Press, 2008.


External links


ACM SIGIR: Information Retrieval Special Interest GroupBCS IRSG: British Computer Society - Information Retrieval Specialist GroupText Retrieval Conference (TREC)Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation (FIRE)
(online book) by C. J. van Rijsbergen
Information Retrieval WikiInformation Retrieval FacilityInformation Retrieval @ DUTHTREC report on information retrieval evaluation techniquesHow eBay measures search relevanceInformation retrieval performance evaluation tool @ Athena Research Centre
{{DEFAULTSORT:Information Retrieval Natural language processing